Michigan Uniform System of Citation

Michigan Uniform System of Citation 
On order of the Court, Administrative Order Nos. 1987-2 and 2001-5, which 
amended the Michigan Uniform System of Citations, are rescinded. Effective May 1, 
2006, all reported decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals shall 
adhere to and follow the Michigan Uniform System of Citation as revised by this 

The Michigan Uniform System of Citation provides a comprehensive scheme for 
citation of authority in documents filed with or issued by Michigan courts. This 
revision reflects the style currently used in the opinions of the Supreme Court as 
published in Michigan Reports. It is based on the former Uniform System of 
Citations, Administrative Order No. 1971-3, 385 Mich xxvi-xxxv (1971), 
Administrative Order No. 1973-5, 390 Mich xxxi (1973), Administrative Order No. 
1987-2, 428 Mich cviii (1987), Administrative Order No. 2001-5, 464 Mich lxxviii 
(2001), and the Proposed Rules of Citation, 402A Mich 455-468 (1978).
For matters not covered, refer to The Bluebook, A Uniform System of Citation (18th 
ed), for guidance, but conform citations to Michigan citation style.
I. Citation of Authority 
A. Citation of Cases 
1. Initial citation.
The first time a case is cited in an opinion, either in the body of the text 
or in a footnote, cite in full the official reporter of its jurisdiction (where 
available), and include the parallel citation of the regional reporter.
Mayberry v Pryor, 422 Mich 579; 374 NW2d 683 (1985). 
If a case is first cited in an order, either in the body of the text or in a 
footnote, cite the official report only.
Mayberry v Pryor, 422 Mich 579 (1985). 
Where an official citation is not yet available, provide blanks for the 
volume and page numbers.
Mayberry v Pryor, _____ Mich ____; 374 NW2d 683 (1985). 
If a case is initially cited only in a footnote, it must be re-cited in full in 
the text if it is referred to subsequently in the text.
2. Subsequent citation.
a. Once cited in full in the text, a case need not be cited again in full in 
the text or a footnote. Subsequent reference in the text or in a footnote 
may use any of the following shortened forms:
E.g., Mayberry; Mayberry, supra; Mayberry v Pryor. (N.B.: "Id." 
may be used as a subsequent reference only if no other authority 
intervenes between the previous citation of the same source and 
b. Where a case is cited in full in a footnote, a subsequent short-form 
citation may be used in a subsequent footnote to refer the reader to the 
full citation:
Mayberry, n 4 supra.
3. Point or "jump" citation.
a. To refer to an internal page of an opinion, cite the official reporter 
where available:
1) initial citation: include the "jump" page in the complete citation: 
Mayberry v Pryor, 422 Mich 579, 587; 374 NW2d 683 (1985); 
2) subsequent citation: append the "jump" page to any short-form 
Mayberry, supra, p 587; Mayberry, supra at 587; Mayberry, p 
587; id., p 587; id. at 587; 422 Mich 587.
(N.B.: The form of the short-form citation must be consistent 
throughout an opinion. Do not mix Mayberry, supra, p 587, with 
Mayberry, supra at 587.) 
b. If the official report of a case is not yet available, refer to the "jump" 
page in an unofficial report:
1) initial citation: Galster v Woods (On Rehearing), 173 Cal App 3d 
529, ____; 219 Cal Rptr 500, 509 (1985); 
2) subsequent citation: Galster, supra, 219 Cal Rptr 509; or id., 219 
Cal Rptr 509; or 219 Cal Rptr 509 (N.B.: it is mandatory in this 
situation that the identity of the unofficial reporter be shown 
because references to pages not otherwise identified are presumed 
to be to the official reporter.) 
4. Case names.
a. Italicizing. Names of cases should be italicized both in the text of an 
opinion and in footnotes. Underscoring no longer should be used to 
indicate italics.
b. Official sources. Cite the name of a case as set forth on the first page 
of the official reporter as fully as necessary for recognition. Do not show 
et al., et ux., or like references to other parties in a case name, but do
show ex rel (for on the Relation of or for the use and benefit of) and the 
relator's name.
c. Abbreviations. Where the name of the case as it appears in the official 
reporter is long or involved, it should be shortened. Abbreviations are 
encouraged for common words such as Commission (Comm), County 
(Co), Manufacturing (Mfg), International (Int'l), etc., where appropriate. 
Citations should include only the first plaintiff's surname or corporate 
name and the first defendant's surname or corporate name.
The title in the official report of 262 US 447 is Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts v Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury, et al., and 
should be cited as Massachusetts v Mellon, 262 US 447; 43 S Ct 
597; 67 L Ed 1078 (1923).
International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, AFLCIO Frigidaire Local 801 v NLRB, 113 US App DC 342; 307 F2d 679 
(1962), may be shortened to Electrical Workers Union v NLRB, etc.
d. Identical titles. Where two or more separate cases with the same title 
are referred to in an opinion:
1) add the first names of the parties in order to distinguish the 
cases, e.g., People v John Smith/People v Mary Smith, etc.; or 
2) add a roman numeral after the case name, e.g., Smith I, Smith 
II, etc. 
(N.B.: Where cases with identical surnames are reported in the 
same volume, first names are included. It is not necessary to 
include first names when cited in a slip opinion unless two or more 
cases with such names are cited in the slip opinion.) 
e. Officials as parties.
1) Michigan cases: If a person was sued in an official capacity, use 
that person's official title, not the name of the person. 
Jones v Secretary of State, not Jones v Austin; Giannotta v 
Governor, not Giannotta v Milliken
2) United States Supreme Court cases and cases from other 
jurisdictions: Follow the commonly accepted practice within the 
jurisdiction (if known) regarding the surname or title of the party. 
Otherwise, follow (e)(1). E.g., in cases decided in the United States 
Supreme Court and some sister states, the title of a party is not 
ordinarily used. 
Massachusetts v Mellon, not Massachusetts v Secretary of 
f. State or city as a party. Where a state or a city is a party, use only the 
name of the state or city:
The title that appears at 383 Mich 579 is Consumers Power
Company v State of Michigan; cite it as Consumers Power Co v 
If the name of a city also commonly may be used as a surname, 
such as the city of Warren, cite as Jones v City of Warren; but 
where a city is well known, it should be cited as Jones v Detroit.
g. Traffic violations, civil infractions. 
1) In cases involving a civil infraction of a traffic ordinance of a 
political subdivision, the proper party is the subdivision: 
City of Troy v Ohlinger, 438 Mich 477; 475 NW2d 54 (1991), 
not People of the City of Troy, or People v Ohlinger.
2) However, where a civil infraction is a violation of the Vehicle 
Code, the proper party is the state: 
People v Ferency, 133 Mich App 526; 351 NW2d 225 (1984).
See 1978 PA 510, MCL 257.741. 
h. County, township, or school district as a party. Place the name of the 
county, township, or school district first and then Co, Twp, School Dist, or 
Bd of Ed, regardless of the entitlement of the case in the reports.
Oakland Co v Smith; Bush v Waterford Twp; Jones v Waverly School 
Dist; Smith v Lansing Bd of Ed.
i. Second case name. Do not give a second name for a case if the first 
will fully identify it.
Examples of a second name being required:
Harvey v Lewis (In re Escrow Funds), 364 Mich 491; 111 NW2d 119 
(1961), and Harvey v Lewis (In re Fee for Receiver's Attorney), 364 
Mich 493; 112 NW2d 500 (1961).
j. Rehearing, remand, or amended. If the opinion cited was decided on 
rehearing or after remand, the specification (On Rehearing), (On 
Remand), or (After Remand) is part of the title and must be included in 
the citation. Also if an opinion is amended by a special panel of the Court 
of Appeals, the specification (Amended Opinion) should be included. 
People v Walker, 371 Mich 599; 124 NW2d 761 (1963); People v 
Walker (On Rehearing), 374 Mich 331; 132 NW2d 87 (1965).
k. Supplemental opinions.
In re Ernst, 373 Mich 337, Supplemental Opinion, 349; 129 NW2d 
430 (1964).
l. Punctuation in case citations.
1) The official volume number, reporter abbreviation, page number, 
parallel citation and year are in nonrestrictive apposition with the 
case name and must be preceded by a comma and followed by a 
comma, semicolon, period, or other punctuation (except where 
parenthetical matter postpones it). 
"resolved in Village of Kingsford v Cudlip, 258 Mich 144; 241 
NW 893 (1932), where the Court . . . ."
2) Parallel citations are separated from official citations and from 
other parallel citations by semicolons to avoid confusion with the 
commas that frequently separate point citations. These semicolons 
should not be viewed as punctuation, but merely as separators. 
People ex rel Gummow v Larson, 35 Ill 2d 280, 282; 220 NE2d 
165 (1966).
However, where a string of citations is conjoined by "and," use 
commas to separate the complete citation of each case. 
Nicholls v Charlevoix Circuit Judge, 155 Mich 455; 120 NW 343 
(1909), Kemp v Stradley, 134 Mich 676; 97 NW 41 (1903), and 
Backus v Detroit, 49 Mich 110; 13 NW 380
Where a string of citations is not conjoined by "and," separate with 
m. Jurisdiction.
1) Michigan and state courts. Jurisdiction is usually shown by the 
abbreviation of the title of the official reporter: Michigan Supreme 
Court (Mich); Michigan Court of Appeals (Mich App); United States 
Supreme Court (US). Where official reports are no longer published, 
the jurisdiction must be indicated in the parentheses at the end of 
the citation, followed by a comma and the year of decision. For the 
highest court of a state, only the name of the state should be 
shown. Use the abbreviations of state names listed in State 
abbreviations, p XX (Appendix A). For intermediate appellate courts, 
abbreviate the name of the court in addition to the state name. 
People v Blythe, 417 Mich 430; 339 NW2d 399 (1983);
Gaines v Betts, 2 Doug 98 (Mich, 1845);
State v Gallion, 572 P2d 683 (Utah, 1977);
Miller v Stumbo, 661 SW2d 1 (Ky App, 1983)
2) Federal circuit courts. Federal courts of appeals are shown in 
parentheses with the date of decision as CA plus the circuit number 
or "Fed" for the federal circuit. E.g.: CA 6, not 6 Cir or 6th Cir or 
CCA 6. (N.B.: The Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia 
Circuit is not shown in parentheses because there is an official 
reporter: App DC or US App DC, and a citation of the official 
reporter indicates the jurisdiction.) 
Kirkland v Preston, 128 US App DC 148; 385 F2d 670 (1967).
Ierardi v Gunter, 528 F2d 929, 930-931 (CA 1, 1976). 
3) Federal district courts. Federal districts, but not divisions, are 
shown in parentheses if one exists (ED Mich, not ND ED Mich). If a 
state comprises only one district, use D plus the state abbreviation, 
not the state abbreviation alone. 
United States ex rel Mayberry v Yeager, 321 F Supp 199, 211 
(D NJ, 1971). 
4) Early US Supreme Court cases. Early US reports, through 90 US, 
are to be cited by consecutive volume number in the US series. The 
corresponding reporter's name (abbreviated) and volume number in 
parentheses may be added. 
Sexton v Wheaton, 21 US (8 Wheat) 229; 5 L Ed 603 (1823). 
n. Parallel citations.
1) Parallel citations for United States Supreme Court reports are to 
be given in the order S Ct; L Ed. 
2) A parallel citation of the National Reporter System Regional 
Reports is to be given if one exists. For New York or California cases, 
the New York Supplement or California Reporter citation also must
be given. 
3) Parallel citations of other reports, e.g., ALR, may be given if the 
case is reported in full therein.
o. Unavailable citations.
1) When an official and a parallel citation are not yet available, 
provide blanks in which the information later can be inserted. 
____ Mich ____; ____ NW2d ____ (1978). 
Do not use this form where the citation will never be available 
because reports have been discontinued. 
2) USLW, LEXIS, WESTLAW, or other advance reports or abstract 
citations should be given only if both the official and the regional or
other permanent unofficial report citations are not yet available. 
p. Periods and spacing of report names and capitalization.
1) Use no periods in abbreviations of report names, even if there are 
two or more words, and do not insert a space where single letters 
abbreviate the words. 
2) Do insert a space where more than one letter is used to 
abbreviate the individual words, and capitalize the first letter of each 
Mich App; F Supp; US App DC; S Ct; L Ed
3) Insert a space between the report name and series designation 
(2d, etc.) if the last word is abbreviated with more than one letter; 
otherwise do not. 
(No space) F2d; NYS2d; ALR3d; A2d; NE2d; SW2d
(Space) Wis 2d; So 2d; Misc 2d; L Ed 2d
(Exception---space) LRA NS
q. Date of decision. Generally, the year of decision should follow parallel 
citations in parentheses; however, in the Court of Appeals, where 
controlling authority is governed by MCR 7.215(J)(1), the year of release
should be inserted. 
E.g., Farrell v Auto Club of Michigan was decided on October 25, 1990, 
but was approved for publication on January 16, 1991. The correct 
citation form is: Farrell v Auto Club of Michigan (On Remand), 187 Mich 
App 220; 466 NW2d 298 (1991). The time of release is not to be noted in 
the citation.
r. Subsequent history. Citation of denial of discretionary action such as 
rehearing, leave to appeal, certiorari, reconsideration, or the like should 
not be indicated unless jurisprudentially significant within the jurisdiction. 
(N.B.: In Michigan, denial of leave has no effect on the precedence of a 
case, see MCR 7.321; this is also true with regard to denial of certiorari 
by the United States Supreme Court, see Maryland v Baltimore Radio 
Show, 338 US 912, 919 [1950].) 
Where given, subsequent history should be indicated by using the 
following abbreviations without periods and not followed by a comma:
affirmed                                  aff'd
affirming                                 aff'g
appeal dismissed                 app dis
certiorari denied                 cert den
leave to appeal denied      lv den
leave to appeal granted    lv gtd
modified                                  mod
rehearing denied                  reh den
rehearing granted                reh gtd
reversed                                   rev'd
reversed on other grounds           rev'd on other grounds
reversing                                   rev'g
vacated                                       no abbreviation
Only the official report of subsequent action should be cited.
s. Unreported matters. Cite unpublished Michigan cases and orders as 
follows, and foreign cases by analogy:
A v B, unpublished opinion per curiam (or memorandum opinion) of 
the Court of Appeals, issued [month, day, year] (Docket No. 
A v B, unpublished order of the Court of Appeals, entered [month, 
day, year] (Docket No. ______).
A v B, unpublished opinion of the _____ Circuit Court, issued 
______________________ (Docket No. _______ [suffix]).
Unpublished opinion of the Attorney General (No. ______, [month, 
day, year]).
t. String citations. Use of overly long string citations, even in footnotes, 
generally should be avoided inasmuch as "they may cast doubt upon the 
credibility of your claims because they can give the impression that your 
case is so weak that you have to substantiate it with every source you 
can find." More effective is the use of "only one or two of your strongest 
sources." Charrow & Erhardt, Clear and Effective Legal Writing (Boston: 
Little, Brown & Co, 1986), ch 3, p 64.
5. Consistent citation form: The citation form used within an opinion should 
be uniform, i.e., do not mix id., p 270, with id. at 270, or Ensign, supra, p 
270, with Ensign, supra at 270.
B. Citation of Constitutions, Statutes, Regulations, Court Rules, and Jury 
1. Constitutions.
a. Michigan. Give the year of the constitution (not the year of an 
amendment), article, and section number in Arabic numerals.
Const 1963, art 6, §1; Const 1963, sched 1.
If the section has been amended since adoption, the reference is 
presumed to be to the current section unless otherwise indicated. 
b. United States. Give the article or amendment number in Roman 
numerals and the section number in Arabic numerals: 
US Const, art III, §1.
For amendments:
US Const, Am XIV (not Art XIV).
c. Other states. Cite by analogy to the Michigan Constitution and United 
States Constitution. 
2. Statutes.
a. Michigan.
1) Public and local acts.
Cite the year, "PA" or "LA," and the act number. 
1974 PA 296, not Act 296, 1974;
1974 LA 1.
If enacted at an extra session, the extra session designation follows 
the year in parentheses. 
1912 (1st Ex Sess) PA 10, part 2, §9
1967 (Ex Sess) PA 3
2) Amended acts. 
Cite as: 1961 PA 236, as amended (or as added) by 1974 PA 
52, MCL 600.103.
3) Compiled Laws. Cite the official compilations of 1948, 1970, and 
1979 of the Michigan Compiled Laws. (N.B.: Michigan Compiled 
Laws Annotated [MCLA] and Michigan Compiled Laws Service 
[MCLS] have the same numbering system.)
1948 CL 566.140
1970 CL 35.291.
When citing, use MCL for the current (1979) compilation, not MCLA 
or MCLS, e.g., MCL 776.20. Inclusion of the public act number is 
optional. If used, the form is: 1937 PA 286, MCL 487.703. 
Subsequent references in the same opinion may be shortened as 
§3, or Act 286, §3.
4) Catchlines. The boldface catchlines found at the beginning of, and 
sometimes elsewhere in, statutes in the Public and Local Acts, MCL, 
MCLA, and MCLS were inserted by an editor, not enacted by the 
Legislature. They are not part of the statute and should not be 
included when quoting a statute. Similarly, catchlines found in a 
statute following the section number, as in many sections of the 
Michigan Penal Code, are not part of the statute and should not be 
included in quotations. 
5) Section numbers. Generally speaking, any section number 
appearing at the beginning of a statute also should be omitted from 
the quotation unless needed for clarity, e.g., if the sections of the 
act are not evident and will be used later in an opinion in short form 
for reference. 
6) History. The statutory history that follows each section also is not 
part of the legislative enactment and should not be included in 
quoted material. 
691.1412 Claims under act; defenses available. [delete]
[Sec. 12.] [delete] Claims under this act are subject to all of 
the defenses available to claims sounding in tort brought 
against private persons.
[HISTORY: New 1964, p. 224, Act 170, Eff. Jul. 1, 1965.] 
7) Short titles.
a) Official title. If an act has an official "short title" enacted as 
part of the act, capitalize the initial letters of the title. 
Indication of the year of enactment is unnecessary, even 
though it may be given as part of the title. 
1961 PA 236, 101, MCL 600.101 provides:
"This act shall be known and may be cited as the revised 
judicature act of 1961."
Omit the 1961 in citation, referring to it merely as the 
Revised Judicature Act.
Generally recognized abbreviations of titles may be used, 
whether mentioned in the act or not. For example, §101 
of the Revised Judicature Act specifically authorizes use of 
the abbreviation "RJA"; §1101 of the Uniform Commercial 
Code gives the title without mentioning an abbreviation, 
but UCC is permissible.
b) No official title. If an act does not have an official title, a 
short title used in referring to it should not be capitalized 
unless it is a word that is normally capitalized. For example, 
the teacher tenure act, MCL 38.71 et seq., has no official title, 
nor has the no-fault act, MCL 500.3101 et seq. 
c) Multiple titles. An act may be referred to by an unofficial title 
even though it has an official title. 
Worker's Disability Compensation Act/workers' 
compensation act 
d) Sponsors. Generally omit the names of an act's sponsors in 
an official act.
The R. Hood-McNeely-Geake Malpractice Arbitration Act of 
1975 should be referred to as the Malpractice Arbitration 
Act; the Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act, as the Civil Rights 
Act or the Michigan Civil Rights Act where an opinion also 
refers to the federal Civil Rights Act. 
b. Federal. Cite the title and section numbers of the United States Code 
without punctuation or section symbol: 11 USC 29, not 11 USC §29. The 
official United States Code (USC), the United States Code Annotated 
(USCA), and the United States Code Service (USCS) all use the same 
numbering system; therefore, cite the official version (USC). Citation of 
the Statutes at Large is unnecessary except where there is no 
corresponding USC citation or where the particular USC title has not been 
enacted into positive law and the wording of USC is materially different 
from that of the Statutes at Large. Federal session laws are to be cited:
PL 96-123, §109, 93 Stat 926. 
c. Other states. Cite in the manner usually followed in the jurisdiction, 
preferably in the official reports, consistent with manual form. The 
jurisdiction must appear clearly in or with the citation. Consult the 
Bluebook for titles.
Ariz Rev Stat 13-4032, not ARS 13-4032.
NH Rev Stat Ann 651:57, not NHRSA 651:57.
The year of compilation should not be included unless the reference is not 
to a statute currently in force. 
3. Court rules.
a. Michigan Court Rules of 1985.
Cite as: MCR and the rule number. (MCR 2.625.)
b. Michigan Rules of Evidence.
Cite as: MRE and the rule number. (MRE 801.)
c. Former court rules.
1) General Court Rules of 1963: GCR 1963, 105.4. 
2) Court Rules of 1945: Court Rule No 8, §7 (1945). 
3) Earlier court rules: Cite analogously to the Court Rules of 1945. 
4) Former District Court Rules: DCR and the rule number. 
5) Former Probate Court Rules: PCR and the rule number. 
6) Former Juvenile Court Rules: JCR 1969, and the rule number. 
d. Local Court Rules.
[Jurisdiction] LCR and the rule number. (30th Circuit LCR 2.119.)
e. Proposed court rules.
Proposed MCR and the rule number.
f. Rules of Professional Conduct.
MRPC 1.0.
g. Code of Judicial Conduct.
Code of Judicial Conduct, Canon 1.
h. State Bar Rules.
SBR 6, §3.
i. Rules of the Board of Law Examiners.
BLE 5.
j. Federal rules.
1) Federal Rules of Civil Procedure: FR Civ P 52(a). 
2) Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure: FR Crim P 11. 
3) Federal Rules of Evidence: FRE 803(24). 
k. Other jurisdictions. Cite in the same manner as cited by the official 
reporter of the court, but consistent with manual form.
4. Administrative orders.
Administrative Order No. 1993-1. Subsequent extensive references may be 
shortened: AO 1993-1.
5. Jury instructions.
a. Criminal Jury Instructions: CJI2d 1.1.
b. Michigan Model Civil Jury Instructions: M Civ JI 3.02.
6. Administrative rules.
a. 1999 Administrative Code: 1999 AC, R 408.41863.
b. If the rule has been amended or superseded, cite the appropriate 
Annual Supplement where available: 1983 AACS, R 408.41863, or a more 
recent revision in the Michigan Register: 1985 MR 7, R 408.30495c.
(N.B.: Revisions appear monthly in the Michigan Register and are 
cumulated annually in AACS. E.g., regulations published in 1985 MR, 
vols. 1-12, are later reprinted in 1985 AACS.)
Subsequent references may be shortened: Rule 408.41863.
2003 PA 53 amended §55 and 59 of the Administrative Procedures Act, 
MCL 24.255 and 24.259, effective July 14, 2003, to provide that the 
official Michigan Administrative Code is what is published and annually 
supplemented on the Office of Regulatory Reform website at 
C. Miscellaneous Citations
1. Attorney General opinions.
Cite as:
1 OAG, 1956, No 3,010, p 407 (August 26, 1957).
OAG, 1947-1948, No 146, p 217 (March 7, 1947). 
2. Municipal charters and ordinances.
a. Charters. Cite the name of the municipality, the charter, and sufficient 
data to identify the particular section of interest uniquely, but not 
redundantly. For example, if all the sections of chapter 6 of a charter are 
numbered as 6.1, 6.2, etc., and sections in no other chapter are so 
numbered, 6.2 is sufficient and ch 6 should not be added to the citation. 
Detroit Charter, tit VI, ch VII, §11.
Lansing Charter, §5-207. 
b. Ordinances.

1) Codified Ordinances. Cite the name of the municipality, the 
ordinance code, and sufficient data to identify the particular section 
of interest uniquely, but not redundantly. 
Detroit Ordinance, §38-5-7.

2) Uncodified Ordinances. Cite the name of the municipality and the 
ordinance number and section; the date is unnecessary for 
ordinances currently in force, but should be added in parentheses 
when necessary to distinguish from other versions. 
Saginaw Ordinance D-511, §203.

3. Administrative decisions.
Cite published cases as follows:
A v B, 1978 MERC Lab Op 328. (Employment Relations Commission)
A v B, 95 LRRM 1274 (1977). (Labor Relations Reference Manual)
A v B, 1 MTTR 95 (Docket No. 3799, May 15, 1975). (Tax Tribunal 
A v B, 1979 WCABO 2617. (Workers' Compensation Appeal Board 
A v B, 1989 Mich ACO 1. (Workers' Compensation Appellate Commission 
Cite other reports by analogy.

4. Constitutional Convention.
2 Official Record, Constitutional Convention 1961, p 2038.

5. Legislative materials.
a. Bills.
HB 4015.
SB 481. 
b. Journals.
1) Bound volumes. Cite the year of the session and the page 
1965 Journal of the House 77-78.
1983 Journal of the Senate 2280.
2) Advance sheets. Cite, in addition, the pamphlet number and the 
date of issue: 
1986 Journal of the House 76 (No. 6, January 22, 1986).
1986 Journal of the Senate 449 (No. 26, March 6, 1986).
c. Analyses.
House Legislative Analysis, HB 6037, September 29, 1980. 

6. Executive orders.
Cite in full:
Executive Order No. 1991-1.
Short forms: order 1991-1 or EO 1991-1. 

7. Legal treatises and texts.
a. Examples:
3 ABA Standards for Criminal Justice (2d ed), Standard 18-4.1, 
commentary, p 18-240
78 ALR2d 218, §2, pp 220-221
2 Am Jur 2d, Administrative Law, §698, p 597
Anno: Fraud or undue influence in conveyance from child to parent, 
11 ALR 735, 746
3 Callaghan's Michigan Pleading & Practice (2d ed), §16.23, p 564
26 CJS, Declaratory Judgment, §108, p 214
1 Cooley, Constitutional Limitations (2d ed), p 10
2 Couch, Insurance, 2d (rev ed), §15:57, pp 298-302
1 Gillespie, Michigan Criminal Law & Procedure (2d ed), §312, p 374
Lewis, Trusts (13th ed), p 91
2 Martin, Dean & Webster, Michigan Court Rules Practice, p 334
McCormick, Evidence (3d ed), §72, p 171
12 McQuillin, Municipal Corporations (3d ed, 1976 Cum Supp), 
§32.133, p 141
12 Michigan Law & Practice, Fraud, §10, pp 409-410
Prosser & Keeton, Torts (5th ed), §4, p 21
Restatement Contracts, 2d (Tentative Draft No 8, 1973), §267, pp 
2 Restatement Torts, 2d, Appendix (1966), §344, p 237
3 Restatement Torts, 2d, §520, p 41
3 Sands, Sutherland Statutory Construction (4th ed), §62.01, p 113
2 Weinstein & Berger, Evidence, ¶ 412[01], pp 412-10, 412-11
6 Wigmore, Evidence (Chadbourn rev), §1747, p 195
b. Subsequent citation: Once an authority has been cited in full, a shortform citation may be used where it will not result in confusion. E.g.:
Weinstein, ¶ 411
Wigmore, §1745
Cooley, p 10
Restatement, §340
Note, however, where a citation of the Restatement of Contracts 
intervenes after a citation of the Restatement of Torts, simply 
providing "Restatement, §340," will not suffice because it could refer 
to either.

8. United States Law Week. Use only where an official or regional reporter 
is unavailable.
Comm'r of Internal Revenue v Kowalski, ____ US ____; ____ S Ct ____; 
____ L Ed 2d ____; 46 USLW 4015 (November 29, 1977). 
Pechter v Lyons, ____ F Supp ____; 46 USLW 2251 (SD NY, November 
8, 1977).

9. LEXIS/WESTLAW. Use only where an official or regional reporter is 
A v B, ____ [Official Reporter] ____; ____ [Unofficial Reporter(s)] ____; 
[year] LEXIS/WL [library] [page]. 

10. Nonlegal books. Cite the author, editor, or issuing institution, title in 
italics, and, in parentheses, the place of publication, colon, publisher, edition 
number, and year of publication, followed by, if appropriate, sufficient data to 
identify the matter of interest, such as the chapter and page number. 
Greenfield & Sternbach, eds, Handbook of Psychophysiology (New York: 
Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc, 1972), ch 19, p 749
Yung-Ping Chen & The Technical Committee on Income, Income: 
Background & Issues (Washington, DC: White House Conference on 
Aging, 1971)
United States Bureau of the Census, Census of Population: 1970, Detailed 
Characteristics; Final Report PC(1)---D24 Michigan (Washington, DC: 
United States Government Printing Office, 1972)
Bernstein, The Careful Writer (New York: Atheneum, 1973)
Follett, Modern American Usage (New York: Hill & Wang, 1966) 
Evans, A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage (New York: 
Random House, 1957)

11. Dictionaries.
Black's Law Dictionary (8th ed) (no italics)
Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged Edition (1966)
The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: Unabridged 
Random House Webster's College Dictionary (1991)
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (1973)

12. Law review material.
a. Include the volume number, abbreviated name of the law review or 
journal, page number or numbers, and, in parentheses, the year.
b. Articles with named authors should be cited beginning with the 
surname of the author (unless more is needed for certainty) and the title 
in italics.
c. A commentary or note should be cited as commentary or note, comma, 
and italicized title. (N.B.: The name of the author should not be 
d. Matter in the nature of a regular department of a periodical having a 
number of contributors or anonymous contributors should be cited by the 
usual title, e.g., Current Law Notes, Recent Legislation, Recent 
Developments, and not italicized.
Comment, Prosecutorial discretion in the duplicative statutes 
setting, 42 U Colo L R 455 (1971)
Conyers, The politics of revenue sharing, 52 J Urban L 61 (1974)
Crawford, Local zoning control of billboards___A guide for Michigan 
Attorneys, 1989 Det Col L R 1473 Kimble, Protecting your writing 
from law practice, 66 Mich B J 912 (1987)
Kutak & Gottschalk, In search of a rational sentence: A return to the 
concept of appellate review, 53 Neb L R 463 (1974)
Moley, The use of the information in criminal cases, 17 ABA J 292 
Project, Seventeenth annual review of criminal procedure, 76 Geo L 
J 521, 925 (1988)
Richardson, 1983 Annual Survey of Michigan Law, Natural 
resources, real property and trusts, 30 Wayne L R 763, 769-772

13. Internet material. Materials found only on an Internet website should 
include an author (if available), a title, an Internet address, and the date on 
which the site was accessed. 
James Wyman, Florida Law Online 
<http://www.gate.net/~wyman/flo.html> (accessed August 1, 1999).
Federal Judicial Center, Federal Judicial Center Publications
<http://www.fjc.gov/pubs.html> (accessed July 10, 1999).

14. Michigan Child Support Formula Manual.
Cite as [year] MCSF [section number]. Example: 2001 MCSF 208(A).

II. Material Quoted in Opinions 
Generally, material quoted in opinions should be reproduced exactly as it appears in 
the original source. 
MCL 769.26 provides:
No judgment or verdict shall be set aside or reversed or a new trial be granted 
by any court of this state in any criminal case, on the ground of misdirection of 
the jury, or the improper admission or rejection of evidence, or for any error 
as to any matter of pleading or procedure, unless in the opinion of the court, 
after an examination of the entire cause, it shall affirmatively appear that the 
error complained of resulted in a miscarriage of justice. [Emphasis added.] 
As this Court has noted,
[t]he measure of control exercised in connection with the prevention and 
detection of crime and prosecution and punishment of criminals is set forth in 
the statutes of the State pertaining thereto, particularly the penal code and 
the code of criminal procedure. The powers of the courts with reference to 
such matters are derived from the statutes. [People v Piasecki, 333 Mich 122, 
143; 52 NW2d 626 (1952).] 
A. Case Law.
1. Where available, official sources should be quoted. (N.B.: the official 
opinions of the Michigan Supreme Court are published in the Michigan Reports
[Mich], not the North Western Reporter or Michigan Reporter [NW2d]; the 
official opinions of the United States Supreme Court are published in the 
United States Reports [US], not the Supreme Court Reporter [S Ct], the 
United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers Edition [L Ed, L Ed 2d], or 
United States Law Week [USLW].) 
2. Published opinions of Michigan, federal, or foreign courts should be quoted 
exactly, except that a parallel citation or year of decision must be added with 
brackets if missing from the quoted material. 
In 378 Mich 195, the following citation appears:
Brown v. City of Highland Park (1948), 320 Mich 108. 
If the paragraph containing the citation is quoted in a current opinion, it 
should appear as:
Brown v. City of Highland Park (1948), 320 Mich 108 [30 NW2d 
798]. (N.B.: A parallel citation has been added.) In 199 Mich 316, 
"Jones v. Berkey, 181 Mich. 472 (148 N.W. 375)," should be 
quoted: "Jones v. Berkey, 181 Mich. 472 (148 N.W. 375) [1914]." 
B. Statutes and Administrative Rules. These should be quoted exactly as they 
appear in printed form, not off a website. If it appears that the text of a statute or 
rule contains an error, "[sic]" should be inserted in the text immediately following 
C. Punctuation in Quoted Material.
1. Colons and semicolons. Colons and semicolons that are not part of the 
original quoted material are placed outside quotation marks.
2. Question marks and exclamation points. Placement of question marks and 
exclamation points depends on their relation to the material quoted. The mark 
is placed inside quotation marks where it applies only to the material quoted, 
and outside where it applies to the entire sentence.
The witness responded, "I saw him do it!"
Why did you respond, "I saw him do it"?
3. Quotation marks. A quotation within a quotation is enclosed in single 
quotation marks.
E.g., "Unless the legislation creates a 'classification scheme,' or 'impinges 
upon the exercise of a fundamental right,' it is 'accorded a presumption 
of constitutionality, and is reviewed by applying a rational basis 
standard.'" Brown v Manistee Co Rd Comm, 452 Mich 354, 361-362; 550 
NW2d 215 (1996), quoting Doe v Dep't of Social Services, 439 Mich 650, 
662; 487 NW2d 166 (1992). 
D. Deletions in Quoted Materials (Ellipses).
1. Within a sentence. To delete material within a sentence, insert three periods 
(ellipses) and four spaces: 
"Insanity . . . is an extreme of mental illness."
(Note: Ellipses without spaces are incorrect. "Insanity...is an extreme....")
2. At end of a sentence. To delete material at the end of a sentence, insert 
three periods and four spaces before the terminal punctuation:
"To put it alternatively, the statutes provide that all insane people are 
mentally ill . . . ." 
"The Court: Well, what was this thing . . . ?"
3. Following a sentence/between sentences. To delete material after a 
complete sentence or between complete sentences, insert three periods and 
three spaces after the terminal punctuation:
Insanity by definition is an extreme of mental illness. . . . To put it 
alternatively, the statutes provide that all insane people are mentally ill 
but not all mentally ill people are insane.
Insanity by definition is an extreme of mental illness. . . . [T]he law 
provides that criminal responsibility does not attach.
Note that the "t" in the final sentence, lower case in the original, is capitalized 
in brackets [T] because the material remaining after deletion can be read as a
complete sentence.
4. At the middle of a sentence. No ellipses are required where a quotation 
begins in the middle of a sentence and: 
a) the fragment quoted completes an original sentence and begins with a 
lower case letter: 
E.g.:When a person is found to be insane, "the law provides that criminal 
responsibility does not attach."
b) a capital letter is inserted in brackets:
E.g.: The lead opinion in Fultz noted, "[A]ll insane people are mentally ill 
but not all mentally ill people are insane." 
5.Internal punctuation in original. Internal punctuation should be retained only 
where required for clarity: 
"When a person's mental illness reaches that extreme, . . . criminal 
responsibility does not attach." (The comma in the original is retained.)
"Defendant . . . admitted doing the particular act, but also stated that he 
was insane." (Punctuation in the deleted material is not retained.)
6. At the end of a paragraph. Where material is deleted at the end of a 
paragraph and the next paragraph immediately follows, insert three periods 
and three spaces after the terminal punctuation of the first paragraph: 
Furthermore, defendant's account of what transpired was clearly in accord 
with the psychiatric evaluation in that defendant admitted committing the act 
but stated that he could not help what he was doing. . . .
The Court: Well, what was this thing that came over you?
7. Between paragraphs. Where one or more paragraphs are deleted between
quoted paragraphs, insert three asterisks (centered) and two blank lines 
between the paragraphs quoted:
So, just as a finding of no insanity is essential for an adjudication of guilt 
by trial, we hold such a finding to be equally essential for a plea of guilty. 
Such a finding was not made in the instant case and the plea for that 
reason is invalid.
* * *
Lastly, as we find the plea to be invalid for the aforestated reasons, it is 
unnecessary to address the claim of ineffective assistance of counsel.
E. Italics. Italics should be used only in the following instances:
1. case names: People v Smith,
2. supra, id., infra, ante, post, et seq.,
3. words the author wishes to emphasize,
4. where italics are used in the material quoted,
5. unfamiliar foreign words and phrases or longer Latin "legal" phrases. E.g.:
expressio unius est exclusio alterius and en ventre sa mere, etc.,
but not:
de novo, arguendo, sua sponte, etc. (Check Black's Law Dictionary [8th 
ed] for guidance.)
Nec flectitur, nec mutant; htel de ville; die Weltanschauung, etc.,
but not:
vis-à-vis; quid pro quo; der Bundestag; Arc de Triomphe; etc. (Check the 
Random House Dictionary for guidance.) 
6. In titles of nonlegal books, law review articles, and ALR annotations.
7. The following should not be italicized:
abbreviations (e.g., i.e., viz., N.B., etc.);
signals (see, see also, compare . . . with);
later history of cases (cert den, lv den, aff'd);
8. When quoting from trial or other transcripts italicize:
a) "Q." and "A." (Do not use: "Q:" or "A:")
"Q. Were you on Oakland Avenue on the date in question? "A. No, 
b) Names or titles of the speakers: 
The Court:
Mr. Smith (attorney for the defense):
The Defendant:
F. Quoting a Footnote.
1. If material quoted contains a footnote that is to be included in the 
quotation, use the same footnote numbering as the original and add the 
footnote at the end of the block of quoted material, separated from the main 
quotation by lines from margin to margin above and below the footnote. For 
clarity, where possible, put the citation in the opinion text before beginning 
the block quotation.
A discussion of presumptions and their effect upon the burden of 
producing evidence appears in In re Wood Estate, 374 Mich 278, 289; 
132 NW2d 35; 54 ALR3d 1 (1965):
"The immediate legal effect of a presumption is procedural___it shifts the 
burden of going forward with the evidence relating to the presumed fact. --5
Once there is a presumption that fact C is true, the opposing party must 
produce evidence tending to disprove either facts A and B or presumed 
fact C; if he fails to do so, he risks jury instruction that they must 
presume fact C to have been established. 
Baker v Delano, 191 Mich 204, 208 [157 NW 427 (1916)], citing 1 Elliott 
on Evidence, §91: ' "The office or effect of a true presumption is to cast 
upon the party against whom it works the duty of going forward with 
evidence." ' "
The thrust of the Wood case was to change the law in this state 
concerning the effect that a presumption was after rebuttal evidence has 
been introduced. 
2. Where footnotes appear in the original source, but are not material to the 
purpose for which the text is quoted, footnote numbers in the text should be 
deleted without ellipses. Do not add "(footnotes deleted)" at the end of the 
G. Placement of Citation. A citation indicating the source of a block quotation 
generally should be supplied in the text preceding the quotation.
The Equal Protection Clause, US Const, Am XIV, §5, provides:
The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the 
provisions of this article.
A citation may follow the quotation in the block, immediately after the quoted 
material, without additional separation, followed by a period and enclosed in 
The no-fault insurance act provides, in part:
An agreement for assignment of a right to benefits payable in the future is 
void. [MCL 500.3143.]
H. Parentheses and Brackets.
1. Use Parentheses ( ):
a) To set off short, supplementary, parenthetic, or explanatory material 
when the interruption is more marked than that usually indicated by 
commas and when the inclusion of such material does not essentially 
alter the meaning of the sentence.
The work (he was preeminently fitted for it) absorbed his attention for 
The cost of living (see chart II) has risen slowly but surely.
b) To enclose figures or letters used in enumerations.
The immediate results were these: (1) a cornering of the market; (2) a
decrease in available material; (3) an advance in prices.
(N.B.: Parentheses postpone punctuation. No punctuation immediately 
precedes parentheses, except when a sentence ends with a period and the 
next sentence is in parentheses.)
2. Use brackets [ ]:
a) To enclose explanatory remarks, extraneous data, editorial 
interpolations, or additional citations within quoted passages or a citation 
following a block quotation where no quotation marks are used:
There is no doubt that the April 23, 1973 finding was that defendant was 
guilty of civil contempt. Judge O'Hair specifically told the defendant that 
she would be jailed until she purged herself. She therefore was able to 
"carry the 'keys of [the] prison in [her] own pocket' [and] the action is 
essentially civil." People v Goodman, 17 Mich App 175, 177; 169 NW2d 
120 (1969).
If one substitutes "warehouse owner, lessee or operator" for "consignee," 
then the exclusion would read "no portion of any premises owned or 
leased or operated by a [warehouse owner, lessee or operator] shall be 
deemed to be a public warehouse." The expansive meaning sought by the 
city does not work unless there can be a consignor without a consignee.
The proscription of "unreasonable searches and seizures" and the warrant 
"must be read in light of 'the history that gave rise to the words'___a 
history of 'abuses so deeply felt by the Colonies as to be one of the 
potent causes of the Revolution . . . .' [United States v Rabinowitz], 339 
US [56], 69 [70 S Ct 430; 94 L Ed 653 (1950)]. The amendment was in 
large part a reaction to the general warrants and warrantless searches 
that had so alienated the colonists and had helped speed the movement 
for independence."
b) To indicate a change in capitalization to conform to the sense of the 
context in quoted source material.
[W]e cannot agree that the Fourth Amendment interests at stake in these 
[administrative] inspection cases are merely "peripheral." It is surely 
anomalous to say that the individual and his private property are fully 
protected by the Fourth Amendment only when the individual is 
suspected of criminal behavior.
c) To indicate a misspelled or misused word in the text accompanied by 
the word "sic."
Any person who shall commit the offense of larceny, by steeling [sic], 
shall be guilty of a felony . . . .
d) To function as parentheses within parentheses.
The statute (MCL 418.551[2]) provides . . . . 
e) Use empty brackets [ ] to indicate deletion of a letter or letters where, 
for example, the plural in quoted material is to be rendered in the 
"actions" becomes "action[ ]."

Ala                                         Ky                                             ND
Alas                                       La                                              Ohio
Ariz                                       Me                                             Okla
Ark                                        Md                                             Or
Cal                                         Mass                                          Pa
Colo                                      Mich                                          RI
Conn                                     Minn                                          SC
Del                                         Miss                                           SD
DC                                          Mo                                             Tenn
Fla                                         Mont                                         Tex
Ga                                          Neb                                           Utah
Hawaii                                 Nev                                            Vt
Idaho                                   NH                                             Va
Ill                                          NJ                                               Wash
Ind                                       NM                                              W Va
Iowa                                    NY                                              Wis
Kan                                      NC                                               Wy

State                                          Last Volume                           Last Year 
Alabama                                           295                                        1976
Alabama Appeals                            57                                        1976
Alaska                                                   17                                        1958
Arizona Appeals                               27                                       1976
Colorado                                           200                                        1980
Colorado Appeals                             44                                        1980
Delaware                                               59                                        1966
Delaware Chancery                           43                                        1966
Florida                                                  160                                        1948
Indiana                                                 275                                        1981
Indiana Appeals                                182                                         1981
Iowa                                                        261                                         1968
Kentucky                                               314                                         1951
Louisiana                                               263                                        1972
Louisiana Appeals                                 19                                        1932
Maine                                                        161                                        1965
Minnesota                                               312                                         1977
Mississippi                                               254                                         1966
Missouri                                                    365                                         1956
Missouri Appeals                                   241                                         1955
North Dakota                                             79                                         1953
Oklahoma                                                 208                                          1953
Oklahoma Criminal Appeals                97                                          1953
Rhode Island                                            122                                          1980
South Dakota                                              90                                          1976
Tennessee                                                   225                                         1971
Tennessee Appeals                                    63                                          1971
Tennessee Civil Appeals                             8                                          1918
Texas                                                               163                                        1962
Texas Criminal Appeals                          172                                        1963
Texas Civil Appeals                                     63                                         1911
Utah 30 Utah                                                 2d                                          1974
Wyoming                                                         80                                          1959

Name                                           Abbreviation
Administration, Administrative Admin  
And                                                         &  
Associates                                           Assoc
Association                                          Ass'n
Assistant                                               Asst
Authority                                              Auth
Board                                                       Bd
Brothers                                                Bros
Building                                                 Bldg
Casualty                                                 Cas
Center                                                    Ctr
Chemical                                               Chem
Commission                                         Comm
Committee                                           Comm
Commissioner(s)                               Comm'r(s)
Company(ies)                                     Co(s)
County(ies)                                           Co(s)
Condominium                                     Condo
Construction                                        Constr
Cooperative                                          Coop
Corporation                                           Corp
Department                                           Dep't
Development                                         Dev
District                                                     Dist
Division                                                  Div
Education,Educational                     Ed
Equipment                                             Equip
Exchange                                                Exch
Federal                                                    Fed
General                                                    Gen
Government                                          Gov't
Heights                                                    Hts
Highway                                                  Hwy
Hospital                                                  Hosp
Incorporated                                       Inc
Insurance                                               Ins
International                                       Int'l
Limited                                                    Ltd
Management                                        Mgt
Manufacturing                                     Mfg
Memorial                                              Mem
Metropolitan                                       Metro
Municipal                                            Muni
Mutual                                                     Mut
National                                                 Nat'l
Number                                                  No
Organization                                         Org
Property                                                Prop
Public                                                       Pub
Railroad, Railway                                R
Road                                                          Rd
Savings and Loan                                 S&L
System                                                     Sys
Telephone, Telegraph                        Tel
Telecommunication(s)                      Telecom
Township                                                Twp
University                                             Univ