Pg. 4

Hipp.) an eruption, thrush, fr. ? to set on fire, inflame.]
(Med.) Roundish pearlPcolored specks or flakes in the mouth,
on the lips, etc., terminating in white sloughs. They are
commonly characteristic of thrush.
Aph6thoid , a. [Aphtha + Ooid.] Of the nature of aphth.;
resembling thrush.
Aph6thong (?; 277), n. [Gr. ? silent; ? priv. + ? voice,
sound, fr. ? to sound.] A letter, or a combination of
letters, employed in spelling a word, but in the
pronunciation having no sound. P AphOthon6gal (?), a.
Aph6thous (?)(?) a. [Cf. F. aphtheux.] Pertaining to, or
caused by, aphth.; characterized by apht.; as, aphthous
ulcers; aphthous fever.
Aph6ylOlous (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? leaf.] (Bot.)
Destitute of leaves, as the broom rape, certain
euphorbiaceous plants, etc.
A7piOa6ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Umbelliferous.
A6piOan (?), a. Belonging to bees.
A7piOa6riOan (?), a. Of or relating to bees.
A6piOaOrist (?), n. One who keeps an apiary.
A6piOaOry (?), n. [L. apiarium, fr. apis bee.] A place where
bees are kept; a stand or shed for bees; a beehouse.
Ap6icOal (?), a. [L. apex, apicis, tip or summit.] At or
belonging to an apex, tip, or summit.
X Ap6iOces (?), n. pl. See Apex.
AOpi6cian (?), a. [L. Apicianus.] Belonging to Apicius, a
notorious Roman epicure; hence applied to whatever is
peculiarly refined or dainty and expensive in cookery.
H. Rogers.
AOpic6uOlar , a. [NL. apiculus, dim. of L. apex, apicis.]
Situated at, or near, the apex; apical.

AOpic6uOlate (?), AOpic6uOla7ted (?), } a. [See Apicular.]
(Bot.) Terminated abruptly by a small, distinct point, as a
Ap6iOcul7ture (?; 135), n. [L. apis bee + E. culture.]
Rearing of bees for their honey and wax.
AOpiece6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + piece.] Each by itself; by
the single one; to each; as the share of each; as, these
melons cost a shilling apiece. =Fined... a thousand pounds
AOpie6ces (?), adv. In pieces or to pieces. [Obs.] =Being
torn apieces.8
AOpik6ed (?), a. Trimmed. [Obs.]
Full fresh and new here gear apiked was.
A6piOol (?), n. [L. apium parsley + Ool.] (Med.) An oily
liquid derived from parsley.
A7piOol6oOgist (?), n. [L. apis bee + Ologist (see Ology).]
A student of bees. [R.]
X A6pis (?), n. [L., bee.] (Zo.l.) A genus of insects of the
order Hymenoptera, including the common honeybee (Apis
mellifica) and other related species. See Honeybee.
Ap6ish (?), a. Having the qualities of an ape; prone to
imitate in a servile manner. Hence: Apelike; fantastically
silly; foppish; affected; trifling.
The apish gallantry of a fantastic boy.
Sir W. Scott.
Ap6ishOly, adv. In an apish manner; with servile imitation;
Ap6ishOness, n. The quality of being apish; mimicry;
AOpit6pat , adv. [Pref. aO + pitpat.] With quick beating or
palpitation; pitapat.
Ap7laOcen6tal , a. [Pref. aO + placental.] Belonging to the
Aplacentata; without placenta.
X Ap7laOcenOta6ta , n. pl. [Pref. aO not + placenta.]
(Zo.l.) Mammals which have no placenta.
X Ap7laOcoph6oOra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? a
flat cake + ? to bear.] (Zo.l.) A division of Amphineura in
which the body is naked or covered with slender spines or
set., but is without shelly plates.
Ap7laOnat6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ? disposed to wander,
wandering, ? to wander.] (Opt.) Having two or more parts of
different curvatures, so combined as to remove spherical
aberration; P said of a lens.
w focus of a lens (Opt.), the point or focus from which rays
diverging pass the lens without spherical aberration. In
certain forms of lenses there are two such foci; and it is
by taking advantage of this fact that the best ~ object
glasses of microscopes are constructed.
AOplan6aOtism (?), n. Freedom from spherical aberration.
AOplas6tic (?), a. [Pref. aO not + plastic.] Not plastic or
easily molded.
X A7plomb6 (?), n. [F., lit. perpendicularity; ? to + plomb
lead. See Plumb.] Assurance of manner or of action;
AOplot6oOmy (?), n. [Gr. ? simple + ? a cutting.] (Surg.)
Simple incision.
X AOplus6tre (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?.] (Rom. Antiq.) An
ornamental appendage of wood at the ship's stern, usually
spreading like a fan and curved like a bird's feather.
X AOplys6iOa (?), n. [Gr. ? a dirty sponge, fr. ? unwashed;
? priv. + ? to wash.] (Zo.l.) A genus of marine mollusks of
the order Tectibranchiata; the sea hare. Some of the species
when disturbed throw out a deep purple liquor, which colors
the water to some distance. See Illust. in Appendix.
X ApOneu6moOna (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, a
lung.] (Zo.l.) An order of holothurians in which the
internal respiratory organs are wanting; P called also Apoda
or Apodes.
X ApOn?6a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, breath, ? to
breathe, blow.] (Med.) Partial privation or suspension of
breath; suffocation.
Ap6o (?). [Gr. ?. See AbO.] A prefix from a Greek
preposition. It usually signifies from, away from, off, or
asunder, separate; as, in apocope (a cutting off), apostate,
apostle (one sent away), apocarpous.
AOpoc6aOlypse (?), n. [L. apocalypsis, Gr. ?, fr. ? to
uncover, to disclose; ? from + ? to cover, conceal: cf. F.
apocalypse.] 1. The revelation delivered to St. John, in the
isle of Patmos, near the close of the first century, forming
the last book of the New Testament.
2. Anything viewed as a revelation; as disclosure.
The new apocalypse of Nature.
AOpoc7aOlyp6tic (?), AOpoc7aOlyp6ticOal (?), } a. [Gr. ?.]
Of or pertaining to a revelation, or, specifically, to the
Revelation of St. John; containing, or of the nature of, a
prophetic revelation.
w number, the number 666, mentioned in Rev. xiii. 18. It has
been variously interpreted.

<-- p. 69 -->

AOpoc7aOlyp6tic (?), AOpoc7aOlyp6tist, n. The writer of the
AOpoc7aOlyp6ticOalOly (?), adv. By revelation; in an
apocalyptic manner.
Ap7oOcar6pous , a. [Pref. apoO + Gr. ? fruit.] (Bot.) Either
entirely of partially separate, as the carpels of a compound
pistil; P opposed to syncarpous.
AOpoc6oOpate (?), v. t. [LL. apocopatus, p. p. of apocopare
to cut off, fr. L. apocore. See Apocope.] (Gram.) To cut off
or drop; as, to apocopate a word, or the last letter,
syllable, or part of a word.
AOpoc6oOpate (?), AOpoc6oOpa7ted (?), } a. Shortened by
apocope; as, an apocopate form.
AOpoc7oOpa6tion (?), n. Shortening by apocope; the state of
being apocopated.
X AOpoc6oOpe, n. [L., fr. Gr. ? a cutting off, fr. ? to cut
off; ? from + ? to cut.] 1. The cutting off, or omission, of
the last letter, syllable, or part of a word.
2. (Med.) A cutting off; abscission.
Ap7oOcris6iOaOry (?), X Ap7oOcris7iOa6riOus (?), } n. [L.
apocrisiarius, apocrisarius, fr. Gr. ? answer, fr. ? to
answer; ? from + ? to separate.] (Eccl.) A delegate or
deputy; especially, the pope's nuncio or legate at
Ap7oOcrus6tic (?), a. [Gr. ? able to drive off, fr. ? to
drive off.] (Med.) Astringent and repellent. P n. An
apocrustic medicine.
AOpoc6ryOpha (?), n. pl., but often used as sing. with pl.
Apocryphas (?). [L. apocryphus apocryphal, Gr. ? hidden,
spurious, fr. ? to hide; ? from + ? to hide.] 1. Something,
as a writing, that is of doubtful authorship or authority; P
formerly used also adjectively. [Obs.]
2. Specif.: Certain writings which are received by some
Christians as an authentic part of the Holy Scriptures, but
are rejected by others.
5 Fourteen such writings, or books, formed part of the
Septuagint, but not of the Hebrew canon recognized by the
Jews of Palestine. The Council of Trent included all but
three of these in the canon of inspired books having equal
authority. The German and English Reformers grouped them in
their Bibles under the title Apocrypha, as not having
dogmatic authority, but being profitable for instruction.
The Apocrypha is now commonly ?mitted from the King James's
AOpoc6ryOphal (?), a. 1. Pertaining to the Apocrypha.
2. Not canonical. Hence: Of doubtful authority; equivocal;
mythic; fictitious; spurious; false.
The passages... are, however, in part from apocryphal or
fictitious works.
Sir G. C. Lewis.
AOpoc6ryOphalOist, n. One who believes in, or defends, the
Apocrypha. [R.]
AOpoc6ryOphalOly, adv. In an apocryphal manner; mythically;
not indisputably.
AOpoc6ryOphalOness, n. The quality or state of being
apocryphal; doubtfulness of credit or genuineness.
AOpoc7yOna6ceous (?), Ap7oOcyn6eOous (?), a. [Gr. ? dogbane;
? from + ? dog.]] (Bot.) Belonging to, or resembling, a
family of plants, of which the dogbane (Apocynum) is the
AOpoc6yOnin (?), n. [From Apocynum, the generic name of
dogbane.] (Chem.) A bitter principle obtained from the
dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum).
Ap6od (?), Ap6oOdal (?), } a. [See Apod, n.] 1. Without
feet; footless.
2. (Zo.l.) Destitute of the ventral fin, as the eels.
Ap6od (?), Ap6ode (?), } n.; pl. Apods (?) or Apodes (?).
[Gr. ?, ?, footless; ? priv. + ?, ?, foot.] (Zo.l.) One of
certain animals that have no feet or footlike organs; esp.
one of certain fabulous birds which were said to have no
5 The bird of paradise formerly had the name Paradisea
apoda, being supposed to have no feet, as these were wanting
in the specimens first obtained from the East Indies.
X Ap6oOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?. See Apod, n.]
(Zo.l.) (a) A group of cirripeds, destitute of footlike
organs. (b) An order of Amphibia without feet. See
Ophiomorpha. (c) A group of worms without appendages, as the
Ap6oOdan (?), a. (Zo.l.) Apodal.
Ap6oOdeic6tic (?), Ap7oOdic6tic (?), Ap7oOdeic6ticOal (?),
Ap7oOdic6ticOal (?), } a. [L. apodicticus, Gr. ?, fr. ? to
point out, to show by argument; ? from + ? to show.]
SelfPevident; intuitively true; evident beyond
Brougham. Sir Wm. Hamilton.
Ap7oOdeic6ticOalOly, Ap7oOdic6ticOalOly, adv. So as to be
evident beyond contradiction.
Ap6oOdeme (?), n. [Pref. apoO + Gr. ? body.] (Zo.l.) One of
the processes of the shell which project inwards and unite
with one another, in the thorax of many Crustacea.
X Ap6oOdes (?), n. pl. [NL., masc. pl. See Apoda.] (Zo.l.)
(a) An order of fishes without ventral fins, including the
eels. (b) A group of holothurians destitute of suckers. See
Ap7oOdic6tic (?), a. Same as Apodeictic.
X Ap7oOdix6is (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ?.] Full
X AOpod6oOsis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? to give back; ?
from, back again + ? to give.] (Gram.) The consequent clause
or conclusion in a conditional sentence, expressing the
result, and thus distinguished from the protasis or clause
which expresses a condition. Thus, in the sentence, =Though
he slay me, yet will I trust in him,8 the former clause is
the protasis, and the latter the apodosis.
5 Some grammarians extend the terms protasis and apodosis to
the introductory clause and the concluding clause, even when
the sentence is not conditional.
Ap6oOdous (?)(?), a. (Zo.l.) Apodal; apod.
X AOpod7yOte6riOum (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? to strip
one's self.] (Anc. Arch.) The apartment at the entrance of
the baths, or in the palestra, where one stripped; a
dressing room.
Ap7oOga6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? far from the earth.] Apogean.
Ap7oOgam6ic (?), a. Relating to apogamy.
AOpog6aOmy (?), n. [Pref. apoO + Gr. ? marriage.] (Bot.) The
formation of a bud in place of a fertilized ovule or
De Bary.
Ap7oOge6al (?), a. (Astron.) Apogean.
Ap7oOge6an (?), a. Connected with the apogee; as, apogean
(neap) tides, which occur when the moon has passed her
Ap6oOgee (?), n. [Gr. ? from the earth; ? from + ?, ?,
earth: cf. F. apog.e.] 1. (Astron.) That point in the orbit
of the moon which is at the greatest distance from the
5 Formerly, on the hypothesis that the earth is in the
center of the system, this name was given to that point in
the orbit of the sun, or of a planet, which was supposed to
be at the greatest distance from the earth.
2. Fig.: The farthest or highest point; culmination.
Ap7oOge7oOtrop6ic (?), a. [Pref. apoO + Gr. ? earth + ?
turning.] (Bot.) Bending away from the ground; P said of
leaves, etc.
Ap6oOgeOot6roOpism (?), n. The apogeotropic tendency of some
leaves, and other parts.
Ap6oOgraph (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? from + ? to write: cf. F.
apographe.] A copy or transcript.
Ap7oOhy6al (?), a. [Pref. apoO + the Gr. letter Y.] (Anat.)
Of or pertaining to a portion of the horn of the hyoid bone.
AOpoise6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + poise.] Balanced.
AOpo6lar (?), a. [Pref. aO + polar.] (Biol.) Having no
radiating processes; P applied particularly to certain nerve
Ap7oOlaus6tic (?), a. [Gr. ?, fr. ? to enjoy.] Devoted to
AOpol7liOna6riOan (?), a. [L. Apollinaris, fr. Apollo.]
(Rom. Antiq.) In honor of Apollo; as, the Apollinarian
AOpol7liOna6riOan, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of
Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea in the fourth century, who
denied the proper humanity of Christ.
AOpol7liOna6ris wa6ter (?). An effervescing alkaline mineral
water used as a table beverage. It is obtained from a spring
in Apollinarisburg, near Bonn.
AOpol6lo (?), n. [L. Apollo, Olinis, Gr. ?.] (Classic Myth.)
A deity among the Greeks and Romans. He was the god of light
and day (the =sun god8), of archery, prophecy, medicine,
poetry, and music, etc., and was represented as the model of
manly grace and beauty; P called also Ph?bus.
The w Belvedere, a celebrated statue of w in the Belvedere
gallery of the Vatican palace at Rome, esteemed of the
noblest representations of the human frame.
Ap7olOlo6niOan (?), Ap7olOlon6ic (?), a. Of, pertaining to,
or resembling, Apollo.
AOpol6lyOon (?), n. [Gr. ? destroying, fr. ?, ?, to destroy
utterly; ? from, entirely + ? to destroy.] The Destroyer; P
a name used (Rev. ix. 11) for the angel of the bottomless
pit, answering to the Hebrew Abaddon.
AOpol6oOger (?), n. A teller of apologues. [Obs.]
AOpol7oOget6ic (?), AOpol7oOget6icOal (?), } a. [Gr. ?, fr.
? to speak in defense of; ? from + ? speech, ? to say, to
speak. See Logic.] Defending by words or arguments; said or
written in defense, or by way of apology; regretfully
excusing; as, an apologetic essay. =To speak in a subdued
and apologetic tone.8
AOpol7oOget6icOalOly, adv. By way of apology.
AOpol7oOget6ics (?), n. That branch of theology which
defends the Holy Scriptures, and sets forth the evidence of
their divine authority.
AOpol6oOgist (?), n. [Cf. F. apologiste.] One who makes an
apology; one who speaks or writes in defense of a faith, a
cause, or an institution; especially, one who argues in
defense of Christianity.
AOpol6oOgize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Apologized (?); p. pr.
& vb. n. Apologizing.] [Cf. F. apologiser.] 1. To make an
apology or defense.
Dr. H. More.
2. To make an apology or excuse; to make acknowledgment of
some fault or offense, with expression of regret for it, by
way of amends; P with for; as, my correspondent apologized
for not answering my letter.
To apologize for his insolent language.
AOpol6oOgize, v. t. To defend. [Obs.]
The Christians... were apologized by Plinie.
Dr. G. Benson.
AOpol6oOgi7zer (?), n. One who makes an apology; an
Ap6oOlogue (?), n. [L. apologous, Gr. ?; ? from + ? speech,
? to speak: cf. F. apologue.] A story or relation of
fictitious events, intended to convey some moral truth; a
moral fable.
5 An apologue differs from a parable in this;: the parable
is drawn from events which take place among mankind, and
therefore requires probability in the narrative; the
apologue is founded on supposed actions of brutes or
inanimate things, and therefore is not limited by strict
rules of probability. .sop's fables are good examples of
AOpol6oOgy (?), n.; pl. Apologies . [L. apologia, Gr. ?; ?
from + ?: cf. F. apologie. See Apologetic.] 1. Something
said or written in defense or justification of what appears
to others wrong, or of what may be liable to disapprobation;
justification; as, Tertullian's Apology for Christianity. 
It is not my intention to make an apology for my poem; some
will think it needs no excuse, and others will receive none.
2. An acknowledgment intended as an atonement for some
improper or injurious remark or act; an admission to another
of a wrong or discourtesy done him, accompanied by an
expression of regret.
3. Anything provided as a substitute; a makeshift.
He goes to work devising apologies for window curtains.
Syn. - Excuse. An apology, in the original sense of the
word, was a pleading off from some charge or imputation, by
explaining and defending one's principles or conduct. It
therefore amounted to a vindication. One who offers an
apology, admits himself to have been, at least apparently,
in the wrong, but brings forward some palliating
circumstance, or tenders a frank acknowledgment, by way of
reparation. We make an apology for some breach of propriety
or decorum (like rude expressions, unbecoming conduct,
etc.), or some deficiency in what might be reasonably
expected. We offer an excuse when we have been guilty of
some breach or neglect of duty; and we do it by way of
extenuating our fault, and with a view to be forgiven. When
an excuse has been accepted, an apology may still, in some
cases, be necessary or appropriate. =An excuse is not
grounded on the claim of innocence, but is rather an appeal
for favor resting on some collateral circumstance. An
apology mostly respects the conduct of individuals toward
each other as equals; it is a voluntary act produced by
feelings of decorum, or a desire for the good opinion of
AOpol6oOgy (?), v. i. To offer an ~. [Obs.]
For which he can not well apology.
J. Webster.
Ap7oOmeOcom6eOter , n. An instrument for measuring the
height of objects.
Ap7oOmeOcom6eOtry , n. [Pref. apoO + Gr. ? length + Ometry.]
The art of measuring the distance of objects afar off. [Obs.
or R.]
X Ap7oOmor6phiOa (?), Ap7oOmor6phine (?), } n. [Pref. apoO +
morphia, morphine.] (Chem.) A crystalline alkaloid obtained
from morphia. It is a powerful emetic. 
X Ap7oOneuOro6sis (?), n.; pl. Aponeuroses (?). [Gr. ?, fr.
? to pass into a tendon; ? from + ? to strain the sinews, ?
sinew, tendon, nerve.] (Anat.) Any one of the thicker and
denser of the deep fasci. which cover, invest, and the
terminations and attachments of, many muscles. They often
differ from tendons only in being flat and thin. See Fascia.
Ap7oOneuOrot6ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to an
Ap7oOneuOrot6oOmy (?), n. [Aponeurosis + Gr. ? a cutting.]
Dissection of aponeuroses.
Ap7oOpemp6tic (?), a. [Gr. ?, fr. ? to send off or away; ?
from + ? to send.] Sung or addressed to one departing;
valedictory; as, apoplectic songs or hymns.
X AOpoph6aOsis (?), n. [Gr. ? denial, fr. ? to speak out, to
deny.] (Rhet.) A figure by which a speaker formally declines
to take notice of a favorable point, but in such a manner as
to produce the effect desired. [For example, see Mark
Antony's oration. Shak., Julius C.sar, iii. 2.]
Ap7oOphlegOmat6ic (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? from + ? full of phlegm.
See Phlegmatic.] (Med.) Designed to facilitate discharges of
phlegm or mucus from mouth or nostrils. P n. An ~ medicine. 
Ap7oOphleg6maOtism , n. [Gr. ?, Galen.] 1. (Med.) The action
of apophlegmatics.
2. An apophlegmatic. [Obs.]
Ap7oOphlegOmat6iOzant (?), n. (Med.) An apophlegmatic.
Ap7ophOthegm (?), n. See Apothegm.
Ap7ophOthegOmat6ic (?), Ap7ophOthegOmat6icOal (?), a. Same
as Apothegmatic.
X AOpoph6yOge (?), n. [Gr. ? escape, in arch. the curve with
which the shaft escapes into its base or capital, fr. ? to
??ee away; ? from + ? to flee: cf. F. apophyge.] (Arch.) The
small hollow curvature given to the top or bottom of the
shaft of a column where it expands to meet the edge of the
fillet; P called also the scape.
AOpoph6ylOlite (?), n. [Pref. apoO + Gr. ? leaf; so called
from its foliated structure or easy cleavage.] (Min.) A
mineral relating to the zeolites, usually occurring in
square prisms or octahedrons with pearly luster on the
cleavage surface. It is a hydrous silicate of calcium and
X AOpoph6yOsis (?), n.; pl. Oses. [NL., fr. Gr. ? offshoot,
process of a bone, fr. ? to grow from; ? from + ?, ?, to
grow.] 1. (Anat.) A marked prominence or process on any part
of a bone.
2. (bot.) An enlargement at the top of a pedicel or stem, as
seen in certain mosses.
Ap7oOplec6tic (?)(?) Ap7oOplec6ticOal (?), } a. [L.
apoplecticus, Gr. ?, fr. ?: cf. F. apoplectique. See
Apoplexy.] Relating to apoplexy; affected with, inclined to,
or symptomatic of, apoplexy; as, an apoplectic person,
medicine, habit or temperament, symptom, fit, or stroke.
Ap7oOplec6tic, n. One liable to, or affected with, apoplexy.
Ap7oOplec6tiOform (?), Ap7oOplec6toid (?), a. [Apoplectic +
Oform, Ooid.] Resembling apoplexy.
Ap6oOplex (?), n. Apoplexy. [Obs.]
Ap7oOplexed , a. Affected with apoplexy. [Obs.]

<-- p. 70 -->

Ap6oOplex7y (?), n. [OE. poplexye, LL. poplexia, apoplexia,
fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? to cripple by a stroke; ? from + ? to
strike: cf. F. apoplexie. See Plague.] (Med.) Sudden
diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and
voluntary motion, usually caused by pressure on the brain.
5 The term is now usually limited to cerebral apoplexy, or
loss of consciousness due to effusion of blood or other
lesion within the substance of the brain; but it is
sometimes extended to denote an effusion of blood into the
substance of any organ; as, apoplexy of the lung.
Ap7oOret6icOal (?), a. [Gr. ?. See Aporia.] Doubting;
skeptical. [Obs.]
X AOpo6riOa (?), n.; pl. Aporias . [L., doubt, Gr. ?, fr. ?
without passage, at a loss; ? priv. + ? passage.] (Rhet.) A
figure in which the speaker professes to be at a loss what
course to pursue, where to begin to end, what to say, etc. 
X Ap7oOro6sa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ?. See Aporia.]
(Zo.l.) A group of corals in which the coral is not porous;
P opposed to Perforata.
Ap7oOrose6 (?), a. (Zo.l.) Without pores.
AOport6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + port.] (Naut.) On or towards
the port or left side; P said of the helm.
X Ap7oOsi7oOpe6sis (?; 277), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, from ? to be
quite silent.] (Rhet.) A figure of speech in which the
speaker breaks off suddenly, as if unwilling or unable to
state what was in his mind; as, =I declare to you that his
conduct P but I can not speak of that, here.8
Ap7oOsit6ic , a. [Gr. ?; ? from + ? food.] (Med.) Destroying
the appetite, or suspending hunger.
AOpos6taOsy (?), n.; pl. Apostasies (?). [OE. apostasie, F.
apostasie, L. apostasia, fr. Gr. ? a standing off from, a
defection, fr. ? to stand off, revolt; ? from + ? to stand.
See Off and Stand.] An abandonment of what one has
voluntarily professed; a total desertion of departure from
one's faith, principles, or party; esp., the renunciation of
a religious faith; as, Julian's apostasy from Christianity.
AOpos6tate (?), n. [L. apostata, Gr. ?, fr. ?. See
Apostasy.] 1. One who has forsaken the faith, principles, or
party, to which he before adhered; esp., one who has
forsaken his religion for another; a pervert; a renegade. 
2. (R. C. Ch.) One who, after having received sacred orders,
renounces his clerical profession.
AOpos6tate, a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, apostasy;
faithless to moral allegiance; renegade.
So spake the apostate angel.
A wretched and apostate state.
AOpos6tate, v. i. [L. apostatare.] To apostatize. [Obs.]
We are not of them which apostate from Christ.
Bp. Hall.
Ap7oOstat6ic (?), a. [L. apostaticus, Gr. ?.] Apostatical.
Ap7oOstat6icOal (?), a. Apostate.
An heretical and apostatical church.
Bp. Hall.
AOpos6taOtize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Apostatized (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Apostatizing.] [LL. apostatizare.] To renounce
totally a religious belief once professed; to forsake one's
church, the faith or principles once held, or the party to
which one has previously adhered.
He apostatized from his old faith in facts, took to
believing in ?emblances.
AOpos6teOmate (?), v. i. [See Aposteme.] To form an abscess;
to swell and fill with pus.
AOpos7teOma6tion (?), n. [LL. apostematio: cf. F.
apost.mation.] (Med.) The formation of an aposteme; the
process of suppuration. [Written corruptly imposthumation.]
Ap7osOtem6aOtous (?), a. Pertaining to, or partaking of the
nature of, an aposteme.
Ap6osOteme (?), n. [L. apostema, Gr. ? the separation of
corrupt matter into an ulcer, fr. ? to stand off: cf. F.
me. See Apostasy.] (Med.) An abscess; a swelling
filled with purulent matter. [Written corruptly imposthume.]
X A7 posOte7riOo6ri (?). [L. a (ab) + posterior latter.] 1.
(Logic) Characterizing that kind of reasoning which derives
propositions from the observation of facts, or by
generalizations from facts arrives at principles and
definitions, or infers causes from effects. This is the
reverse of a priori reasoning.
2. (Philos.) Applied to knowledge which is based upon or
derived from facts through induction or experiment;
inductive or empirical.
AOpos6til (?), AOpos6tille (?), } n. [F. apostille. See
Postil.] A marginal note on a letter or other paper; an
AOpos6tle (?), n. [OE. apostle, apostel, postle, AS.
apostol, L. apostolus, fr. Gr. ? messenger, one sent forth
or away, fr. ? to send off or away; ? from + ? to send; akin
to G. stellen to set, E. stall: cf. F. ap.tre, Of. apostre,
apostle, apostele, apostole.] 1. Literally: One sent forth;
a messenger. Specifically: One of the twelve disciples of
Christ, specially chosen as his companions and witnesses,
and sent forth to preach the gospel.
He called unto him his disciples, and of them he chose
twelve, whom also he named apostles.
Luke vi. 13.
5 The title of apostle is also applied to others, who,
though not of the number of the Twelve, yet were equal with
them in office and dignity; as, =Paul, called to be an
apostle of Jesus Christ.8 1 Cor. i. 1. In Heb. iii. 1, the
name is given to Christ himself, as having been sent from
heaven to publish the gospel. In the primitive church, other
ministers were called apostles (Rom. xvi. 7).
2. The missionary who first plants the Christian faith in
any part of the world; also, one who initiates any great
moral reform, or first advocates any important belief; one
who has extraordinary success as a missionary or reformer;
as, Dionysius of Corinth is called the apostle of France,
John Eliot the apostle to the Indians, Theobald Mathew the
apostle of temperance.
3. (Civ. & Admiralty Law) A brief letter dimissory sent by a
court appealed from to the superior court, stating the case,
etc.; a paper sent up on appeals in the admiralty courts.
Wharton. Burrill.
Apostles' creed, a creed of unknown origin, which was
formerly ascribed to the apostles. It certainly dates back
to the beginning of the sixth century, and some assert that
it can be found in the writings of Ambrose in the fourth
century. P w spoon (Antiq.), a spoon of silver, with the
handle terminating in the figure of an ~. One or more were
offered by sponsors at baptism as a present to the godchild.
B. Jonson.
AOpos6tleOship (?), n. The office or dignity of an apostle.
AOpos6toOlate (?), n. [L. apostolatus, fr. apostolus. See
Apostle.] 1. The dignity, office, or mission, of an apostle;
Judas had miscarried and lost his apostolate.
Jer. Taylor.
2. The dignity or office of the pope, as the holder of the
apostolic see.
Ap7osOtol6ic (?), Ap7osOtol6icOal (?), } a. [L. apostolicus,
Gr. ?: cf. F. apostolique.] 1. Pertaining to an apostle, or
to the apostles, their times, or their peculiar spirit; as,
an apostolical mission; the apostolic age.
2. According to the doctrines of the apostles; delivered or
taught by the apostles; as, apostolic faith or practice.
3. Of or pertaining to the pope or the papacy; papal.
Apostolical brief. See under Brief. P Apostolic canons, a
collection of rules and precepts relating to the duty of
Christians, and particularly to the ceremonies and
discipline of the church in the second and third centuries.
P Apostolic church, the Christian church; P so called on
account of its apostolic foundation, doctrine, and order.
The churches of Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem
were called apostolic churches. P Apostolic constitutions,
directions of a nature similar to the apostolic canons, and
perhaps compiled by the same authors or author. P Apostolic
fathers, early Christian writers, who were born in the first
century, and thus touched on the age of the apostles. They
were Polycarp, Clement, Ignatius, and Hermas; to these
Barnabas has sometimes been added. P Apostolic king (or
majesty), a title granted by the pope to the kings of
Hungary on account of the extensive propagation of
Christianity by St. Stephen, the founder of the royal line.
It is now a title of the emperor of Austria in right of the
throne of Hungary. P Apostolic see, a see founded and
governed by an apostle; specifically, the Church of Rome; P
so called because, in the Roman Catholic belief, the pope is
the successor of St. Peter, the prince of the apostles, and
the only apostle who has successors in the apostolic office.
P Apostolical succession, the regular and uninterrupted
transmission of ministerial authority by a succession of
bishops from the apostles to any subsequent period.
Ap7osOtol6ic, n. [L. apostolicus.] (Eccl. Hist.) A member of
one of certain ascetic sects which at various times
professed to imitate the practice of the apostles.
Ap7osOtol6icOalOly, adv. In an apostolic manner.
Ap7osOtol6icOalOness, n. Apostolicity.
Dr. H. More.
Ap7osOtol6iOcism (?), AOpos7toOlic6iOty (?), } n. The state
or quality of being apostolical.
AOpos6troOphe (?), n. [(1) L., fr. Gr. ? a turning away, fr.
? to turn away; ? from + ? to turn. (2) F., fr. L.
apostrophus ~, the turning away or omitting of a letter, Gr.
?.] 1. (Rhet.) A figure of speech by which the orator or
writer suddenly breaks off from the previous method of his
discourse, and addresses, in the second person, some person
or thing, absent or present; as, Milton's apostrophe to
Light at the beginning of the third book of =Paradise Lost.8
2. (Gram.) The contraction of a word by the omission of a
letter or letters, which omission is marked by the character
['] placed where the letter or letters would have been; as,
call'd for called.
3. The mark ['] used to denote that a word is contracted (as
in ne'er for never, can't for can not), and as sign of the
possessive, singular and plural; as, a boy's hat, boys'
hats. In the latter use it originally marked the omission of
the letter e.
The ~ is used to mark the plural of figures and letters; as,
two 10's and three a's. It is also employed to mark the
close of a quotation.
Ap7osOtroph6ic (?), a. Pertaining to an apostrophe,
grammatical or rhetorical.
AOpos6troOphize (?), v. t., [imp. & p. p. Apostrophized (?);
p. pr. & vb. n. Apostrophizing.] 1. To address by
2. To contract by omitting a letter or letters; also, to
mark with an apostrophe (') or apostrophes.
AOpos6troOphize, v. i. To use the rhetorical figure called
Ap6osOtume (?), n. See Aposteme. [Obs.]
Ap7oOtac6tite (?), n. [LL. pl. apotactitae, Gr. ?, fr. ? set
apart; ? from + ? to arrange, ordain.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of
a sect of ancient Christians, who, in supposed imitation of
the first believers, renounced all their possessions.
AOpot6eOlesm (?), n. [See Apotelesmatic.] 1. The result or
issue. [Obs.]
2. (Astrol.) The calculation and explanation of a nativity.
Ap7oOtel7esOmat6ic (?), a. [Gr. ?, fr. ? effect of the stars
on human destiny, fr. ? to complete; ? from + ? to end, ?
end.] 1. Relating to the casting of horoscopes. [Archaic]
2. Relating to an issue of fulfillment.
In this way a passage in the Old Testament may have, or
rather comprise, an apotelesmatic sense, i. e, one of after
or final accomplishment.
M. Stuart.
AOpoth6eOcaOry (?), n.; pl. Apothecaries . [OE. apotecarie,
fr. LL. apothecarius, fr. L. apotheca storehouse, Gr. ?, fr.
? to pu? away; ? from + ? to put: cf. F. apothicaire, OF.
apotecaire. See Thesis.] One who prepares and sell? drugs or
compounds for medicinal purposes. 
5 In England an ~ is one of a privileged class of
practitioners P a kind of subP physician. The surgeon ~ is
the ordinary family medical attendant. One who sells drugs
and makes up prescriptions is now commonly called in England
a druggist or a pharmaceutical chemist.
Apothecaries' weight, the system of weights by which medical
prescriptions were formerly compounded. The pound and ounce
are the same as in Troy weight; they differ only in the
manner of subdivision. The ounce is divided into 8 drams, 24
scruples, 480 grains. See Troy weight.
X Apo7Othe6ciOum , n.; pl. Apothecia (?). [NL.] (Bot.) The
ascigerous fructification of lichens, forming masses of
various shapes.
Ap6oOthegm, Ap6ophOthegm } (?), n. [Gr. ? thing uttered,
apothegm, from ? to speak out; ? from + ? to speak.] A
short, pithy, and instructive saying; a terse remark,
conveying some important truth; a sententious precept or
maxim. [Apothegm is now the prevalent spelling in the United
Ap7oOthegOmat6ic (?), Ap7oOthegOmat6icOal (?), } a. Gr. ?.]
Pertaining to, or in the manner of, an apotghem;
sententious; pithy.
Ap7oOtheg6maOtist (?), n. A collector or maker of apothegms.
Ap7oOtheg6maOtize (?), v. i. To utter apothegms, or short
and sententious sayings.
Ap6oOthem (?), n. [Gr. ? + ? that which is placed, ? to
place.] 1. (Math.) The perpendicular from the center to one
of the sides of a regular polygon.
2. A deposit formed in a liquid extract of a vegetable
substance by exposure to the air.
Ap7oOthe6oOsis (?; 277), n. pl. Apotheoses (?). [L., fr. Gr.
?, fr. ? to deify; ? from + ? to deify, ? a god.] 1. The act
of elevating a mortal to the rank of, and placing him among,
=the gods;8 deification.
2. Glorification; exaltation. =The apotheosis of chivalry.8
Prescott. =The noisy apotheosis of liberty and machinery.8
F. Harrison.
Ap7oOthe6oOsize (?), v. t. To exalt to the dignity of a
deity; to declare to be a god; to deify; to glorify.
X AOpoth6eOsis (?), n. [Gr. ? a putting back or away, fr. ?.
See Apothecary.] (Arch.) (a) A place on the south side of
the chancel in the primitive churches, furnished with
shelves, for books, vestments, etc. Weale. (b) A dressing
room connected with a public bath.
X AOpot6oOme (?), n. [Gr. ? a cutting off, fr. ? to cut off;
? from + ? to cut.] 1. (Math.) The difference between two
quantities commensurable only in power, as between ?2 and 1,
or between the diagonal and side of a square.
2. (Mus) The remaining part of a whole tone after a smaller
semitone has been deducted from it; a major semitone. [Obs.]
Ap6oOzem (?), n. [L. apozema, Gr. ?, fr. ? to extract by
boiling; ? from + ? boil.] (Med.) A decoction or infusion.
Ap7oOzem6icOal (?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, a
decoction. [Obs.]
J. Whitaker.
ApOpair6 (?), v. t. & i. [OF. empeirier, F. empire. See
Impair.] To impair; to grow worse. [Obs.]
Ap7paOla6chiOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to a chain of
mountains in the United States, commonly called the
Allegheny mountains.
5 The name Appalachian was given to the mountains by the
Spaniards under De Soto, who derived it from the heighboring
Am. Cyc.
ApOpall6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appalled (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Appalling.] [OF. appalir to grow pale, make pale; a (L.
ad) + p.lir to grow pale, to make pale, p.le pale. See Pale,
a., and cf. Pall.] 1. To make pale; to blanch. [Obs.]
The answer that ye made to me, my dear,...
Hath so appalled my countenance.
2. To weaken; to enfeeble; to reduce; as, an old appalled
wight. [Obs.]
Whine, of its own nature, will not congeal and freeze, only
it will lose the strength, and become appalled in extremity
of cold.
3. To depress or discourage with fear; to impress with fear
in such a manner that the mind shrinks, or loses its
firmness; to overcome with sudden terror or horror; to
dismay; as, the sight appalled the stoutest heart.
The house of peers was somewhat appalled at this alarum.

Syn. - To dismay; terrify; daunt; frighten; affright; scare;
depress. See Dismay.
ApOpall6, v. i. 1. To grow faint; to become weak; to become
dismayed or discouraged. [Obs.]
2. To lose flavor or become stale. [Obs.]
ApOpall6, n. Terror; dismay. [Poet.]
ApOpall6ing, a. Such as to appall; as, an appalling
accident. P ApOpall6ingOly, adv.
ApOpall6ment (?), n. Depression occasioned by terror;
dismay. [Obs.]
Ap6paOnage (?), n. [F. apanage, fr. OF. apaner to nourish,
support, fr. LL. apanare to furnish with bread, to
provision; L. ad + pains bread.] 1. The portion of land
assigned by a sovereign prince for the subsistence of his
younger sons.
2. A dependency; a dependent territory.

<-- p. 71 -->

3. That which belongs to one by custom or right; a natural
adjunct or accompaniment. =Wealth... the appanage of wit.8
ApOpan6aOgist (?), n. [F. apanagiste.] A prince to whom an
appanage has been granted.
ApOpal6ailOlyng (?), n. [See Apparel, n. & v.] Preparation.

Ap6paOratus (?), n.; pl. Apparatus, also rarely Apparatuses
(?). [L., from apparare, apparatum, to prepare; ad + prepare
to make ready.] 1. Things provided as means to some end.
2. Hence: A full collection or set of implements, or
utensils, for a given duty, experimental or operative; any
complex instrument or appliance, mechanical or chemical, for
a specific action or operation; machinery; mechanism.
3. (Physiol.) A collection of organs all of which unite in a
common function; as, the respiratory apparatus.
ApOpar6el (?), n. [OE. apparel, apareil, OF. apareil,
appareil, preparation, provision, furniture, OF. apareiller
to match, prepare, F. appareiller; OF. a (L. ad) + pareil
like, similar, fr. LL. pariculus, dim. of L. par equal. See
Pair.] 1. External clothing; vesture; garments; dress; garb;
external habiliments or array.
Fresh in his new apparel, proud and young.
At public devotion his resigned carriage made religion
appear in the natural apparel of simplicity.
2. A small ornamental piece of embroidery worn on ?lbs and
some other ecclesiastical vestments.
3. (Naut.) The furniture of a ship, as masts, sails,
rigging, anchors, guns, etc.
Syn. - Dress; clothing; vesture; garments; raiment; garb;
costume; attire; habiliments.
ApOpar6el, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appareled, or Apparelled (?);
p. pr. & vb. n. Appareling, or Apparelling.] [OF.
apareiller.] 1. To make or get (something) ready; to
prepare. [Obs.]
2. To furnish with apparatus; to equip; to fit out.
Ships... appareled to fight.
3. To dress or clothe; to attire.
They which are gorgeously appareled, and live delicately,
are in kings' courts.
Luke vii. 25.
4. To dress with external ornaments; to cover with something
ornamental; to deck; to embellish; as, trees appareled with
flowers, or a garden with verdure.
Appareled in celestial light.
ApOpar6ence (?), n. [OF. aparence.] Appearance. [Obs.]
ApOpar6enOcy (?), n. 1. Appearance. [Obs.]
2. Apparentness; state of being apparent.
3. The position of being heir apparent.
ApOpar6ent (?), a. [F. apparent, L. apparens, Oentis, p. pr.
of apparere. See Appear.] 1. Capable of being seen, or
easily seen; open to view; visible to the eye; within sight
or view.
The moon... apparent queen.
2. Clear or manifest to the understanding; plain; evident;
obvious; known; palpable; indubitable.
It is apparent foul play.
3. Appearing to the eye or mind (distinguished from, but not
necessarily opposed to, true or real); seeming; as the
apparent motion or diameter of the sun.
To live on terms of civility, and even of apparent
What Berkeley calls visible magnitude was by astronomers
called apparent magnitude.
w horizon, the circle which in a level plain bounds our
view, and is formed by the ~ meeting of the earth and
heavens, as distinguished from the rational horizon. P w
time. See Time. P Heir ~ (Law), one whose to an estate is
indefeasible if he survives the ancestor; P in distinction
from presumptive heir. See Presumptive.
Syn. - Visible; distinct; plain; obvious; clear; certain;
evident; manifest; indubitable; notorious.
ApOpar6ent, n. An heir ~. [Obs.]
I'll draw it [the sword] as apparent to the crown.
ApOpar6entOly, adv. 1. Visibly. [Obs.]
2. Plainly; clearly; manifestly; evidently.
If he should scorn me so apparently.
3. Seemingly; in appearance; as, a man may be apparently
friendly, yet malicious in heart.
ApOpar6entOness, n. Plainness to the eye or the mind;
visibleness; obviousness. [R.]
Ap7paOri6tion (?), n. [F. apparition, L. apparitio, fr.
apparere. See Appear.] 1. The act of becoming visible;
appearance; visibility.
The sudden apparition of the Spaniards.
The apparition of Lawyer Clippurse occasioned much
speculation in that portion of the world.
Sir W. Scott.
2. The thing appearing; a visible object; a form.
Which apparition, it seems, was you.
3. An unexpected, wonderful, or preternatural appearance; a
ghost; a specter; a phantom. =The heavenly bands... a
glorious apparition.8

I think it is the weakness of mine eyes
That shapes this monstrous apparition.
4. (Astron.) The first appearance of a star or other
luminary after having been invisible or obscured; P opposed
to occultation.
Circle of perpetual ~. See under Circle.
Ap7paOri6tionOal (?), a. Pertaining to an apparition or to
apparitions; spectral. =An apparitional soul.8
ApOpar6iOtor (?), n. [L., fr. apparere. See Appear.] 1.
Formerly, an officer who attended magistrates and judges to
execute their orders.
Before any of his apparitors could execute the sentence, he
was himself summoned away by a sterner apparitor to the
other world.
De Quincey.
2. (Law) A messenger or officer who serves the process of an
ecclesiastical court.
X Ap7pau7m.6 (?), n. [F. appaum.; ? (l. ad) + paume the
palm, fr. L. palma.] (Her.) A hand open and extended so as
to show the palm.
ApOpay6 (?), v. t. [OF. appayer, apaier, LL. appacare,
appagare, fr. L. ad + pacare to pacify, pax, pacis, peace.
See Pay, Appease.] To pay; to satisfy or appease. [Obs.]
Sir P. Sidney.
ApOpeach6 (?), v. t. [OE. apechen, for empechen, OF.
empeechier, F. emp.cher, to hinder. See Impeach.] To
impeach; to accuse; to asperse; to inform against; to
reproach. [Obs.]
And oft of error did himself appeach.
ApOpeach6er , n. An accuser. [Obs.]
ApOpeach6ment (?), n. Accusation. [Obs.]
ApOpeal6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appealed (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Appealing.] [OE. appelen, apelen, to ~, accuse, OF.
appeler, fr. L. appellare to approach, address, invoke,
summon, call, name; akin to appellere to drive to; ad +
pellere to drive. See Pulse, and cf. Peal.] 1. (Law) (a) To
make application for the removal of (a cause) from an
inferior to a superior judge or court for a rehearing or
review on account of alleged injustice or illegality in the
trial below. We say, the cause was appealed from an
inferior court. (b) To charge with a crime; to accuse; to
institute a private criminal prosecution against for some
heinous crime; as, to appeal a person of felony.
2. To summon; to challenge. [Archaic]
Man to man will I appeal the Norman to the lists.
Sir W. Scott.
3. To invoke. [Obs.]
ApOpeal6, v. t. 1. (Law) To apply for the removal of a cause
from an inferior to a superior judge or court for the
purpose of re xamination of for decision. 
I appeal unto C.sar.
Acts xxv. 11.
2. To call upon another to decide a question controverted,
to corroborate a statement, to vindicate one's rights, etc.;
as, I appeal to all mankind for the truth of what is
alleged. Hence: To call on one for aid; to make earnest
I appeal to the Scriptures in the original.
They appealed to the sword.
ApOpeal6, n. [OE. appel, apel, OF. apel, F. appel, fr.
appeler. See Appeal, v. t.] 1. (Law) (a) An application for
the removal of a cause or suit from an inferior to a
superior judge or court for re xamination or review. (b) The
mode of proceeding by which such removal is effected. (c)
The right of ~. (d) An accusation; a process which formerly
might be instituted by one private person against another
for some heinous crime demanding punishment for the
particular injury suffered, rather than for the offense
against the public. (e) An accusation of a felon at common
law by one of his accomplices, which accomplice was then
called an approver. See Approvement.
Tomlins. Bouvier.
2. A summons to answer to a charge.
3. A call upon a person or an authority for proof or
decision, in one's favor; reference to another as witness; a
call for help or a favor; entreaty.
A kind of appeal to the Deity, the author of wonders.
4. Resort to physical means; recourse.
Every milder method is to be tried, before a nation makes an
appeal to arms.
ApOpeal6aOble (?), a. 1. Capable of being appealed against;
that may be removed to a higher tribunal for decision; as,
the cause is appealable.
2. That may be accused or called to answer by appeal; as, a
criminal is appealable for manslaughter. [Obs.]
ApOpeal6ant (?), n. An appellant. [Obs.]
ApOpeal6er (?), n. One who makes an appeal.
ApOpeal6ing, a The appeals; imploring. P ApOpeal6OingOly,
adv. P ApOpeal6ingOness, n.
ApOpear6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Appeared (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Appearing.] [OE. apperen, aperen, OF. aparoir, F.
apparoir, fr. L. appar?re to appear + par?reto come forth,
to be visible; prob. from the same root as par?re to
produce. Cf. Apparent, Parent, Peer, v. i. 1. To come or be
in sight; to be in view; to become visible.
And God... said, Let... the dry land appear.
Gen. i. 9.
2. To come before the public; as, a great writer appeared at
that time.
3. To stand in presence of some authority, tribunal, or
superior person, to answer a charge, plead a cause, or the
like; to present one's self as a party or advocate before a
court, or as a person to be tried. 
We must all appear before the judgment seat.
5 Cor. v. 10.
One ruffian escaped because no prosecutor dared to appear.
4. To become visible to the apprehension of the mind; to be
known as a subject of observation or comprehension, or as a
thing proved; to be obvious or manifest.
It doth not yet appear what we shall be.
1 John iii. 2.
Of their vain contest appeared no end.
5. To seem; to have a certain semblance; to look.
They disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to
Matt. vi. 16.
Syn. - To seem; look. See Seem.
ApOpear6, n. Appearance. [Obs.]
J. Fletcher.
ApOpear6ance (?), n. [F. apparence, L. apparentia, fr.
apparere. See Appear.] 1. The act of appearing or coming
into sight; the act of becoming visible to the eye; as, his
sudden appearance surprised me.
2. A thing seed; a phenomenon; a phase; an apparition; as,
an appearance in the sky.
3. Personal presence; exhibition of the person; look;
aspect; mien.
And now am come to see...
It thy appearance answer loud report.
4. Semblance, or apparent likeness; external show. pl.
Outward sings, or circumstances, fitted to ?nake a
particular impression or to determine the judg? ?nt as to
the character of a person or a thing, an act o? a state; as,
appearances are against him.
There was upon the tab?nacle, as it were, the appearance of
Num. ix. 15.
For man looketh on the outward appearance.
1 Sam. xvi. 7.
Judge not according to the appearance.
Jo?n. vii. 24.
5. The act of appearing in a particular place, or in
society, a company, or any proceedings; a coming before the
public in a particular character; as, a person makes his
appearance as an historian, an artist, or an orator.
Will he now retire,
After appearance, and again prolong
Our expectation?
6. Probability; likelihood. [Obs.]
There is that which hath no appearance.
7. (Law) The coming into court of either of the parties; the
being present in court; the coming into court of a party
summoned in an action, either by himself or by attorney,
expressed by a formal entry by the proper officer to that
effect; the act or proceeding by which a party proceeded
against places himself before the court, and submits to its
Burrill. Bouvier. Daniell.
To put in an ~, to be present; to appear in person. P To
save appearances, to preserve a fair outward show.
Syn. - Coming; arrival; presence; semblance;; pretense; air;
look; manner; mien; figure; aspect.
ApOpear6er (?), n. One who appears.
Sir T. Browne.
ApOpear6ingOly, adv. Apparently. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
ApOpeas6aOble (?), a. Capable of being appeased or pacified;
placable. P ApOpeas6aObleOness, n.
ApOpease6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appealed (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Appeasing.] [OE. apesen, apaisen, OF. apaisier,
apaissier, F. apaiser, fr. a (L. ad) + OF. pais peace, F.
paix, fr. L. pax, pacis. See Peace.] To make quiet; to calm;
to reduce to a state of peace; to still; to pacify; to
dispel (anger or hatred); as, to appease the tumult of the
ocean, or of the passions; to appease hunger or thirst.
Syn. - To pacify; quiet; conciliate; propitiate; assuage;
compose; calm; allay; hush; soothe; tranquilize.
ApOpease6ment (?), n. The act of appeasing, or the state of
being appeased; pacification.
ApOpeas6er (?), n. One who appeases; a pacifier.
ApOpea6sive (?), a. Tending to appease.
ApOpel6laOble (?), a. Appealable.
ApOpel6lanOcy (?), n. Capability of appeal.
ApOpel6lant (?), a. [L. appellans, p. pr. of appellare; cf.
F. appelant. See Appeal.] Relating to an appeal; appellate.
=An appellant jurisdiction.8
Party ~ (Law), the party who appeals; appellant; P opposed
to respondent, or appellee.
ApOpel6lant, n. 1. (Law) (a) One who accuses another of
felony or treason. [Obs.] b) One who appeals, or asks for a
rehearing or review of a cause by a higher tribunal.
2. A challenger. [Obs.]
3. (Eccl. Hist.) One who appealed to a general council
against the bull Unigenitus.
4. One who appeals or entreats.
ApOpel6late (?), a. [L. appelatus, p. p. of appellare.]
Pertaining to, or taking cognizance of, appeals. =Appellate
jurisdiction.8 Blackstone. =Appellate judges.8

w court, a court having cognizance of appeals.
ApOpel6late, n. A person or prosecuted for a crime. [Obs.]
See Appellee.
Ap7pelOla6tion (?), n. [L. appellatio, fr. appellare: cf. F.
appellation. See Appeal.] 1. The act of appealing; appeal.
2. The act of calling by a name.
3. The word by which a particular person or thing is called
and known; name; title; designation.
They must institute some persons under the appellation of
Syn. - See Name.
ApOpel6laOtive (?), a. [L. appellativus, fr. appellare: cf.
F. appelatif. See Appeal.] 1. Pertaining to a common name;
serving as a distinctive denomination; denominative; naming.
2. (gram.) Common, as opposed to proper; denominative of a
class ?
ApOpel6laOtive, n. [L. appelativum, sc. nomen.] 1. A common
name, distinction from a proper name. A common name, or
appellative, stands for a whole class, genus, or species of
beings, or for universal ideas. Thus, tree is the name of
all plants of a particular class; plant and vegetable are
names of things that grow out of the earth. A proper name,
on the other hand, stands for a single thing; as, Rome,
Washington, Lake Erie.
2. An appellation or title; a descriptive name.
God chosen it for one of his appellatives to be the Defender
of them.
Jer. Taylor.
ApOpel6laOtiveOly, adv. After the manner of nouns
appellative; in a manner to express whole classes or
species; as, Hercules is sometimes used appellatively, that
is, as a common name, to signify a strong man.
ApOpel6laOtiveOness, n. The quality of being appellative.
ApOpel6laOtory (?), a. [L. appellatorius, fr. appellare.]
Containing an appeal.
An appellatory libel ought to contain the name of the party
Ap7pelOlee6 , n. [F. appel., p. p. of appeler, fr. L.
appellare.] (Law) (a) The defendant in a? appeal; P opposed
to appellant. (b) The person who i? appealed against, or
accused of crime; P opposed to appellor.

<-- p. 72 -->

Ap7pelOlor (?), n. [OF. apeleur, fr. L. appellator, fr.
appellare.] (Law) (a) The person who institutes an appeal,
or prosecutes another for a crime. Blackstone. (b) One who
confesses a felony committed and accuses his accomplices.
Blount. Burrill.
5 This word is rarely or never used for the plaintiff in
appeal from a lower court, who is called the appellant.
Appellee is opposed both to appellant and appellor. 
Ap6penOage , n. See Appanage.
ApOpend6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appended; p. pr. & vb. n.
Appending.] [L. appendere or F. appendre: cf. OE. appenden,
apenden, to belong, OF. apendre, F. appendre, fr. L.
append?re, v. i., to hang to, append?re, v. t., to hang to;
ad + pend?re, v. i., to hang, pend?re, v. t., to hang. See
Pendant.] 1. To hang or attach to, as by a string, so that
the thing is suspended; as, a seal appended to a record; the
inscription was appended to the column.
2. To add, as an accessory to the principal thing; to annex;
as, notes appended to this chapter.
A further purpose appended to the primary one.
I. Taylor.
ApOpend6age , n. 1. Something appended to, or accompanying,
a principal or greater thing, though not necessary to it, as
a portico to a house.
Modesty is the appendage of sobriety.
Jer. Taylor.
2. (Biol.) A subordinate or subsidiary part or organ; an
external organ or limb, esp. of the articulates.
Antenn. and other appendages used for feeling.
Syn. - Addition; adjunct; concomitant.
ApOpend6aged , a. Furnished with, or supplemented by, an
ApOpend6ance , n. [F.] Something appendant.
ApOpend6ant , a. [F. appendant, p. pr. of appendre. See
Append, v. t.] 1. Hanging; annexed; adjunct; concomitant;
as, a seal appendant to a paper.
As they have transmitted the benefit to us, it is but
reasonable we should suffer the appendant calamity.
Jer. Taylor.
2. (Law) Appended by prescription, that is, a personal usage
for a considerable time; P said of a thing of inheritance
belonging to another inheritance which is superior or more
worthy; as, an advowson, common, etc., which may be
appendant to a manor, common of fishing to a freehold, a
seat in church to a house.
Wharton. Coke.
ApOpend6ant, n. 1. Anything attached to another as
incidental or subordinate to it. 
2. (Law) A inheritance annexed by prescription to a 
superior inheritance.
ApOpend6ence (?), ApOpend6enOcy (?), } n. State of being
appendant; appendance. [Obs.] 
ApOpend6iOcal (?), a. Of or like an appendix.
ApOpend6iOcate (?), v. t. To append. [Obs.]
ApOpend7iOca6tion (?), n. An appendage. [Obs.]
ApOpend7iOci6tis (?), n. (Med.) Inflammation of the
vermiform appendix.
ApOpend6iOcle (?), n. [L. appendicula, dim. of. appendix.] A
small appendage.
Ap7penOdic6uOlar (?), a. Relating to an appendicle;
appendiculate. [R.]
X Ap7penOdic7uOla6riOa (?), n. [NL.] (Zo.l.) A genus of
small freePswimming Tunicata, shaped somewhat like a
tadpole, and remarkable for resemblances to the larv. of
other Tunicata. It is the type of the order Copelata or
Larvalia. See Illustration in Appendix.
X Ap7penOdic7uOla6ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo.l.) An order of
annelids; the Polych?ta.
Ap7penOdic6uOlate (?), a. [See Appendicle.] Having small
appendages; forming an appendage.
Appendiculate leaf, a small appended leaf.
ApOpen6dix (?), n.; pl. E. Appendixes (?), L. Appendices
(?). [L. appendix, Odicis, fr. appendere. See Append.] 1.
Something appended or added; an appendage, adjunct, or
Normandy became an appendix to England.
Sir M. Hale.
2. Any literary matter added to a book, but not necessarily
essential to its completeness, and thus distinguished from
supplement, which is intended to supply deficiencies and
correct inaccuracies.
Syn. - See Supplement.
ApOpen6sion (?), n. The act of appending. [Obs.]
Ap7perOceive6 (?), v. t. [F. apercevoir, fr. L. ad +
percipere, perceptum, to perceive. See Perceive.] To
perceive; to comprehend.
Ap7perOcep6tion (?), n. [Pref. adO + perception: cf. F.
apperception.] (Metaph.) The mind's perception of itself as
the subject or actor in its own states; perception that
reflects upon itself; sometimes, intensified or energetic
Leibnitz. Reid.
This feeling has been called by philosophers the
apperception or consciousness of our own existence.
Sir W. Hamilton.
ApOper6il (?), n. Peril. [Obs.]
Ap7perOtain6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Appertained (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Appertaining.] [OE. apperteinen, apertenen, OF.
apartenir, F. appartenir, fr. L. appertinere; ad + pertinere
to reach to, belong. See Pertain.] To belong or pertain,
whether by right, nature, appointment, or custom; to relate.
Things appertaining to this life.
Give it unto him to whom it appertaineth.
Lev. vi. 5.
Ap7perOtain6ment , n. That which appertains to a person; an
appurtenance. [Obs. or R.]
ApOper6tiOnance (?), ApOper6tiOnence (?), } n. See
ApOper6tiOnent (?), a. Belonging; appertaining. [Now usually
written appurtenant.]
ApOper6tiOnent, n. That which belongs to something else; an
appurtenant. [Obs.]
ApOpete6 (?), v. t. [L. appetere: cf. F. app.ter. See
Appetite.] To seek for; to desire. [Obs.]

Ap6peOtence (?), n. [Cf. F. app.tence. See Appetency.] A
longing; a desire; especially an ardent desire; appetite;
Ap6peOtenOcy (?), n.; pl. Appetencies (?). [L. appetentia,
fr. appetere to strive after, long for. See Appetite.] 1.
Fixed and strong desire; esp. natural desire; a craving; an
eager appetite.
They had a strong appetency for reading.
2. Specifically: An instinctive inclination or propensity in
animals to perform certain actions, as in the young to suck,
in aquatic fowls to enter into water and to swim; the
tendency of an organized body to seek what satisfies the
wants of its organism.
These lacteal? ?ave mouths, and by animal selection or
appetency the absorb such part of the fluid as is agreeable
to their palate.
E. Darwin.
3. Natural tendency; affinity; attraction; P used of
inanimate objects.
Ap6peOtent (?), a. [L. appetens, p. pr. of appetere.]
Desiring; eagerly desirous. [R.]
Appetent after glory and renown.
Sir G. Buck.
Ap7peOtiObil6iOty (?), n. [Cf. F. app.tibilit..] The 
quality of being desirable.
Ap6peOtiOble (?), a. [L. appetibilis, fr. appetere: cf. F.
app.tible.] Desirable; capable or worthy of being the object
of desire.
Ap6peOtite (?), n. [OE. appetit, F. app.tit, fr. L.
appetitus, fr. appetere to strive after, long for; ad +
petere to seek. See Petition, and cf. Appetence.] 1. The
desire for some personal gratification, either of the body
or of the mind.
The object of appetite it whatsoever sensible good may be
wished for; the object of will is that good which reason
does lead us to seek.
2. Desire for, or relish of, food or drink; hunger.
Men must have appetite before they will eat.
3. Any strong desire; an eagerness or longing.
It God had given to eagles an appetite to swim.
Jer. Taylor.
To gratify the vulgar appetite for the marvelous.
4. Tendency; appetency. [Obs.]
In all bodies there as an appetite of union.
5. The thing desired. [Obs.]
Power being the natural appetite of princes.
5 In old authors, appetite is followed by to or of, but
regularly it should be followed by for before the object;
as, an appetite for pleasure.
Syn. - Craving; longing; desire; appetency; passion.
Ap7peOti6tion (?), n. [L. appetitio: cf. F. app.tition.]
Desire; a longing for, or seeking after, something.
Ap6peOti6tive (?), a. [Cf. F. app.titif.] Having the quality
of desiring gratification; as, appetitive power or faculty.
Sir M. Hale.
Ap6peOtize (?), v. t. To make hungry; to whet the appetite
Sir W. Scott.
Ap6peOti7zer (?), n. Something which creates or whets an
Ap6peOti7zing (?), a. [Cf. F. app.tissant.] Exciting
appetite; as, appetizing food.
The appearance of the wild ducks is very appetizing.
Sir W. Scott.
Ap6peOti7zing, adv. So as to excite appetite.
Ap6piOan (?), a. [L. Appius, Appianus.] Of or pertaining to
w Way, the great paved highway from ancient Rome trough
Capua to Brundisium, now Brindisi, constructed partly by
Appius Claudius, about 312 b. c.
ApOplaud6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Applauded; p. pr. & vb.
n. Applauding.] [L. applaudere; ad + plaudere to clash, to
clap the hands: cf. F. applaudir. Cf. Explode.] 1. To show
approval of by clapping the hands, acclamation, or other
significant sign.
I would applaud thee to the very echo,
That should applaud again.
2. To praise by words; to express approbation of; to
commend; to approve.
By the gods, I do applaud his courage.
Syn. - To praise; extol; commend; cry up; magnify; approve.
See Praise.
ApOplaud6, v. i. To express approbation loudly or
ApOplaud6er (?), n. One who applauds.
ApOplaus6aOble (?), a. Worthy pf applause; praiseworthy.
ApOplause6 (?), n. [L. applaudere, app?ausum. See Applaud.]
The act of applauding; approbation and praise publicly
expressed by clapping the hands, stamping or tapping with
the feet, acclamation, huzzas, or other means; marked
The brave man seeks not popular applause.
Syn. - Acclaim; acclamation; plaudit; commendation;
ApOplau6sive (?), a. [LL. applausivus.] Expressing applause;
approbative. P ApOplau6siveOly, adv.
Ap6ple (?), n. [OE. appel, eppel, AS. .ppel, .pl; akin to
Fries. & D. appel, OHG, aphul, aphol, G. apfel, Icel. epli,
Sw. .ple, Dan. .ble, Gael. ubhall, W. afal, Arm. aval, Lith.
ob?lys, Russ. iabloko; of unknown origin.] 1. The fleshy
pome or fruit of a rosaceous tree (Pyrus malus) cultivated
in numberless varieties in the temperate zones.
5 The European crab ~ is supposed to be the original kind,
from which all others have sprung.
2. (bot.) Any tree genus Pyrus which has the stalk sunken
into the base of the fruit; an ~ tree.
3. Any fruit or other vegetable production resembling, or
supposed to resemble, the ~; as, apple of love, or love
apple (a tomato), balsam apple, egg apple, oak apple.
4. Anything round like an apple; as, an apple of gold.
Apple is used either adjectively or in combination; as,
apple paper or applePpaper, applePshaped, apple blossom,
apple dumpling, apple pudding. 
w blight, an aphid which injures ~ trees. See Blight, n. P w
borer (Zo.l.), a coleopterous insect (Saperda candida or
bivittata), the larva of which bores into the trunk of the ~
tree and pear tree. P w brandy, brandy made from apples. P w
butter, a sauce made of apples stewed down in cider.
Bartlett. P w corer, an instrument for removing the cores
from apples. P w fly (Zo.l.), any dipterous insect, the
larva of which burrows in apples. w flies belong to the
genera Drosophila and Trypeta. P w midge (Zo.l.), a small
dipterous insect (Sciara mali), the larva of which bores in
apples. P w of the eye, the pupil. P w of discord, a subject
of contention and envy, so called from the mythological
golden ~, inscribed =For the fairest,8 which was thrown into
an assembly of the gods by Eris, the goddess of discord. It
was contended for by Juno, Minerva, and Venus, and was
adjudged to the latter. P w of love, or Love ~, the tomato
(Lycopersicum esculentum). P w of Peru, a large coarse herb
(Nicandra physaloides) bearing pale blue flowers, and a
bladderlike fruit inclosing a dry berry. P Apples of Sodom,
a fruit described by ancient writers as externally of air
appearance but dissolving into smoke and ashes plucked; Dead
Sea apples. The name is often given to the fruit of Solanum, a prickly shrub with fruit not unlike a small
yellow tomato. P w sauce, stewed apples. [U. S.] P w snail
or w shell (Zo.l.), a freshPwater, operculated, spiral shell
of the genus Ampullaria. P w tart, a tart containing ~. P w
tree, a tree naturally bears apples. See Apple, 2. P w wine,
cider. P w worm(Zo.l.), the larva of a small moth
(Carpocapsa pomonella) which burrows in the interior of
apples. See Codling moth. P Dead Sea ~. (a) pl. Apples of
Sodom. Also Fig. =To seek the Dead Sea apples of politics.8
S. B. Griffin. (b) A kind of gallnut coming from Arabia. See
Ap6ple (?), v. i. To grow like an ~; to bear apples.
Ap6plePfaced7 (?), a. Having a round, broad face, like an
apple. =ApplePfaced children.8
Ap6plePjack7 (?), n. Apple brandy. [U.S.]
Ap6plePjoin7 , n. A kind of apple which by keeping becomes
much withered; P called also Johnapple.
Ap6ple pie7 (?). A pie made of apples (usually sliced or
stewed) with spice and sugar.
ApplePpie bed, a bed in which, as a joke, the sheets are so
doubled (like the cover of an apple turnove?) as to prevent
any one from getting at his length between them. Halliwell,
Conybeare. P ApplePpie order, perfect order or arrangement.
[Colloq.] Halliwell.
Ap6plePsquire7 (?), n. A pimp; a kept gallant. [Obs.]
Beau. & Fl.
ApOpli6aOble (?), a. [See Apply.] Applicable; also,
compliant. [Obs.]
ApOpli6ance (?), n. 1. The act of applying; application;
[Obs.] subservience.
2. The thing applied or used as a means to an end; an
apparatus or device; as, to use various appliances; a
mechanical appliance; a machine with its appliances.
Ap7pliOcaObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being applicable
or fit to be applied.
Ap6pliOcaOble (?), a. [Cf. F. aplicable, fr. L. applicare.
See Apply.] Capable of being applied; fit or suitable to be
applied; having relevance; as, this observation is
applicable to the case under consideration. P
Ap6pliOcaObleOness, n. P Ap6pliOcaObly, adv.
Ap6pliOcanOcy (?), n. The quality or state of being
applicable. [R.]
Ap6pliOcant (?), n. [L. applicans, p. pr. of applicare. See
Apply.] One who apples for something; one who makes request;
a petitioner.
The applicant for a cup of water.
The court require the applicant to appear in person.
Z. Swift.
Ap6pliOcate (?), a. [L. applicatus, p. p. of applicare. See
Apply.] Applied or put to some use.
Those applicate sciences which extend the power of man over
the elements.
I. Taylor.
w number (Math.), one which applied to some concrete case. P
w ordinate, right line applied at right angles to the axis
of any conic section, and bounded by the curve.
Ap6pliOcate (?), v. i. To apply. [Obs.]
The act of faith is applicated to the object.
Bp. Pearson.
Ap7pliOca6tion (?), n. [L. applicatio, fr. applicare: cf. F.
application. See Apply.] 1. The act of applying or laying
on, in a literal sense; as, the application of emollients to
a diseased limb.
2. The thing applied.
He invented a new application by which blood might be
2. The act of applying as a means; the employment of means
to accomplish an end; specific use.
If a right course... be taken with children, there will not
be much need of the application of the common rewards and
4. The act of directing or referring something to a
particular case, to discover or illustrate agreement or
disagreement, fitness, or correspondence; as, I make the
remark, and leave you to make the application; the
application of a theory.

<-- p. 73 -->

5. Hence, in specific uses: (a) That part of a sermon or
discourse in which the principles before laid down and
illustrated are applied to practical uses; the =moral8 of a
fable. (b) The use of the principles of one science for the
purpose of enlarging or perfecting another; as, the
application of algebra to geometry.
6. The capacity of being practically applied or used;
relevancy; as, a rule of general application.
7. The act of fixing the mind or closely applying one's
self; assiduous effort; close attention; as, to injure the
health by application to study.
Had his application been equal to his talents, his progress
night have been greater.
J. Jay.
8. The act of making request of soliciting; as, an
application for an office; he made application to a court of
9. A request; a document containing a request; as, his
application was placed on file.
Ap6pliOcaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. applicatif, fr. L. applicare.
See Apply.] Having of being applied or used; applying;
applicatory; practical. Bramhall. P Ap6pliOcaOtiveOly, adv.
Ap6pliOcaOtoOriOly (?), adv. By way of application.
Ap6pliOcaOtoOry, a. Having the property of applying;
applicative; practical. P n. That which applies.
ApOpli6edOly (?), adv. By application. [R.]
ApOpli6er (?), n. He who, or that which, applies.
ApOpli6ment (?), n. Application. [Obs.]
X Ap7pli7qu.6 (?; 277), a. [F., fr. appliquer to put on.]
Ornamented with a pattern (which has been cut out of another
color or stuff) applied or transferred to a foundation; as,
appliqu. lace; appliqu. work.
ApOplot6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Applotted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Applotting.] [Pref. adO + plot.] To divide into plots or
parts; to apportion.
ApOplot6ment (?), n. Apportionment.
ApOply6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Applied (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Applying.] [OF. aplier, F. appliquer, fr. L. applicare to
join, fix, or attach to; ad + plicare to fold, to twist
together. See Applicant, Ply.] 1. To lay or place; to put or
adjust (one thing to another); P with to; as, to apply the
hand to the breast; to apply medicaments to a diseased part
of the body.
He said, and the sword his throat applied.
2. To put to use; to use or employ for a particular purpose,
or in a particular case; to appropriate; to devote; as, to
apply money to the payment of a debt.
3. To make use of, declare, or pronounce, as suitable,
fitting, or relative; as, to apply the testimony to the
case; to apply an epithet to a person.
Yet God at last
To Satan, first in sin, his doom applied.
4. To fix closely; to engage and employ diligently, or with
attention; to attach; to incline.
Apply thine heart unto instruction.
Prov. xxiii. 12.
5. To direct or address. [R.]
Sacred vows... applied to grisly Pluto.
6. To betake; to address; to refer; P used reflexively.
I applied myself to him for help.
7. To busy; to keep at work; to ply. [Obs.]
She was skillful in applying his =humors.8
Sir P. Sidney.
8. To visit. [Obs.]
And he applied each place so fast.
Applied chemistry. See under Chemistry. P Applied
mathematics. See under Mathematics.
ApOply6, v. i. 1. To suit; to agree; to have some
connection, agreement, or analogy; as, this argument applies
well to the case.
2. To make request; to have recourse with a view to gain
something; to make application. (to); to solicit; as, to
apply to a friend for information.
3. To ply; to move. [R.]
I heard the sound of an oar applying swiftly through the
T. Moore.
4. To ~ or address one's self; to give application; to
attend closely (to).
X ApOpog7giaOtu6ra (?), n. [It., fr. appogiarre to lean, to
rest; apO (L. ad) + poggiare to mount, ascend, poggio hill,
fr. L. podium an elevated place.] (Mus.) A passing tone
preceding an essential tone, and borrowing the time it
occupies from that; a short auxiliary or grace note one
degree above or below the principal note unless it be of the
same harmony; P generally indicated by a note of smaller
size, as in the illustration above. It forms no essential
part of the harmony.
ApOpoint6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appointed; p. pr. & vb.
n. Appointing.] [OE. appointen, apointen, OF. apointier to
prepare, arrange, lean, place, F. appointer to give a
salary, refer a cause, fr. LL. appunctare to bring back to
the point, restore, to fix the point in a controversy, or
the points in an agreement; L. ad + punctum a point. See
Point.] 1. To fix with power or firmness; to establish; to
mark out. 
When he appointed the foundations of the earth.
Prov. viii. 29.
2. To fix by a decree, order, command, resolve, decision, or
mutual agreement; to constitute; to ordain; to prescribe; to
fix the time and place of.
Thy servants are ready to do whatsoever my lord the king
shall appoint.
2 Sam. xv. 15.
He hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the
world in righteousness.
Acts xvii. 31.
Say that the emperor request a parley... and appoint the
2. To assign, designate, or set apart by authority.
Aaron and his shall go in, and appoint them every one to his
Num. iv. 19.
These were cities appointed for all the children of Israel,
and for the stranger that sojourneth among them.
Josh. xx. 9.
4. To furnish in all points; to provide with everything
necessary by way of equipment; to equip; to fit out.
The English, being well appointed, did so entertain them
that their ships departed terribly torn.
5. To point at by way, or for the purpose? of censure or
commendation; to arraign. [Obs.] 
Appoint not heavenly disposition.
6. (Law) To direct, designate, or limit; to make or direct a
new disposition of, by virtue of a power contained in a
conveyance; P said of an estate already conveyed.
Burrill. Kent.
To ~ one's self, to resolve. [Obs.]
ApOpoint6 (?), v. i. To ordain; to determine; to arrange.
For the Lord had appointed to defeat the good counsel of
2 Sam. xvii. 14.
ApOpoint6aOble (?), a. Capable of being appointed or
ApOpointOee6 (?), n. [F. appoint., p. p. of appointer. See
Appoint, v. t.] 1. A person appointed.
The commission authorizes them to make appointments, and pay
the appointees.
Circular of Mass. Representatives (1768).
2. (law) A person in whose favor a power of appointment is
Kent. Wharton.
ApOpoint6er (?), n. One who appoints, or executes a power of
ApOpoint6ive (?), a. Subject to appointment; as, an
appointive office. [R.]
ApOpoint6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. appointement.] 1. The act of
appointing; designation of a person to hold an office or
discharge a trust; as, he erred by the appointment of
unsuitable men.
2. The state of being appointed to som? service or office;
an office to which one is appointed; station; position; an,
the appointment of treasurer.
3. Stipulation; agreement; the act of fixing by mutual
agreement. Hence:: Arrangement for a meeting; engagement;
as, they made an appointment to meet at six.
4. Decree; direction; established order or constitution;
as, to submit to the divine appointments.
According to the appointment of the priests.
Ezra vi. 9.
5. (Law) The exercise of the power of designating (under a
=power of ~8) a person to enjoy an estate or other specific
property; also, the instrument by which the designation is
6. Equipment, furniture, as for a ship or an army; whatever
is appointed for use and management; outfit; (pl.) the
accouterments of military officers or soldiers, as belts,
sashes, swords.
The cavaliers emulated their chief in the richness of their
I'll prove it in my shackles, with these hands
Void of appoinment, that thou liest.
Beau. & Fl.
7. An allowance to a person, esp. to a public officer; a
perquisite; P properly only in the plural. [Obs.]
An expense proportioned to his appointments and fortune is
8. A honorary part or exercise, as an oration, etc., at a
public exhibition of a college; as, to have an appointment.
Syn. - Designation; command; order; direction;
establishment; equipment.
ApOpointOor6 (?), n. (Law) The person who selects the
appointee. See Appointee, 2.
ApOpor6ter (?), n. [Cf. F. apporter to bring in, fr. L.
apportare; ad + portare to bear.] A bringer in; an importer.
Sir M. Hale.
ApOpor6tion (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Apportioned (?); p. pr.
& vb. n. Apportioning.] [OF. apportionner, LL. apportionare,
fr. L. ad + portio. See Portion.] To divide and assign in
just proportion; to divide and distribute proportionally; to
portion out; to allot; as, to apportion undivided rights; to
apportion time among various employments.
ApOpor6tionOateOness (?), n. The quality of being
apportioned or in proportion. [Obs. & R.]
ApOpor6tionOer (?), n. One who apportions.
ApOpor6tionOment (?), n. [Cf. F. apportionnement, LL.
apportionamentum.] The act of apportioning; a dividing into
just proportions or shares; a division or shares; a division
and assignment, to each proprietor, of his just portion of
an undivided right or property.
A. Hamilton.
ApOpose6 (?), v. t. [F. apposer to set to; ? (L. ad) + poser
to put, place. See Pose.] 1. To place opposite or before; to
put or apply (one thing to another).
The nymph herself did then appose,
For food and beverage, to him all best meat.
2. To place in juxtaposition or proximity.
ApOpose6, v. t. [For oppose. See Oppose.] To put questions
to; to examine; to try. [Obs.] See Pose.
To appose him without any accuser, and that secretly.
ApOposed6 (?), a. Placed in apposition; mutually fitting, as
the mandibles of a bird's beak.
ApOpos6er (?), n. An examiner; one whose business is to put
questions. Formerly, in the English Court of Exchequer, an
officer who audited the sheriffs' accounts.
Ap6poOsite (?), a. [L. appositus, p. p. of apponere to set
or put to; ad + ponere to put, place.] Very applicable; well
adapted; suitable or fit; relevant; pat; P followed by to;
as, this argument is very apposite to the case. P
Ap6poOsiteOly, adv. P Ap6poOsiteOness, n.
Ap7poOsi6tion (?), n. [L. appositio, fr. apponere: cf. F.
apposition. See Apposite.] 1. The act of adding;
application; accretion.
It grows... by the apposition of new matter.
2. The putting of things in juxtaposition, or side by side;
also, the condition of being so placed.
3. (Gram.) The state of two nouns or pronouns, put in the
same case, without a connecting word between them; as, I
admire Cicero, the orator. Here, the second noun explains or
characterizes the first.
Growth by ~ (Physiol.), a mode of growth characteristic of
non vascular tissues, in which nutritive matter from the
blood is transformed on the surface of an organ into solid
unorganized substance.
Ap7poOsi6tionOal (?), a. Pertaining to apposition; put in
apposition syntactically.
ApOpos6iOtive (?), a. Of or relating to apposition; in
apposition. P n. A noun in apposition. P ApOpos6iOtiveOly,
Appositive to the words going immediately before.
ApOprais6aOble (?), a. Capable of being appraised.
ApOprais6al (?), n. [See Appraise. Cf. Apprizal.] A
valuation by an authorized person; an appraisement.
ApOpraise6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appraised (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Appraising.] [Pref. adO + praise. See Praise, Price,
Apprize, Appreciate.] 1. To set a value; to estimate the
worth of, particularly by persons appointed for the purpose;
as, to appraise goods and chattels.
2. To estimate; to conjecture.
Enoch... appraised his weight.
3. To praise; to commend. [Obs.]
R. Browning.
Appraised the Lycian custom.
5 In the United States, this word is often pronounced, and
sometimes written, apprize.
ApOpraise6ment (?), n. [See Appraise. Cf. Apprizement.] The
act of setting the value; valuation by an appraiser;
estimation of worth.
ApOprais6er (?), n. [See Appraise, Apprizer.] One who
appraises; esp., a person appointed and sworn to estimate
and fix the value of goods or estates.
Ap7preOca6tion , n. [L. apprecari to pray to; ad + precari
to pray, prex, precis, prayer.] Earnest prayer; devout wish.
A solemn apprecation of good success.
Bp. Hall.
Ap6preOcaOtoOry (?), a. Praying or wishing good.
[Obs.]=Apprecatory benedictions.8 
Bp. Hall.
ApOpre6ciOaOble (?), a. [Cf. F. appr.ciable.] Capable of
being appreciated or estimated; large enough to be
estimated; perceptible; as, an appreciable quantity. P
ApOpre6ciOaObly, adv.
ApOpre6ciOant (?), a. Appreciative. [R.]
ApOpre6ciOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appreciated; p. pr. &
vb. n. Appreciating.] [L. appretiatus, p. p. of appretiare
to value at a price, appraise; ad + pretiare to prize,
pretium price. Cf. Appraise.] 1. To set a price or value on;
to estimate justly; to value.
To appreciate the motives of their enemies.
2. To recognize the worth of; to esteem highly; as, I am
afraid you do not appreciate my friend.
3. To raise the value of; to increase the market price of; P
opposed to depreciate. [U.S.]
Lest a sudden peace should appreciate the money.
4. To be sensible of; to distinguish.
To test the power of b??s to appreciate color.
Syn. - To Appreciate, Estimate, Esteem. Estimate is an act
of judgment; esteem is an act of valuing or prizing, and
when applied to individuals, denotes a sentiment of moral
approbation. See Estimate. Appreciate lies between the two.
As compared with estimate, it supposes a union of
sensibility with judgment, producing a nice and delicate
perception. As compared with esteem, it denotes a valuation
of things according to their appropriate and distinctive
excellence, and not simply their moral worth. Thus, with
reference to the former of these (delicate perception), an
able writer says. =Women have a truer appreciation of
character than men;8 and another remarks, =It is difficult
to appreciate the true force and distinctive sense of terms
which we are every day using.8 So, also, we speak of the
difference between two things, as sometimes hardly
appreciable. With reference to the latter of these (that of
valuation as the result of a nice perception), we say, =It
requires a pe??liar cast of character to appreciate the
poetry of Wordsworth;8 =He who has no delicacy himself, can 
not appreciate it in others;8 =The thought of death is
salutary, because it leads us to appreciate worldly things
aright.8 Appreciate is much used in cases where something is
in danger of being overlooked or undervalued; as when we
speak of appreciating the difficulties of a subject, or the
risk of an undertaking. So Lord Plunket, referring to an
=ominous silence8 which prevailed among the Irish
peasantry, says, =If you knew now to appreciate that
silence, it is more formidable than the most clamorous
opposition.8 In like manner, a person who asks some favor of
another is apt to say, =I trust you will appreciate my
motives in this request.8 Here we have the key to a very
frequent use of the word. It is hardly necessary to say that
appreciate looks on the favorable side of things. we never
speak of appreciating a man's faults, but his merits. This
idea of regarding things favorably appears more fully in the
word appreciative; as when we speak of an appreciative
audience, or an appreciative review, meaning one that
manifests a quick perception and a ready valuation of
ApOpre6ciOate, v. i. To rise in value. [See note under Rise,
v. i.]
J. Morse.
ApOpre6ciOa7tingOly (?), adv. In an appreciating manner;
with appreciation.
ApOpre7ciOa6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. appr.ciation.] 1. A just
valuation or estimate of merit, worth, weight, etc.;
recognition of excellence.
2. Accurate perception; true estimation; as, an appreciation
of the difficulties before us; an appreciation of colors.
His foreboding showed his appreciation of Henry's character.
J. R. Green.
3. A rise in value; P opposed to depreciation.
ApOpre6ciOaOtive (?), a. Having or showing a just or ready
appreciation or perception; as, an appreciative audience. P
ApOpre6ciOaOtiveOly, adv.
ApOpre6ciOaOtiveOness, n. The quality of being appreciative;
quick recognition of excellence.
ApOpre6ciOa7tor (?), n. One who appreciates.
ApOpre6ciOaOtoOry (?), a. Showing appreciation;
appreciative; as, appreciatory commendation. P
ApOpre6ciOaOtoOriOly (?), adv.

<-- p. 74 -->

Ap7preOhend6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Apprehended; p. pr. &
vb. n. Apprehending.] [L. apprehendere; ad + prehendere to
lay hold of, seize; prae before + Ohendere (used only in
comp.); akin to Gr. ? to hold, contain, and E. get: cf. F.
appr.hender. See Prehensile, Get.] 1. To take or seize; to
take hold of. [Archaic]
We have two hands to apprehended it.
Jer. Taylor.
2. Hence: To take or seize (a person) by legal process; to
arrest; as, to apprehend a criminal.
3. To take hold of with the understanding, that is, to
conceive in the mind; to become cognizant of; to understand;
to recognize; to consider.
This suspicion of Earl Reimund, though at first but a buzz,
soon got a sting in the king's head, and he violently
apprehended it.
The eternal laws, such as the heroic age apprehended them.
4. To know or learn with certainty. [Obs.]
G. You are too much distrustful of my truth.
E. Then you must give me leave to apprehend
The means and manner how.
Beau. & Fl. 
5. To anticipate; esp., to anticipate with anxiety, dread,
or fear; to fear. 
The opposition had more reason than the king to apprehend

Syn. - To catch; seize; arrest; detain; capture; conceive;
understand; imagine; believe; fear; dread. P To Apprehend,
Comprehend. These words come into comparison as describing
acts of the mind. Apprehend denotes the laying hold of a
thing mentally, so as to understand it clearly, at least in
part. Comprehend denotes the embracing or understanding it
in all its compass and extent. We may apprehended many
truths which we do not comprehend. The very idea of God
supposes that he may be apprehended, though not
comprehended, by rational beings. =We may apprehended much
of Shakespeare's aim and intention in the character of
Hamlet or King Lear; but few will claim that they have
comprehended all that is embraced in these characters.8
Ap7preOhend6, v. i. 1. To think, believe, or be of opinion;
to understand; to suppose.
2. To be apprehensive; to fear.
It is worse to apprehend than to suffer.
Ap7preOhend6er (?), n. One who apprehends.
Ap7preOhen7siObi6iOty (?), n. The quality of being
apprehensible. [R.]
De Quincey.
Ap7preOhen6siOble (?), a. [L. apprehensibilis. See
Apprehend.] Capable of being apprehended or conceived.
=Apprehensible by faith.8 Bp. Hall. P Ap7OpreOhen6siObly,
Ap7preOhen6sion (?), n. [L. apprehensio: cf. F.
appr.hension. See Apprehend.] 1. The act of seizing or
taking hold of; seizure; as, the hand is an organ of
Sir T. Browne.
2. The act of seizing or taking by legal process; arrest;
as, the felon, after his apprehension, escaped. 
3. The act of grasping with the intellect; the contemplation
of things, without affirming, denying, or passing any
judgment; intellection; perception.
Simple apprehension denotes no more than the soul's naked
intellection of an object.
4. Opinion; conception; sentiment; idea.
5 In this sense, the word often denotes a belief, founded on

ApOprize6 , v. t. [The same as Appraise, only more
accommodated to the English form of the L. pretiare.] To
appraise; to value; to appreciate. 
ApOprize6ment , n. Appraisement.
ApOpriz6er , n. 1. An appraiser.
2. (Scots Law) A creditor for whom an appraisal is made.
Sir W. Scott.
ApOproach6 , v. i. [imp. & p. p. Approached ; p. pr. & vb.
n. Approaching.] [OE. approchen, aprochen, OF. approcher,
LL. appropriare, fr. L. ad + propiare to draw near, prope
near.] 1. To come or go near, in place or time; to draw
?igh; to advance nearer. 
Wherefore approached ye so nigh unto the city?
2 Sam. xi. 20.
But exhorting one another; and so much the more, as ye see
the day approaching.
Heb. x. 25. 
2. To draw near, in a figurative sense; to make advances; to
approximate; as, he approaches to the character of the
ablest statesman.
ApOproach6, v. t. 1. To bring near; to cause to draw near;
to advance. [Archaic]
2. To come near to in place, time, or character; to draw
nearer to; as, to approach the city; to approach my cabin;
he approached the age of manhood.
He was an admirable poet, and thought even to have
approached Homer.
3. (Mil.) To take approaches to.
ApOproach6, n. [Cf. F. approche. See Approach, v. i.] 1. The
act of drawing near; a coming or advancing near. =The
approach of summer.8
A nearer approach to the human type.
2. A access, or opportunity of drawing near.
The approach to kings and principal persons.
3. pl. Movements to gain favor; advances.
4. A way, passage, or avenue by which a place or buildings
can be approached; an access.
5. pl. (Fort.) The advanced works, trenches, or covered
roads made by besiegers in their advances toward a fortress
or military post. 
6. (Hort.) See Approaching.
ApOproach7aObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being
approachable; approachableness. 
ApOproach6aOble (?), a. Capable of being approached;
accessible; as, approachable virtue.
ApOproach6aObleOness, n. The quality or state of being
approachable; accessibility.
ApOproah6er (?), n. One who approaches.
ApOproach6ing, n. (Hort.) The act of ingrafting a sprig or
shoot of one tree into another, without cutting it from the
parent stock; P called, also, inarching and grafting by
ApOproach6less, a. Impossible to be approached.
ApOproach6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. approachement.] Approach.
Ap6proObate (?), a. [L. approbatus, p. p. of approbare to
approve.] Approved. [Obs.]
Ap6proObate (?), v. t. To express approbation of; to
approve; to sanction officially.
I approbate the one, I reprobate the other.
Sir W. Hamilton.
5 This word is obsolete in England, but is occasionally
heard in the United States, chiefly in a technical sense for
license; as, a person is approbated to preach; approbated to
keep a public house.
Pickering (1816).
Ap7proOba6tion (?), n. [L. approbatio: cf. F. approbation.
See Approve to prove.] 1. Proof; attestation. [Obs.]
2. The act of approving; an assenting to the propriety of a
thing with some degree of pleasure or satisfaction;
approval; sanction; commendation.
Many... joined in a loud hum of approbation.
The silent approbation of one's own breast.
Animals... love approbation or praise.
3. Probation or novitiate. [Obs.]
This day my sister should the cloister enter,
And there receive her approbation.
Syn. - Approval; liking; sanction; consent; concurrence. P
Approbation, Approval. Approbation and approval have the
same general meaning, assenting to or declaring as good,
sanction, commendation; but approbation is stronger and more
positive. =We may be anxious for the approbation of our
friends; but we should be still more anxious for the
approval of our own consciences.8 =He who is desirous to
obtain universal approbation will learn a good lesson from
the fable of the old man and his ass.8 =The work has been
examined by several excellent judges, who have expressed
their unqualified approval of its plan and execution.8 
Ap6proObaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. approbatif.] Approving, or
implying approbation.
Ap6proObaOtiveOness, n. 1. The quality of being approbative.
2. (Phren.) Love of approbation.
Ap6proOba7tor (?), n. [L.] One who approves. [R.]
Ap6proOba7toOry (?), a. Containing or expressing
approbation; commendatory.
ApOpromt6 (?; 215), v. t. [Pref. adO + promt.] To quicken;
to prompt. [Obs.]
To appromt our invention.
ApOproof6 (?), n. [See Approve, and Proof.] 1. Trial; proof.
2. Approval; commendation.
Ap7proOpin6quate (?), v. i. [L. appropinquatus, p. p. of
appropinquare; ad + prope near.] To approach. [Archaic]
Ld. Lytton.
Ap7proOpinOqua6tion (?), n. [L. appropinquatio.] A drawing
nigh; approach. [R.]
Bp. Hall.
Ap7proOpin6quiOty (?), n. [Pref. adO + propinquity.]
Nearness; propinquity. [R.]
J. Gregory.
ApOpro6pre (?), v. t. [OE. appropren, apropren, OF.
approprier, fr. L. appropriare. See Appropriate.] To
appropriate. [Obs.]
ApOpro6priOaOble (?), a. [See Appropriate.] Capable of being
appropriated, set apart, sequestered, or assigned
exclusively to a particular use.
Sir T. Browne.
ApOpro6priOaOment (?), n. What is peculiarly one's own;
peculiar qualification.[Obs.]
If you can neglect
Your own appropriaments.
ApOpro6priOate (?), a. [L. appropriatus, p. p. of
appropriare; ad + propriare to appropriate, fr. proprius
one's own, proper. See Proper.] Set apart for a particular
use or person. Hence: Belonging peculiarly; peculiar;
suitable; fit; proper.
In its strict and appropriate meaning.
Appropriate acts of divine worship.
It is not at all times easy to find words appropriate to
express our ideas.
ApOpro6priOat? (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appropriated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Appropriating (?).] 1. To take to one's self in
exclusion of others; to claim or use as by an exclusive
right; as, let no man appropriate the use of a common
2. To set apart for, or assign to, a particular person or
use, in exclusion of all others; P with to or for; as, a
spot of ground is appropriated for a garden; to appropriate
money for the increase of the navy.
3. To make suitable; to suit. [Archaic]
4. (Eng. Eccl. Law) To annex, as a benefice, to a spiritual
corporation, as its property.
ApOpro6priOate (?), n. A property; attribute. [Obs.]
ApOpro6priOateOly, adv. In an appropriate or proper manner;
fitly; properly.
ApOpro6priOateOness, n. The state or quality of being
appropriate; peculiar fitness.
ApOpro7priOa6tion (?), n. [L. appropriatio: cf. F.
appropriation.] 1. The act of setting apart or assigning to
a particular use or person, or of taking to one's self, in
exclusion of all others; application to a special use or
purpose, as of a piece of ground for a park, or of money to
carry out some object.
2. Anything, especially money, thus set apart.
The Commons watched carefully over the appropriation.
3. (Law) (a) The severing or sequestering of a benefice to
the perpetual use of a spiritual corporation. Blackstone.
(b) The application of payment of money by a debtor to his
creditor, to one of several debts which are due from the
former to the latter.
ApOpro6priOaOtive (?), a. Appropriating; making, or tending
to, appropriation; as, an appropriative act. P
ApOpro6priOaOtiveOness, n.
ApOpro6priOa7tor (?), n. 1. One who appropriates.
2. (Law) A spiritual corporation possessed of an
appropriated benefice; also, an impropriator.
ApOprov6aOble (?), a. Worthy o? be?? approved; meritorious.
P ApOprov6aObleOness, n.
ApOprov6al (?), n. Approbation; sanction.
A censor... without whose approval n? capital sentences are
to be executed.
Syn. - See Approbation.
ApOprov6ance (?), n. Approval. [Archaic]
A parents... deign approvance.
ApOprove6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Approved (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Approving.] [OE. aproven, appreven, to prove, OF.
aprover, F. approuver, to ~, fr. L. approbare; ad + probare
to esteem as good, ~, prove. See Prove, and cf. Approbate.]
1. To show to be real or true; to prove. [Obs.]
Wouldst thou approve thy constancy? Approve
First thy obedience.
2. To make proof of; to demonstrate; to prove or show
Opportunities to approve... worth.
He had approved himself a great warrior.
'T is an old lesson; Time approves it true.
His account... approves him a man of thought.
3. To sanction officially; to ratify; to confirm; as, to
approve the decision of a courtPmartial.
4. To regard as good; to commend; to be pleased with; to
think well of; as, we approve the measured of the
5. To make or show to be worthy of approbation or
The first care and concern must be to approve himself to
5 This word, when it signifies to be pleased with, to think
favorably (of), is often followed by of.
They had not approved of the deposition of James.
They approved of the political institutions.
W. Black.
<-- p. 75 -->

ApOprove6 (?), v. t. [OF. aprouer; ? (L. ad) + a form
apparently derived fr. the pro, prod, in L. prodest it is
useful or profitable, properly the preposition pro for. Cf.
Improve.] (Eng. Law) To make profit of; to convert to one's
own profit; said esp. of waste or common land appropriated
by the lord of the manor.
ApOprov6edOly (?), adv. So as to secure approbation; in an
approved manner.
ApOprove6ment (?), n. [Obs.] 1. Approbation.
I did nothing without your approvement.
2. (Eng. Law) a confession of guilt by a prisoner charged
with treason or felony, together with an accusation of his
accomplish and a giving evidence against them in order to
obtain his own pardon. The term is no longer in use; it
corresponded to what is now known as turning king's (or
queen's) evidence in England, and state's evidence in the
United States.
Burrill. Bouvier.
ApOprove6ment, n. (Old Eng. Law) Improvement of common
lands, by inclosing and converting them to the uses of
husbandry for the advantage of the lord of the manor.
ApOprov6er (?), n. 1. One who approves. Formerly, one who
made proof or trial.
2. An informer; an accuser. [Obs.]
3.(Eng. Law) One who confesses a crime and accuses another.
See 1st Approvement, 2.
ApOprov6er, n. [See 2d Approve, v. t.] (Eng. Law) A bailiff
or steward; an agent. [Obs.]
ApOprov6ing, a. Expressing approbation; commending; as, an
approving smile. P ApOprov6ingOly, adv.
ApOprox6iOmate (?), a. [L. approximatus, p. p. of
approximare to approach; ad + proximare to come near. See
Proximate.] 1. Approaching; proximate; nearly resembling.
2. Near correctness; nearly exact; not perfectly accurate;
as, approximate results or values.
w quantities (Math.), those which are nearly, but not,
ApOprox6iOmate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Approximated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Approximating.] 1. To carry or advance near; to
cause to approach.
To approximate the inequality of riches to the level of
2. To come near to; to approach.
The telescope approximates perfection.
J. Morse.
ApOprox6iOmate, v. i. To draw; to approach.
ApOprox6iOmateOly (?), adv. With approximation; so as to
approximate; nearly.
ApOprox7iOma6tion (?). n. [Cf. F. approximation, LL.
approximatio.] 1. The act of approximating; a drawing,
advancing or being near; approach; also, the result of
The largest capacity and the most noble dispositions are but
an approximation to the proper standard and true symmetry of
human nature.
I. Taylor.
2. An approach to a correct estimate, calculation, or
conception, or to a given quantity, quality, etc.
3. (Math.) (a) A continual approach or coming nearer to a
result; as, to solve an equation by approximation. (b) A
value that is nearly but not exactly correct.
ApOprox6iOmaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. approximatif.]
Approaching; approximate. P ApOprox6iOmaOtiveOly, adv. P
ApOprox6iOmaOtiveOness, n.
ApOprox6iOma7tor (?), n. One who, or that which,
X Ap7pui6 (?), n. [F., fr. L. ad + podium foothold, Gr. ?,
dim. of ?, ?, foot.] A support or supporter; a stay; a prop.
If a be to climb trees that are of any great height, there
would be stays and appuies set to it.
Point d'appui (?). [F., a point of support.] (Mil.) (a) A
given point or body, upon which troops are formed, or by
which are marched in line or column. (b) An advantageous
defensive support, as a castle, morass, wood, declivity,
Ap6pulse (?; 277), n. [L. appulsus, fr. appellere, appulsum,
to drive to; ad + pellere to drive: cf. F. appulse.] 1. A
driving or running towards; approach; impulse; also, the act
of striking against.
In all consonants there is an appulse of the organs.
2. (Astron.) The near approach of one heavenly body to
another, or to the meridian; a coming into conjunction; as,
the appulse of the moon to a star, or of a star to the
ApOpul6sion (?), n. A driving or striking against; an
ApOpul6sive (?), a. Striking against; impinging; as, the
appulsive influence of the planets.
P. Cyc.
ApOpul6siveOly, adv. By appulsion.
ApOpur6teOnance (?), n. [OF. apurtenaunce, apartenance, F.
appartenance, LL. appartenentia, from L. appertinere. See
Appertain.] That which belongs to something else; an
adjunct; an appendage; an accessory; something annexed to
another thing more worthy; in common parlance and legal
acceptation, something belonging to another thing as
principal, and which passes as incident to it, as a right of
way, or other easement to land; a right of common to
pasture, an outhouse, barn, garden, or orchard, to a house
or messuage. In a strict legal sense, land can never pass as
an appurtenance to land.
Tomlins. Bouvier. Burrill.
Globes... provided as appurtenances to astronomy.
The structure of the eye, and of its appurtenances.
ApOpur6teOnant (?), a. [F. appartenant, p. pr. of
appartenir. See Appurtenance.] Annexed or pertaining to some
more important thing; accessory; inc?dent; as, a right of
way appurtenant to land or buildings.
Common ~. (Law) See under Common, n.
ApOpur6teOnant, n, Something which belongs or appertains to
another thing; an appurtenance.
Mysterious appurtenants and symbols of redemption.
Ap6riOcate (?), v. t. & i. [ L. apricatus, p. p. of
apricare, fr. apricus exposed to the sun, fr. aperire to
uncover, open.] To bask in the sun.
Ap7riOca6tion , n. Basking in the sun. [R.]
A6priOcot , n. [OE. apricock, abricot, F. abricot, fr. Sp.
albaricoque or Pg. albricoque, fr. Ar. albirq?q, alPburq?q.
Though the E. and F. form abricot is derived from the Arabic
through the Spanish, yet the Arabic word itself was formed
from the Gr. ?, pl. (Diosc. c. 1000) fr. L. praecoquus,
praecox, early ripe. The older E. form apricock was prob.
taken direct from Pg. See Precocious, Cook.] (Bot.) A fruit
allied to the plum, of an orange color, oval shape, and
delicious taste; also, the tree (Prunus Armeniaca of which bears this fruit. By cultivation it has been
introduced throughout the temperate zone.
A6pril (?), n. [L. Aprilis. OE. also Averil, F. Avril, fr.
L. Aprilis.] 1. The fourth month of the year.
2. Fig.: With reference to April being the month in which
vegetation begins to put forth, the variableness of its
weather, etc.
The April's her eyes; it is love's spring.
w fool, one who is sportively imposed upon by others on the
first day of w.
X A7 priOo6ri (?). [L. a (ab) + prior former.] 1. (Logic)
Characterizing that kind of reasoning which deduces
consequences from definitions formed, or principles assumed,
or which infers effects from causes previously known;
deductive or deductively. The reverse of a posteriori.
2. Presumptive; presumptively; without examination.
3.(Philos.) Applied to knowledge and conceptions assumed, or
presupposed, as prior to experience, in order to make
experience rational or possible.
A priori, that is, form these necessities of the mind or
forms of thinking, which, though first revealed to us by
experience, must yet have pre xisted in order to make
experience possible.
A7priOo6rism (?), n. [Cf. F. apriorisme.] An a priori
A7priOor6iOty (?), n. The quality of being innate in the
mind, or prior to experience; a priori reasoning.
X AOproc6ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? anus.]
(Zo.l.) A group of Turbellaria in which there is no anal
AOproc6tous (?), a.(Zo.l.) Without an anal office.
A6pron (?; 277), n. [OE. napron, OF. naperon, F. napperon,
dim. of OF. nape, F. nappe, cloth, tablecloth, LL. napa, fr.
L. mappa, napkin, table napkin. See Map.] 1. An article of
dress, of cloth, leather, or other stuff, worn on the fore
part of the body, to keep the clothes clean, to defend them
from injury, or as a covering. It is commonly tied at the
waist by strings.
2. Something which by its shape or use suggests an ~; as,
(a) The fat skin covering the belly of a goose or duck.
[Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. (b) A piece of leather, or other
material, to be spread before a person riding on an outside
seat of a vehicle, to defend him from the rain, snow, or
dust; a boot. =The weather being too hot for the apron.8
Hughes. (c) (Gun.) A leaden plate that covers the vent of a
cannon. (d) (Shipbuilding) A piece of carved timber, just
above the foremost end of the keel. Totten. (e) A platform,
or flooring of plank, at the entrance of a dock, against
which the dock gates are shut. (f) A flooring of plank
before a dam to cause the water to make a gradual descent.
(g) (Mech.) The piece that holds the cutting tool of a
planer. (h) (Plumbing) A strip of lead which leads the drip
of a wall into a gutter; a flashing. (i) (Zo.l.) The
infolded abdomen of a crab.
A6proned (?), a. Wearing an apron.
A cobbler aproned, and a parson gowned.
A6pronOful (?), n.; pl. Apronfuls (?). The quality an apron
can hold.
A6pronOless, a. Without an apron.
A6pron man7 (?). A man who wears an apron; a laboring man; a
mechanic. [Obs.]
A6pron string7 (?). The string of an apron.
To be tied to a wife's or mother's apron strings, to be
unduly controlled by a wife or mother.
He was so made that he could not submit to be tied to the
apron strings even of the best of wives.

Ap6roOsos7 (?), a. & adv. [F. ? propos; ? (L. ad) + propos
purpose, L. proposium plan, purpose, fr. proponere to
propose. See Propound.] 1. Opportunely or opportune;
seasonably or seasonable.
A tale extremely apropos.
2. By the way; to the purpose; suitably to the place or
subject; P a word used to introduce an incidental
observation, suited to the occasion? though not strictly
belonging to the narration.
Apse (?), n. pl. Apses (?). See Apsis.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A
projecting part of a building, esp. of a church, having in
the plan a polygonal or semicircular termination, and, most
often, projecting from the east end. In early churches the
Eastern ~ was occupied by seats for the bishop and clergy.
Hence: (b) The bishop's seat or throne, in ancient churches.
2. A reliquary, or case in which the relics of saints were
5 This word is also written apsis and absis.
Ap6siOdal (?), a. 1. (Astron.) Of or pertaining to the
apsides of an orbit.
2. (Arch.) Of or pertaining to the apse of a church; as, the
apsidal termination of the chancel.
Ap6siOdes (?), n. pl. See Apsis.
X Ap6sis (?), n. pl. Apsides (?). See Apse. [L. apsis,
absis, Gr. ?, ?, a tying, fastening, the hoop of a wheel,
the wheel, a bow, arch, vault, fr. ? to fasten.] 1.
(Astron.) One of the two points of an orbit, as of a planet
or satellite, which are at the greatest and least distance
from the central body, corresponding to the aphelion and
perihelion of a planet, or to the apogee and perigee of the
moon. The more distant is called the higher apsis; the
other, the lower apsis; and the line joining them, the line
of apsides.
2. (Math.) In a curve referred to polar co.rdinates, any
point for which the radius vector is a maximum or minimum.
3. (Arch.) Same as Apse.
Apt (?), a [F. apte, L. aptus, fr. obsolete apere to fasten,
to join, to fit, akin to apisci to reach, attain: cf. Gr. ?
to fasten, Skr. >pta fit, fr. >p to reach attain.]
1. Fit or fitted; suited; suitable; appropriate.
They have always apt instruments.
A river... apt to be forded by a lamb.
Jer. Taylor.
2. Having an habitual tendency; habitually liable or likely;
P used of things.
My vines and peaches... were apt to have a soot or
smuttiness upon their leaves and fruit.
This tree, if unprotected, is apt to be stripped of the
leaves by a leafPcutting ant.
3. Inclined; disposed customarily; given; ready; P used of
Apter to give than thou wit be to ask.
Beau. & Fl.
That lofty pity with which prosperous folk are apt to
remember their grandfathers.
F. Harrison.
4. Ready; especially fitted or qualified (to do something);
quick to learn; prompt; expert; as, a pupil apt to learn; an
apt scholar. =An apt wit.8
Live a thousand years,
I shall not find myself so apt to die.
I find thee apt... Now, Hamlet, hear.
Syn. - Fit; meet; suitable; qualified; ???line?; disposed;
liable; ready; quick; prompt.
Apt, v. t. [L. aptare. See Aptate.] To fit; to suit; to
adapt. [Obs.] =To apt their places.8
B. Jonson.
That our speech be apted to edification.
Jer. Taylor.
Apt6aOble (?), a. [LL. aptabilis, fr. L. aptare.] Capable of
being adapted. [Obs.]
Ap6tate (?), v. t. [L. aptatus, p. p. of aptare. See Apt.]
To make fit. [Obs.]
X Ap6teOra (?), n. pl. [NL. aptera, fr. Gr. ? without wings;
? priv. + ? wing, ? to fly.] (Zo.l.) Insects without wings,
constituting the seventh Linn.n order of insects, an
artificial group, which included Crustacea, spiders,
centipeds, and even worms. These animals are now placed in
several distinct classes and orders.
Ap6terOal (?), a. 1. (Zo.l.) Apterous.
2. (Arch.) Without lateral columns; P applied to buildings
which have no series of columns along their sides, but are
either prostyle or amphiprostyle, and opposed to peripteral.
R. Cyc.
Ap6terOan (?), n. (Zo.l.) One of the Aptera.
X ApOte6riOa (?), n. pl. [NL. See Aptera.] (Zo.l.) Naked
spaces between the feathered areas of birds. See Pteryli..
Ap6terOous (?), a. 1. (Zo.l.) Destitute of wings; apteral;
as, apterous insects.
2. (Bot.) Destitute of winglike membranous expansions, as a
stem or petiole; P opposed to atate.
X ApOter6yOges (?), n. pl. [NL. See Apteryx.] (Zo.l.) An
order of birds, including the genus Apteryx.
X Ap6teOryx (?), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ? wing. Cf. Aptera.]
(Zo.l.) A genus of New Zealand birds about the size of a
hen, with only short rudiments of wings, armed with a claw
and without a tail; the kiwi. It is allied to the gigantic
extinct moas of the same country Five species are known.
Apt6iOtude (?), n. [F. aptitude, LL. aptitudo, fr. L. aptus.
See Apt, and cf. Attitude.] 1. A natural or acquired
disposition or capacity for a particular purpose, or
tendency to a particular action or effect; as, oil has an
aptitude to burn.
He seems to have had a peculiar aptitude for the management
of irregular troops.
2. A general fitness or suitableness; adaptation.
That sociable and helpful aptitude which God implanted
between man and woman.
3. Readiness in learning; docility; aptness.
He was a boy of remarkable aptitude.
Apt7iOtu6diOnal (?), a. Suitable; fit. [Obs.]
Apt6ly (?), adv. In an apt or suitable manner; fitly;
properly; pertinently; appropriately; readily.
Apt6ness, n. 1. Fitness; suitableness; appropriateness; as,
the aptness of things to their end.
The aptness of his quotations.
J. R. Green.
<-- p. 76 -->

2. Disposition of the mind; propensity; as, the aptness of
men to follow example.
3. Quickness of apprehension; readiness in learning;
d?cility; as, an aptness to learn is more observable in some
children than in others.
4. Proneness; tendency; as, the aptness of iron to rust.
Ap6tote (?), n. [L. aptotum, Gr. ? indeclinable; ? priv. + ?
fallen, declined, ? to fall.] (Gram.) A noun which has no
distinction of cases; an indeclinable noun.
ApOtot6ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by,
aptotes; uninflected; as, aptotic languages.
X Ap6tyOchus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, fold.]
(Zo.l.) A shelly plate found in the terminal chambers of
ammonite shells. Some authors consider them to be jaws;
others, opercula.
X A6pus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?. See Apode, n.] (Zo.l.) A
genus of freshPwater phyllopod crustaceans. See Phyllopod.
Ap7yOret6ic (?), a. [Pref. a? not + pyretic.] (Med.) Without
fever; P applied to days when there is an intermission of
X Ap7yOrex6iOa (?), Ap7yOrex7y (?), } n. [NL. apyrexia, fr.
Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to be feverish, fr. ? fire: cf. F.
apyrexie.] (Med.) The absence of intermission of fever.
Ap7yOrex6iOal (?), a. (Med.) Relating to apyrexy. =Apyrexial
Brande & C.
Ap6yOrous (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? fire.] Incombustible;
capable of sustaining a strong heat without alteration of
form or properties.
X A6qua (?), n. [L. See Ewer.] Water; P a word much used in
pharmacy and the old chemistry, in various signification,
determined by the word or words annexed.
w ammoni., the aqueous solution of ammonia; liquid ammonia;
often called aqua ammonia. P w marine (?), or w marina (?).
Same as Aquamarine. P w regia (?). [L., royal water]
(Chem.), a very corrosive fuming yellow liquid consisting of
nitric and hydrochloric acids. It has the power of
dissolving gold, the =royal8 metal. P w Tofana (?), a fluid
containing arsenic, and used for secret poisoning, made by
an Italian woman named Tofana, in the middle of the 17th
century, who is said to have poisoned more than 600 persons.
Francis. P w vit. (?) [L., water of life. Cf. Eau de vie,
Usquebaugh], a name given to brandy and some other ardent
X A7qua for6tis (?). [L., strong water.] (Chem.) Nitric
acid. [Archaic]
A7quaOmaOrine6 (?), n. (Min.) A transparent, pale green
variety of beryl, used as a gem. See Beryl.
A7quaOpunc6ture (?), n. [L. aqua water, + punctura puncture,
pungere, punctum, to, prick.] (Med.) The introduction of
water subcutaneously for the relief of pain.
X Aq7uaOrelle6 (?), n. [F., fr. Ital acquerello, fr. acqua
water, L. aqua.] A design or painting in thin transparent
water colors; also, the mode of painting in such colors.
Aq7uaOrel6list (?), n. A painter in thin transparent water
AOqua6riOal (?), AOqua6riOan (?), } a. Of or performance to
an aquarium.
AOqua6riOan, n. [L. (assumed) Aquarianus, fr. aqua: cf. F.
Aquarien. See Aqua.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of
Christian in the primitive church who used water instead of
wine in the Lord's Supper.
AOqua6riOum (?), n.; pl. E. Aquariums (?), L. Aquaria (?).
[L. See Aquarius, Ewer.] An artificial pond, or a globe or
tank (usually with glass sides), in which living specimens
of aquatic animals or plants are kept.
X AOqua6riOus (?), n. [L. aquarius, adj., relating to water,
and n., a waterPcarrier, fr. aqua. See Aqua.] (Astron.) (a)
The WaterPbearer; the eleventh sign in the zodiac, which the
sun enters about the 20th of January; P so called from the
rains which prevail at that season in Italy and the East.
(b) A constellation south of Pegasus.
AOquat6ic (?), a. [L. aquaticus: cf. F. aquatique. See
Aqua.] Pertaining to water growing in water; living in,
swimming in, or frequenting the margins of waters; as,
aquatic plants and fowls.
AOquat7ic, n. 1. An ~ animal plant.
2. pl. Sports or exercises practiced in or on the water.
AOquat6icOal (?), a. Aquatic. [R.]
Aq6uaOtile (?), a. [L. aquatilis: cf. F. aquatile.]
Inhabiting the water. [R.]
Sir T. Browne.
A6quaOtint (?), A7quaOtin6ta (?), } n. [It. acquatinta dyed
water; acqua (L. aqua) water + tinto, fem. tinta, dyed. See
Tint.] A kind of etching in which spaces are bitten by the
use of aqua fortis, by which an effect is produced
resembling a drawing in water colors or India ink; also, the
engraving produced by this method.
Aq6ueOduct (?), n. [F. aqueduc, OF. aqueduct (Cotgr.), fr.
L. aquaeductus; aquae, gen. of aqua water + ductus a
leading, ducere to lead. See Aqua, Duke.] 1. A conductor,
conduit, or artificial channel for conveying water,
especially one for supplying large cities with water.
5 The term is also applied to a structure (similar to the
ancient aqueducts), for conveying a canal over a river or
hollow; more properly called an aqueduct bridge.
2. (Anat.) A canal or passage; as, the aqueduct of Sylvius,
a channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the
AOque6iOty (?), n. Wateriness. [Obs.]
A6queOous (?), a. [Cf. F. aqueux, L. aquosus, fr. aqua. See
Aqua, Aquose.] 1. Partaking of the nature of water, or
abounding with it; watery.
The aqueous vapor of the air.
2. Made from, or by means of, water.
An aqueous deposit.
w extract, an extract obtained from a vegetable substance by
steeping it in water. P w humor (Anat.), one the humors of
the eye; a limpid fluid, occupying the space between the
crystalline lens and the cornea. (See Eye.) P w rocks
(Geol.), those which are deposited from water and lie in
strata, as opposed to volcanic rocks, which are of igneous
origin; P called also sedimentary rocks.
A7queOousOness, n. Wateriness.
AOquif6erOous (?), a. [L. aqua water + Oferous.] Consisting
or conveying water or a watery fluid; as, aquiferous
vessels; the aquiferous system.
A6quiOform (?), a. [L. aqua water + Oform.] Having the form
of water.
X Aq6uiOla (?), n; pl. Aquil. (?). [L., an eagle.] 1.
(Zo.l.) A genus of eagles.
2. (Astron.) A northern constellation southerly from Lyra
and Cygnus and preceding the Dolphin; the Eagle.
w alba [L., white eagle], an alchemical name of calomel.
Brande & C.
Aq6uiOla7ted (?), a. (Her.) Adorned with eagles' heads.
Aq6uiOline (?; 277), a. [L. aquilinus, fr. aquila eagle: cf.
F. aquilin. See Eagle. ] 1. Belonging to or like an eagle.
2. Curving; hooked; prominent, like the beak of an eagle; P
applied particularly to the nose
Terribly arched and aquiline his nose.
Aq6uiOlon (?), n. [L. aquilo, Olonis: cf. F. aquilon.] The
north wind. [Obs.]
AOquip6aOrous (?), a. [L. aqua water + parere to bring
forth.] (Med.) Secreting water; P applied to certain glands.
Aq7uiOta6niOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aquitania, now
called Gascony. 
AOquose6 (?), a. [L. aquosus watery, fr. aqua. See Aqua,
Aqueous.] Watery; aqueous. [R.]
AOquos6iOty (?), n. [LL. aquositas.] The condition of being
wet or watery; wateriness.
Very little water or aquosity is found in their belly.
Ar (?), conj. Ere; before. [Obs.]
X A6ra (?), n. [L.] (Astron.) The Altar; a southern
constellation, south of the tail of the Scorpion.
X A6ra (?), n. [Native Indian name.] (Zo.l.) A name of the
great blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna), native of South
Ar6ab (?; 277), n. [Prob. ultimately fr. Heb. arabah a
desert, the name employed, in the Old Testament, to denote
the valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea. Ar. Arab, Heb. arabi,
arbi, arbim: cf. F. Arabe, L. Arabs, Gr. ?.] One of a
swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria,
Northern Africa, etc.
Street w, a homeless vagabond in the streets of a city,
particularly and outcast boy or girl.
The ragged outcasts and street Arabs who are shivering in
damp doorways.
Lond. Sat. Rev.
Ar7aObesque6 (?), n. [F. arabesque, fr. It. arabesco, fr.
Arabo Arab.] A style of ornamentation either painted,
inlaid, or carved in low relief. It consists of a pattern in
which plants, fruits, foliage, etc., as well as figures of
men and animals, real or imaginary, are fantastically
interlaced or put together.
5 It was employed in Roman imperial ornamentation, and
appeared, without the animal figures, in Moorish and Arabic
decorative art. (See Moresque.) The arabesques of the
Renaissance were founded on GrecoPRoman work.
Ar7aObesque6, a. 1. Arabian. [Obs.]
2. Relating to, or exhibiting, the style of ornament called
arabesque; as, arabesque frescoes.
Ar7aObesqued6 (?), a. Ornamented in the style of arabesques.
AOra6biOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Arabia or its
w bird, the phenix.
AOra6biOan, n. A native of Arabia; an Arab.
Ar6aObic (?), a. [L. Arabicus, fr. Arabia.] Of or pertaining
to Arabia or the Arabians.
w numerals or figures, the nine digits, 1, 2, 3, etc., and
the cipher 0. P Gum ~. See under Gum.
Ar6aObic, n. The language of the Arabians.
5 The Arabic is a Semitic language, allied to the Hebrew. It
is very widely diffused, being the language in which all
Mohammedans must read the Koran, and is spoken as a
vernacular tongue in Arabia, Syria, and Northern Africa.
AOrab6icOal (?), a. Relating to Arabia; Arabic. P
AOrab6icOalOly, adv.
Ar6aObin (?), n. 1. (Chem.) A carbohydrate, isomeric with
cane sugar, contained in gum arabic, from which it is
extracted as a white, amorphous substance.
2. Mucilage, especially that made of gum arabic.
Ar6aObinOose7 (?), n. (Chem.) A sugar of the composition
C5H10O5, obtained from cherry gum by boiling it with dilute
sulphuric acid.
Ar6aObism (?), n. [Cf. F. Arabisme.] An Arabic idiom
peculiarly of language.
Ar7aObist (?), n. [Cf. F. Arabiste.] One well versed in the
Arabic language or literature; also, formerly, one who
followed the Arabic system of surgery.
Ar6aOble (?), a. [F. arable, L. arabilis, fr. arare to plow,
akin to Gr. ?, E. ear, to plow. See Earable.] Fit for
plowing or tillage; P hence, often applied to land which has
been plowed or tilled.
Ar6aOble, n. w land; plow land.
Ar6aOby (?), n. The country of Arabia. [Archaic & Poetic]
X Ar7aOcaOnese6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aracan, a
province of British Burmah. P n. sing. & pl. A native or
natives of Aracan.
X A7raO?a6ri (?), n. (Zo.l.) A South American bird, of the
genus Pleroglossius, allied to the toucans. There are
several species.
AOrace6 (?), v. t. [OE. aracen, arasen, OF. arachier,
esracier, F. arracher, fr. L. exradicare, eradicare. The
prefix aO is perh. due to L. ab. See Eradicate.] To tear up
by the roots; to draw away. [Obs.]
AOra6ceous (?), a. [L. arum a genus of plants, fr. Gr. ?.]
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to an order of plants, of which the
genus Arum is the type.
AOrach6nid (?), n. An arachnidan.
X AOrach6niOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? spider.] (Zo.l.)
One of the classes of Arthropoda. See Illustration in
5 They have four pairs of legs, no antenn. nor wings, a pair
of mandibles, and one pair of maxill. or palpi. The head is
usually consolidated with the thorax. The respiration is
either by tranche. or by pulmonary sacs, or by both. The
class includes three principal orders: Araneina, or spiders;
Arthrogastra, including scorpions, etc.; and Acarina, or
mites and ticks.
AOrach6niOdan (?), n. [Gr. ? spider.] (Zo.l.) One of the
Ar7achOnid6iOal (?), a. (Zo.l.) (a) Of or pertaining to the
Arachnida. (b) Pertaining to the arachnidium.
X Ar7achOnid6iOum (?), n. [NL. See Arachnida.] (Zo.l.) The
glandular organ in which the material for the web of spiders
is secreted.
X Ar7achOni6tis (?), n. [Gr. ? + ?.] (Med.) Inflammation of
the arachnoid membrane.
AOrach6noid (?), a. [Gr. ? like a cobweb; ? spider, spider's
web + ? form.] 1. Resembling a spider's web; cobweblike.
2. (Anat.) Pertaining to a thin membrane of the brain and
spinal cord, between the dura mater and pia mater.
3. (Bot.) Covered with, or composed of, soft, loose hairs or
fibers, so as to resemble a cobweb; cobwebby.
AOrach6noid, n. 1. (Anat.) The ~ membrane.
2. (Zo.l.) One of the Arachnoidea. 
Ar7achOnoid6al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the arachnoid
membrane; arachnoid.
X Ar7achOnoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo.l.) Same as
AOrach7noOlog6icOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to arachnology.
Ar7achOnol6oOgist (?), n. One who is versed in, or studies,
Ar7achOnol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? spider + Ology.] The
department of zo.logy which treats of spiders and other
A7r.Oom6eOter (?; 277). See Areometer.
AOr.6oOstyle (?), a. & n. [L. araeostylos, Gr. ?; ? at
intervals + ? pillar, column.] (Arch.) See
AOr.7oOsys6tyle (?), a. & n. [Gr. ? as intervals + ?. See
Systyle.] (Arch.) See Intercolumniation.
Ar7aOgoOnese (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aragon, in Spain,
or to its inhabitants. P n. sing. & pl. A native or natives
of Aragon, in Spain.
AOrag6oOnite (?), n. [From Aragon, in Spain.] (Min.) A
mineral identical in composition with calcite or carbonate
of lime, but differing from it in its crystalline form and
some of its physical characters.
X A7raOgua6to (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo.l.) A South
American monkey, the ursine howler (Mycetes ursinus). See
Howler, n., 2.
AOraise66 (?), v. t. To raise. [Obs.]
Ar6ak (?), n. Same as Arrack., Ar7aOme6an } (?), a. [L. Aramaeus, Gr. ?, fr.
Heb. Ar>m, i. e. Highland, a name given to Syria and
Mesopotamia.] Of or pertaining to the Syrians and Chaldeans,
or to their language; Aramaic. P n. A native of Aram.
Ar7aOma6ic (?), a. [See, a.] Pertaining to Aram, or
to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of
Syria and Mesopotamia;; P specifically applied to
the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages,
including Syriac and Chaldee. P n. The Aramaic language.
Ar7aOma6ism (?), n. An idiom of the Aramaic.
X Ar7aOne6iOda (?), X Ar7aOneOoid6eOa (?), } n. pl. [NL.]
(Zo.l.) See Araneina.
Ar7aOne6iOdan (?), a. (Zo.l.) Of or pertaining to the
Araneina or spiders. P n. One of the Araneina; a spider.
Ar7aOne6iOform (?)(?) a. [L. aranea spider + Oform.] (Zo.l.)
Having the form of a spider.
X AOra7neOi6na (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. aranea spider.]
(Zo.l.) The order of Arachnida that includes the spiders.
5 They have mandibles, modified a poison fa?gs, leglike
palpi, simple eyes, abdomen without segments, and spinnerets
for spinning a web. They breathe by pulmonary sacs and
trache. in the abdomen. See Illustration in Appendix.
AOra6neOose7 , a. [L. araneous.] Of the aspect of a spider's
web; arachnoid.
AOra6neOous (?), a. [L. araneosus, fr. aranea spider,
spider6s web.] Cobweblike; extremely thin and delicate, like
a cobweb; as, the araneous membrane of the eye. See

<-- p. 77 -->

X AOran6go (?), n. pl. Arangoes (?). [The native name.] A
bead of rough carnelian. Arangoes were formerly imported
from Bombay for use in the African slave trade.
X A7raOpai6ma (?), n. [Prob. native name.] (Zo.l.) A large
freshPwater food fish of South America.
X AOra6ra (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo.l.) The palm (or great
black) cockatoo, of Australia (Microglossus aterrimus).
AOra6tion (?), n. [L. aratio, fr. arare to plow.] Plowing;
tillage. [R.]
Lands are said to be in a state of aration when they are
under tillage.
Ar6aOtoOry (?), a. [LL. aratorius: cf. F. aratoire.]
Contributing to tillage.
X Ar7auOca6riOa (?), n. [Araucania, a territory south of
Chili.] (Bot.) A genus of tall conifers of the pine family.
The species are confined mostly to South America and
Australia. ?he wood cells differ from those of other in
having the dots in their lateral surfaces in two or three
rows, and the dots of contiguous rows alternating. The seeds
are edible.
Ar7auOca6riOan (?), a. Relating to, or of the nature of, the
Araucaria. The earliest conifers in geological history were
mostly w.
Ar6baOlest (?), Ar6baOlist (?), } n. [OF. arbaleste, LL.
arbalista, for L. arcuballista; arcus bow + ballista a
military engine. See Ballista.] (Antiq.) A crossbow,
consisting of a steel bow set in a shaft of wood, furnished
with a string and a trigger, and a mechanical device for
bending the bow. It served to throw arrows, darts, bullets,
etc. [Written also arbalet and arblast.]
Ar6baOlest7er (?), Ar6baOlist7er (?), } n. [OF. arblastere,
OF. arbalestier. See Arbalest.] A crossbowman. [Obs.]
Ar6biOter (?), n. [L. arbiter; arO (for ad) + the root of
betere to go; hence properly, one who comes up to look on.]
1. A person appointed, or chosen, by parties to determine a
controversy between them.
5 In modern usage, arbitrator is the technical word.
2. Any person who has the power of judging and determining,
or ordaining, without control; one whose power of deciding
and governing is not limited.
For Jove is arbiter of both to man.
Syn. - Arbitrator; umpire; director; referee; controller;
ruler; governor.
Ar6biOter, v. t. To act as ~ between. [Obs.]
Ar6biOtraOble (?), a. [Cf. F. arbitrable, fr. L. arbitrari.
See Arbitrate, v. t.] Capable of being decided by
arbitration; determinable. [Archaic]
Bp. Hall.
Ar6biOtrage (?), n. [F., fr. arbiter to give judgment, L.
arbitrari.] 1. Judgment by an arbiter; authoritative
determination. [Archaic]
2. (Com) A traffic in bills of exchange (see Arbitration of
Exchange); also, a traffic in stocks which bear differing
values at the same time in different markets.
Ar6biOtral (?), a. [L. arbitralis.] Of or relating to an
arbiter or an arbitration. [R.]
ArObit6raOment (?), n. [LL. arbitramentum.] 1.
Determination; decision; arbitration.
The arbitrament of time.
Gladly at this moment would MacIvor have put their quarrel
to personal arbitrament.
Sir W. Scott.
2. The award of arbitrators.
Ar6biOtraOriOly (?), adv. In an arbitrary manner; by will
only; despotically; absolutely.
Ar6biOtraOriOness, n. The quality of being arbitrary;
despoticalness; tyranny.
Bp. Hall.
Ar7biOtra6riOous (?), a. [L. arbitrarius. See Arbitrary.]
Arbitrary; despotic. [Obs.] P Ar7biOtra6OriOousOly, adv.
Ar6biOtraOry (?), a. [L. arbitrarius, fr. arbiter: cf. F.
arbitraire. See Arbiter.] 1. Depending on will or
discretion; not governed by any fixed rules; as, an
arbitrary decision; an arbitrary punishment.
It was wholly arbitrary in them to do so.
Jer. Taylor.
Rank pretends to fix the value of every one, and is the most
arbitrary of all things.
2. Exercised according to one's own will or caprice, and
therefore conveying a notion of a tendency to abuse the
possession of power.
Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of
liberty abused licentiousness.
3. Despotic; absolute in power; bound by no law; harsh and
unforbearing; tyrannical; as, an arbitrary prince or

w constant, w function (Math.), a quantity of function that
is introduced into the solution of a problem, and to which
any value or form may at will be given, so that the solution
may be made to meet special requirements. P w quantity
(Math.), one to which any value can be assigned at pleasure.
Ar6biOtrate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arbitrated (?); p. pr.
& vb. n. Arbitrating (?).] [L. arbitratus, p. p. of
arbitrari to be a hearer or beholder of something, to make a
decision, to give judgment, fr. arbiter. See Arbiter.] 1. To
hear and decide, as arbitrators; as, to choose to arbitrate
a disputed case.
2. To decide, or determine generally.
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate
The swelling difference of your settled hate.
Ar6biOtrate (?), v. i. 1. To decide; to determine.
2. To act as arbitrator or judge; as, to arbitrate upon
several reports;; to arbitrate in disputes among heighbors;
to arbitrate between parties to a suit.
Ar7biOtra6tion (?), n. [F. arbitration, L. arbitratio, fr.
arbitrari.] The hearing and determination of a cause between
parties in controversy, by a person or persons chosen by the
5 This may be done by one person; but it is usual to choose
two or three called arbitrators; or for each party to choose
one, and these to name a third, who is called the umpire.
Their determination is called the award.
w bond, a bond which obliges one to abide by the award of an
~. P w of Exchange, the operation of converting the currency
of one country into that of another, or determining the rate
of exchange between such countries or currencies. An
arbitrated rate is one determined by such ~ through the
medium of one or more intervening currencies.
Ar6biOtra7tor (?), n. [L., fr. arbitrari: cf. F.
arbitrateur.] 1. A person, or one of two or more persons,
chosen by parties who have a controversy, to determine their
differences. See Arbitration.
2. One who has the power of deciding or prescribing without
control; a ruler; a governor.
Though Heaven be shut,
And Heaven's high Arbitrators sit secure.
Masters of their own terms and arbitrators of a peace.
Syn. - Judge; umpire; referee; arbiter. See Judge.
Ar6biOtra7trix (?), n. [L., fem. of arbitrator.] A female
who arbitrates or judges.
Ar6biOtress (?), n. [From Arbiter.] A female arbiter; an

Ar6blast (?), n. A crossbow. See Arbalest.
Ar6bor (?), n. [OE. herber, herbere, properly a garden of
herbs, F. herbier, fr. L. herbarium. See Herb, and cf.
Herbarium.] A kind of latticework formed of, or covered
with, vines, branches of trees, or other plants, for shade;
a bower.
Sir P. Sidney.
Ar6bor, n. [Written also arbour.] [L., a tree, a beam.] 1.
(Bot.) A tree, as distinguished from a shrub. 
2. [Cf. F. arbre.] (Mech.) (a) An axle or spindle of a wheel
or opinion. (b) A mandrel in lathe turning.
w Day, a day appointed for planting trees and shrubs. [U.S.]
Ar6boOraOry (?), a. [L. arborarius, fr. arbor tree.] Of or
pertaining to trees; arboreal.
Ar6boOra7tor (?), n. [L., fr. arbor tree.] One who plants or
who prunes trees. [Obs.]
X Ar6bor DiOa6n. (?). [L., the tree of Diana, or silver.]
(Chem.) A precipitation of silver, in a beautiful
arborescent form.
ArObo6reOal (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to a tree, or to
trees; of nature of trees.
2. Attached to, found in or upon, or frequenting, woods or
trees; as, arboreal animals.
Woodpeckers are eminently arboreal.
Ar6bored (?), a. Furnished with an arbor; lined with trees.
=An arboreal walk.8
ArObo6reOous (?), a. [L. arboreous, fr. arbor tree.] 1.
Having the form, constitution, or habits, of a proper tree,
in distinction from a shrub.
2. Pertaining to, or growing on, trees; as, arboreous moss.
Ar7boOres6cence (?), n. The state of being arborescent; the
resemblance to a tree in minerals, or crystallizations, or
groups of crystals in that form; as, the arborescence
produced by precipitating silver.
Ar7boOres6cent (?), a. [L. arborescens, p. pr. of
arborescere to become a tree, fr. arbor tree.] Resembling a
tree; becoming woody in stalk; dendritic; having
crystallizations disposed like the branches and twigs of a
tree. =Arborescent hollyhocks.8
Ar6boOret (?), n. [OF. arboret, dim. of arbre tree, L.
arbor] A small tree or shrub. [Obs.]
Among thickPwoven arborets, and flowers
Imbordered on each bank.
X Ar7boOre6tum (?), n.; pl. Arboreta (?). [L., a place grown
with trees.] A place in which a collection of rare trees and
shrubs is cultivated for scientific or educational purposes.
ArObor6icOal (?), a. Relating to trees. [Obs.]
ArObor6iOcole (?), a. [L. arbor + colere to inhabit.]
(Zo.l.) TreePinhabiting; P said of certain birds.
Ar7borOiOcul6turOal (?), a. Pertaining to arboriculture.
Ar7borOiOcul6ture (?; 135), n. [L. arbor tree + cultura. See
Culture.] The cultivation of trees and shrubs, chiefly for
timber or for ornamental purposes.
Ar7borOiOcul6turOist, n. One who cultivates trees.
ArObor6iOform (?), a. Treelike in shape.
Ar6borOist (?), n. [F. arboriste, fr. L. arbor tree.] One
who makes trees his study, or who is versed in the knowledge
of trees.
Ar7borOiOza6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. arborisation, fr. L. arbor
tree.] The appearance or figure of a tree or plant, as in
minerals or fossils; a dendrite.
Ar6borOized (?), a. Having a treelike appearance. =An
arborized or moss agate.8
Ar6borOous (?), a. Formed by trees. [Obs.]
From under shady, arborous roof.
Ar6bor vine7 (?). A species of bindweed.
X Ar6bor vi6t. (?). [L., tree of life.] 1. (Bot.) An
evergreen tree of the cypress tribe, genus Thuja. The
American species is the T. occidentalis.
2. (Anat.) The treelike disposition of the gray and white
nerve tissues in the cerebellum, as seen in a vertical
Ar6busOcle (?), n. [L. arbuscula small tree, shrub, dim. of
arbor tree.] A dwarf tree, one in size between a shrub and a
tree; a treelike shrub.
ArObus6cuOlar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a dwarf tree;
Da Costa.
ArObus6tive (?), a. [L. arbustivus, fr. arbustum place where
trees are planted.] Containing copses of trees or shrubs;
covered with shrubs.
Ar6buOtus (?), Ar6bute (?), } n. [L. arbutus, akin to arbor
tree.] The strawberry tree, a genus of evergreen shrubs, of
the Heath family. It has a berry externally resembling the
strawberry; the arbute tree.
Trailing arbutus (Bot.), a creeping or trailing plant of the
Heath family (Epig.a repens), having white or usually
rosePcolored flowers with a delicate fragrance, growing in
small axillary clusters, and appearing early in the spring;
in New England known as mayflower; P called also ground
Arc (?), n. [F. arc, L. arcus bow, ~. See Arch, n.] 1.
(Geom.) A portion of a curved line; as, the arc of a circle
or of an ellipse.
2. A curvature in the shape of a circular ~ or an arch; as,
the colored arc (the rainbow); the arc of Hadley's quadrant.
3. An arch. [Obs.]
Statues and trophies, and triumphal arcs.
4. The apparent ~ described, above or below the horizon, by
the sun or other celestial body. The diurnal arc is
described during the daytime, the nocturnal arc during the
Electric ~, Voltaic ~. See under Voltaic. 
ArOcade6 (?), n. [F. arcade, Sp. arcada, LL. arcata, fr. L.
arcus bow, arch.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A series of arches with
the columns or piers which support them, the spandrels
above, and other necessary appurtenances; sometimes open,
serving as an entrance or to give light; sometimes closed at
the back (as in the cut) and forming a decorative feature.
(b) A long, arched building or gallery.
2. An arched or covered passageway or avenue.
ArOcad6ed (?), a. Furnished with an arcade.
ArOca6diOa (?), n. [L. Arcadia, Gr. ?.] 1. A mountainous and
picturesque district of Greece, in the heart of the
Peloponnesus, whose people were distinguished for
contentment and rural happiness.
2. Fig.: Any region or scene of simple pleasure and
untroubled quiet.
Where the cow is, there is Arcadia.
J. Burroughs.
ArOca6diOan (?), ArOca6dic (?), } a. [L. Arcadius,
Arcadicus, fr. Arcadia: cf. F. Arcadien, Arcadique.] Of or
pertaining to Arcadia; pastoral; ideally rural; as, Arcadian
simplicity or scenery.
ArOcane6 (?), a. [L. arcanus.] Hidden; secret. [Obs.] =The
arcane part of divine wisdom.8
X ArOca6num (?), n.; pl. Arcana (?). [L., fr. arcanus
closed, secret, fr. arca chest, box, fr. arcere to inclose.
See Ark.] 1. A secret; a mystery; P generally used in the
Inquiries into the arcana of the Godhead.
2. (Med.) A secret remedy; an elixir.
X Arc7Obou7tant6 (?), n. [F.] (Arch.) A flying buttress.
Arch (?), n. [F. arche, fr. LL. arca, for arcus. See Arc.]
1. (Geom.) Any part of a curved line.
2. (Arch.) (a) Usually a curved member made up of separate
wedgePshaped solids, with the joints between them disposed
in the direction of the radii of the curve; used to support
the wall or other weight above an opening. In this sense
arches are segmental, round (i. e., semicircular), or
pointed. (b) A flat arch is a member constructed of stones
cut into wedges or other shapes so as to support each other
without rising a curve.
5 Scientifically considered, the ~ is a means of spanning an
opening by resolving vertical pressure into horizontal or
diagonal thrust.
3. Any place covered by an ~; an archway; as, to pass into
the arch of a bridge.
4. Any curvature in the form of an ~; as, the arch of the
aorta. =Colors of the showery arch.8
Triumphal ~, a monumental structure resembling an arched
gateway, with one or more passages, erected to commemorate a
Arch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arched (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arching.] 1. To cover with an ~ or arches.
2. To form or bend into the shape of an ~.
The horse arched his neck.
Arch, v. i. To form into an arch; to curve.

<-- p. 78 -->

ArchO (.rchO, except in archangel and one or two other
words). [L. archO, Gr. ???. See ArchO.] A prefix signifying
chief, as in archbuilder, archfiend.
Arch (?), a. [See ArchO, pref.] 1. Chief; eminent; greatest
; principal.
The most arch act of piteous massacre.
2. Cunning or sly; sportively mischievous; roguish; as, an
arch look, word, lad.
[He] spoke his request with so arch a leer.
Arch, n. [See ArchO, pref.] A chief. [Obs.]
My worthy arch and patron comes toPnight.
Oarch (?). [Gr. ? chief, commander, ? to rule. See Arch, a.]
A suffix meaning a ruler, as in monarch (a sole ruler).
ArOch.6an (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient, fr. ? beginning.] Ancient;
pertaining to the earliest period in geological history.
ArOch.6an, n. (Geol.) The earliest period in geological
period, extending up to the Lower Silurian. It includes an
Azoic age, previous to the appearance of life, and an Eozoic
age, including the earliest forms of life.
5 This is equivalent to the formerly accepted term Azoic,
and to the Eozoic of Dawson.
Ar7ch.Oog6raOphy (?), n. [Gr. ? ancient + Ography.] A
description of, or a treatise on, antiquity or antiquities.
Ar7ch.OoOlith6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? pertaining to a
stone.] (Arch.ol.) Of or pertaining to the earliest Stone
age; P applied to a prehistoric period preceding the
Paleolithic age.
Ar7ch.OoOlo6giOan (?), n. An arch.ologist.
Ar7ch.OoOlog6ic (?), Ar7ch.OoOlog6icOal (?), } Relating to
arch.ology, or antiquities; as, arch.ological researches. P
Ar7Och.OoOlog6icOalOly, adv.
Ar7ch.Ool6oOgist (?), n. One versed in arch.ology; an
Ar7ch.Ool6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? ancient (fr. ? beginning) +
? discourse, ? to speak.] The science or study of
antiquities, esp. prehistoric antiquities, such as the
remains of buildings or monuments of an early epoch,
inscriptions, implements, and other relics, written
manuscripts, etc.
X Ar7ch.Oop6teOryx (?), n. [Gr. ? ancient + ? wing.]
(Paleon.) A fossil bird, of the Jurassic period, remarkable
for having a long tapering tail of many vertebr. with
feathers along each side, and jaws armed with teeth, with
other reptilian characteristics.
Ar7ch.OoOstom6aOtous (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? mouth.]
(Biol.) Applied to a gastrula when the blastorope does not
entirely up.
Ar7ch.OoOzo6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? animal.] (Zo.l.)
Like or belonging to the earliest forms of animal life.
ArOcha6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? oldPfashioned, fr. ? ancient.] Of
or characterized by antiquity or archaism; antiquated;
ArOcha6icOal (?), a. Archaic. [R.] P ArOcha6icOalOly, adv.
Ar6chaOism (?), n. [Gr. ?, fr. ? ancient, fr. ? beginning:
cf. F. archa.sme. See Arch, a.] 1. An ancient, antiquated,
or oldPfashioned, word, expression, or idiom; a word or form
of speech no longer in common use. 
2. Antiquity of style or use; obsoleteness.
A select vocabulary corresponding (in point of archaism and
remoteness from ordinary use) to our Scriptural vocabulary.
De Quincey.
Ar6chaOist, n. 1. Am antiquary.
2. One who uses archaisms.
Ar7chaOis6tic (?), a. Like, or imitative of, anything
archaic; pertaining to an archaism.
Ar6chaOize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Archaized (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Archaizing.] [Gr. ?.] To make appear archaic or
Arch7an6gel (?), n. [L. archangelus, Gr. ?: cf. OF.
archangel, F. archange. See ArchO, pref., and Angel.] 1. A
chief angel; one high in the celestial hierarchy.
2. (Bot.) A term applied to several different species of
plants (Angelica archangelica, Lamium album, etc.).
Arch7anOgel6ic (?), a. [Cf. F. archang.lique.] Of or
pertaining to archangels; of the nature of, or resembling,
an archangel.

Arch7bish6op (?), n. [AS. arcebisceop, arcebiscop, L.
archiepiscopus, fr. Gr. ?. See Bishop.] A chief bishop; a
church dignitary of the first class (often called a
metropolitan or primate) who superintends the conduct of the
suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises
episcopal authority in his own diocese.
Arch7bish6opOric (?), n. [AS. arcebiscoprFce. See Oric.] The
jurisdiction or office of an archbishop; the see or province
over which archbishop exercises archiepiscopal authority.
Arch6 brick7 (?). A wedgePshaped brick used in the building
of an arch.
Arch7but6ler (?), n. [Pref. archO + butler.] A chief butler;
P an officer of the German empire.
Arch7cham6berOlain (?), n. [Cf. G. erzk.mmerer. See ArchO,
pref.] A chief chamberlain; P an officer of the old German
empire, whose office was similar to that of the great
chamberlain in England.
Arch7chan6celOlor (?), n. [Cf. Ger. erzkanzler. See ArchO,
pref.] A chief chancellor; P an officer in the old German
empire, who presided over the secretaries of the court.
Arch7chem6ic (?), a. Of supreme chemical powers. [R.] =The
archchemic sun.8

Arch7dea6con (?), n. [AS. arcediacon, archidiacon, L.
archidiaconus, fr. Gr. ?. See ArchO, pref., and Deacon.] In
England, an ecclesiastical dignitary, next in rank below a
bishop, whom he assists, and by whom he is appointed, though
with independent authority.
Arch7dea6conOry, n. The district, office, or residence of an
archdeacon. See Benefice.
Every diocese is divided into archdeaconries.
Arch7dea6conOship, n. The office of an archdeacon.
Arch7di6oOcese (?), n. [Pref. archO + diocese.] The diocese
of an archbishop.
Arch7du6cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archduke or
Arch7duch6ess (?), n. [Pref. archO + duchess.] The consort
of an archduke; also, a princess of the imperial family of
Austria. See Archduke.
Arch7duch6y, n. The territory of an archduke or archduchess.
Arch7duke6 (?), n. [Pref. archO + duke.] A prince of the
imperial family of Austria.
5 Formerly this title was assumed by the rulers of Lorraine,
Brabant, Austria, etc. It is now appropriated to the
descendants of the imperial family of Austria through the
make line, all such male descendants being styled archduke,
and all such female descendants archduchesses.
Arch7duke6dom (?), n. An archduchy.
X Ar7cheObiOo6sis (?), n. [Pref. archeO ? archiO + Gr. ?, ?,
life.] To origination of living matter from nonPliving. See
Arched (?), a. Made with an arch or curve; covered with an
arch; as, an arched door.
Ar7cheOgo6niOal (?), a. Relating to the archegonium.
X Ar7cheOgo6niOum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? the first of a
race.] (Bot.) The pistillidium or female organ in the higher
cryptogamic plants, corresponding to the pistil in flowering
ArOcheg6oOny (?), n. [See Archegonium.] (Biol.) Spontaneous
generation; abiogenesis.
ArOchel6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? an element or first principle +
Ology.] The science of, or a treatise on, first principles.
X Ar7chenOceph6aOla (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? + ?
the brain.] (Zo.l.) The division that includes man alone.
R. Owen.
Arch7en6eOmy (?), n. [Pref. archO = enemy.] A principal
enemy. Specifically, Satan, the grand adversary of mankind.
Arch7enOter6ic (?), a. (Biol.) Relating ? the archenteron;
as, archenteric invagination.
X Arch7en6terOon , n. [Pref. archO + Gr. ? intestine.]
(Biol.) The primitive enteron or undifferentiated digestive
sac of a gastrula or other embryo. See Illust. under
Ar7cheOol6oOgy (?), n., Ar7cheOoOlog7icOal (?), a. Same as
Arch.ology, etc.
Arch6er (?), n. [OF. archier, F. archer, LL. arcarius, fr.
L. arcus bow. See Arc, Arch, n.] A bowman, one skilled in
the use of the bow and arrow.
Arch6erOess (?), n. A female archer.
Arch6er fish7 (?). (Zo.l.) A small fish (Toxotes jaculator),
of the East Indies; P so called from ?? ejecting drops of
water from its mouth at its prey. The name is also applied
to Ch.todon rostratus.
Arch6erOship, n. The art or skill of an archer.
Arch6erOy (?), n. [OE. archerie.] 1. The use of the bow and
arrows in battle, hunting, etc.; the art, practice, or skill
of shooting with a bow and arrows.
2. Archers, or bowmen, collectively.
Let all our archery fall off
In wings of shot aPboth sides of the van.
Webster (1607).
Arch6es (?), pl. of Arch, n.
Court of w, or w Court (Eng. Law), the court of appeal of
the Archbishop of Canterbury, whereof the judge, who sits as
deputy to the archbishop, is called the Dean of the Arches,
because he anciently held his court in the church of St.
MaryPlePBow (de arcubus). It is now held in Westminster.
Mozley & W.
Ar6cheOty7pal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archetype;
consisting a model (real or ideal) or pattern; original.
=One archetypal mind.8
5 Among Platonists, the archetypal world is the world as it
existed as an idea of God before the creation.
Ar6cheOty7palOly, adv. With reference to the archetype;
originally. =Parts archetypally distinct.=
Ar6cheOtype (?), n. [L. archetypum, Gr. ?, fr. ? stamped
first and as model; ? ? + ? stamp, figure, pattern, ? to
strike: cf. F. arch.type. See ArchO, pref.] 1. The original
pattern or model of a work; or the model from which a thing
is made or formed.
The House of Commons, the archetype of all the
representative assemblies which now meet.
Types and shadows of that glorious archetype that was to
come into the world.
2. (Coinage) The standard weight or coin by which others are
3. (Biol.) The plan or fundamental structure on which a
natural group of animals or plants or their systems of
organs are assumed to have been constructed; as, the
vertebrate archetype.
Ar7cheOtyp6icOal (?), a. Relating to an archetype;
X ArOche6us (?), n. [LL. arch?us, Gr. ? ancient, primeval,
fr. ? beginning. See ArchiO, pref.] The vital principle or
force which (according to the Paracelsians) presides over
the growth and continuation of living beings; the anima
mundi or plastic power of the old philosophers. [Obs.]
Ar6chiO (?). [L., archiO, Gr. ?, a prefix which is from the
same root as ? to be first, to begin; ? the first place,
beginning; ? chief. Cf. AS. arceO, erceO, OHG. erziO.] A
prefix signifying chief, arch; as, architect,
archiepiscopal. In Biol. and Anat. it usually means
primitive, original, ancestral; as, archipterygium, the
primitive fin or wing.
X Ar7chiOanOnel6iOda (?), n. pl. [NL.; pref. archiO +
annelida.] (Zo.l.) A group of Annelida remarkable for having
no external segments or distinct ventral nerve ganglions.
Ar6chiOa7ter (?), n. [L. archiatrus, Gr. ?; pref. ? + ?
physician, ? to heal.] Chief physician; P a term applied, on
the continent of Europe, to the first or body physician of
princes and to the first physician of some cities.
P. Cyc.
X Ar7chiOblas6tuOla (?), n. [Pref. archi + blastula.]
(Biol.) A hollow blastula, supposed to be the primitive
form; a c?loblastula.
Ar6chiOcal (?), a. [Gr. ? able to govern, fr. ? beginning,
government. See ArchO, pref.] Chief; primary; primordi?.]
Ar7chiOdiOac6oOnal (?), a. [L. archidiaconus, Gr. ?, equiv.
to E. archdeacon.] Of or pertaining to an archdeacon.
This offense is liable to be censured in an archidiaconal
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpaOcy (?), n. [Pref. archiO + episcopacy.]
1. That form of episcopacy in which the chief power is in
the hands of archbishops.
2. The state or dignity of an archbishop.
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpal (?), a. [Pref. archiO + episcopal.] Of
or pertaining to an archbishop; as, Canterbury is an
archiepiscopal see.
Ar7chiOeOpis7coOpal6iOty (?), n. The station or dignity of
an archbishop; archiepiscopacy.
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpate (?), n. [Pref. archiO + episcopate.]
The office of an archbishop; an archbishopric.
X ArOchi6eOrey (?), n. [Russ. archier.i, fr. Gr. ?; pref. ?
(E. archO) + 5 priest.] The higher order of clergy in
Russia, including metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops.
Ar6chil (?; 277), n. [OF. orchel, orcheil, It. orcella,
oricello, or OSp. orchillo. Cf. Orchil.] 1. A viole?dye
obtained from several species of lichen (Roccella tinctoria,
etc.), which grow on maritime rocks in the Canary and Cape
Verd Islands, etc.
2. The plant from which the dye is obtained.
[Written also orchal and orchil.]
Ar7chiOlo6chiOan (?), a. [L. Archilochius.] Of or pertaining
to the satiric Greek poet Archilochus; as, Archilochian
Ar6chiOmage (?), X Ar7chiOma6gus (?), } n. [NL.; pref.
archiO + L. magus, Gr. ?, a Magian.] 1. The high priest of
the Persian Magi, or worshipers of fire.
2. A great magician, wizard, or enchanter.
Ar7chiOman6drite (?), n. [L. archimandrita, LGr. ?; pref. ?
(E. archO) + ? an inclosed space, esp. for cattle, a fold, a
monastery.] (Gr. Church) (a) A chief of a monastery,
corresponding to abbot in the Roman Catholic church. (b) A
superintendent of several monasteries, corresponding to
superior abbot, or father provincial, in the Roman Catholic
Ar7chiOmeOde6an (?), a. [L. Archimedeus.] Of or pertaining
to Archimedes, a celebrated Greek philosopher; constructed
on the principle of Archimedes' screw; as, Archimedean
drill, propeller, etc.
w screw, or Archimedes' screw, an instrument, said to have
been invented by Archimedes, for raising water, formed by
winding a flexible tube round a cylinder in the form of a
screw. When the screw is placed in an inclined position, and
the lower end immersed in water, by causing the screw to
revolve, the water is raised to the upper end.
X Ar7chiOme6des (?), n. (Paleon.) An extinct genus of Bryzoa
characteristic of the subcarboniferous rocks. Its form is
that of a screw.
Arch6ing (?), n. 1. The arched part of a structure.
2. (Naut.) Hogging; P opposed to sagging.
Ar7chiOpeOlag6ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archipelago.
Ar7chiOpel6aOgo , n.; pl. Ogoes or Ogos (?). [It.
arcipelago, properly, chief sea; Gr. pref ? + ? sea, perh.
akin to ? blow, and expressing the beating of the waves. See
1. The Grecian Archipelago, or .gean Sea, separating Greece
from Asia Minor. It is studded with a vast number of small
2. Hence: Any sea or broad sheet of water interspersed with
many islands or with a group of islands.

<-- p. 79 -->

X ArOchip7teOryg6iOum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? (E.
archO) + ? wing, fin.] (Anat.) The primitive form of fin,
like that of Ceratodus.
Ar6chiOtect (?), n. [L. architectus, architecton, Gr. ?
chief artificer, master builder; pref. ? (E. archiO) + ?
workman, akin to ? art, skill, ? to produce: cf. F.
architecte, It. architetto. See Technical.] 1. A person
skilled in the art of building; one who understands
architecture, or makes it his occupation to form plans and
designs of buildings, and to superintend the artificers
2. A contriver, designer, or maker.
The architects of their own happiness.
A French woman is a perfect architect in dress.
Ar7chiOtec6tive (?), a. Used in building; proper for
Ar7chiOtecOton6ic (?), Ar7chiOtecOton6icOal (?), } a. [L.
architectonicus, Gr. ?. See Architect.] 1. Pertaining to a
master builder, or to architecture; evincing skill in
designing or construction; constructive. =Architectonic
These architectonic functions which we had hitherto thought
J. C. Shairp.
2. Relating to the systemizing of knowledge.
Ar7chiOtecOton6ic, n. [Cf. F. architectonique.] 1. The
science of architecture. 
2. The act of arranging knowledge into a system.
Ar7chiOtecOton6ics, n. The science of architecture.
Ar6chiOtec7tor (?), n. An architect. [Obs.]
Ar6chiOtec7tress (?), n. A female architect.
Ar7chiOtec6turOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the art of
building; conformed to the rules of architecture. P
Ar7chiOtec6turOalOly, adv.
Ar6chiOtec7ture (?; 135), n. [L. architectura, fr.
architectus: cf. F. architecture. See Architect.] 1. The art
or science of building; especially, the art of building
houses, churches, bridges, and other structures, for the
purposes of civil life; P often called civil architecture.
2. A method or style of building, characterized by certain
peculiarities of structure, ornamentation, etc.
Many other architectures besides Gothic.
3. Construction, in a more general sense; frame or
structure; workmanship.
The architecture of grasses, plants, and trees.
The formation of the first earth being a piece of divine
Military ~, the art of fortifications. P Naval ~, the art of
building ships.
X Ar7chiOteu6this (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? + ?, ?, a
kind of squid.] (Zo.l.) A genus of gigantic cephalopods,
allied to the squids, found esp. in the North Atlantic and
about New Zealand.
Ar6chiOtrave (?), n. [F. architrave, fr. It. architrave;
pref. archiO + trave beam, L. trabs.] (Arch.) (a) The lower
division of an entablature, or that part which rests
immediately on the column, esp. in classical architecture.
See Column. (b) The group of moldings, or other
architectural member, above and on both sides of a door or
other opening, especially if square in form.
Ar6chiOtraved (?), a. Furnished with an architrave.
Ar6chiOval (?), a. Pertaining to, or contained in, archives
or records.
Ar6chive (?), n. ; pl. Archives (?). [F. archives, pl., L.
archivum, archium, fr. Gr. ? government house, ? ? archives,
fr. ? the first place, government. See ArchiO, pref.] 1. pl.
The place in which public records or historic documents are
Our words.... become records in God's court, and are ?aid up
in his archives as witnesses.
Gov. of Tongue.
2. pl. Public records or documents preserved as evidence of
facts; as, the archives of a country or family.
[Rarely used in sing.]
Some rotten archive, rummaged out of some seldom explored
Syn. - Registers; records; chronicles.
Ar6chiOvist (?), n. [F. archiviste.] A keeper of archives or
records. [R.]
Ar6chiOvolt (?), n. [F. archivolte, fr. It. archivolto;
pref. archiO + volto vault, arch. See Vault.] (Arch.) (a)
The architectural member surrounding the curved opening of
an arch, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a
square opening. (b) More commonly, the molding or other
ornaments with which the wall face of the voussoirs of an
arch is charged.
Arch6lute (?), Arch6iOlute (?), } n. [Cf. F. archiluth, It.
arciliuto.] (Mus.) A large theorbo, or doublePnecked lute,
formerly in use, having the bass strings doubled with an
octave, and the higher strings with a unison.
Arch6ly (?), adv. In an arch manner; with attractive slyness
or roguishness; slyly; waggishly.
Archly the maiden smiled.
Arch7mar6shal (?), n. [G. erzmarschall. See ArchO, pref.]
The grand marshal of the old German empire, a dignity that
to the Elector of Saxony.
Arch6ness, n. The quality of being arch; cleverness; sly
humor free from malice; waggishness.
Ar6chon (?), n. [L. archon, Gr. ?, ?, ruler, chief
magistrate, p. pr. of ? to be first, to rule.] (Antiq.) One
of the chief magistrates in ancient Athens, especially, by
pre minence, the first of the nine chief magistrates. P
ArOchon6tic (?), a.
Ar6chonOship, n. The office of an archon.
Ar6chonOtate (?), n. [Cf. F. archontat.] An archon's term of
Ar6chonts (?), n. pl. [Gr. ?, p. pr. See Archon.] (Zo.l.)
The group including man alone.
Arch7prel6ate (?), n. [Pref. archO + prelate.] An archbishop
or other chief prelate.
Arch7pres6byOter (?), n. Same as Archpriest.
Arch7pres6byOterOy (?), n. [Pref. archO + presbutery.] The
absolute dominion of presbytery.
Arch7priest6 (?), n. A chief priest; also, a kind of vicar,
or a rural dean.
Arch7pri6mate (?), n. [Pref. archO + primate.] The chief
Arch6 stone7 (?). A wedgePshaped stone used in an arch; a
Arch7trai6tor (?), n. [Pref. archO + traitor.] A chief or
transcendent traitor.
I. Watts.
Arch7treas6urOer (?; 135), n. [Pref. archO + treasurer.] A
chief treasurer. Specifically, the great treasurer of the
German empire.
Arch6way (?), n. A way or passage under an arch.
Arch7wife6 (?), n. [Pref. archO + wife.] A big, masculine
wife. [Obs.]
Arch6wise (?), adv. ArchPshaped.
Arch6y (?), a. Arched; as, archy brows.
Oar6chy (?). [Gr. ?, fr. ? chief. See ArchO, pref.] A suffix
properly meaning a rule, ruling, as in monarchy, the rule of
one only. Cf. Oarch.
Ar6ciOform (?), a. [L. arcus bow + Oform.] Having the form
of an arch; curved.
Arc6oOgraph (?), n. [L. arcus (E. arc) + Ograph.] An
instrument for drawing a circular arc without the use of a
central point; a cyclograph.
ArcOta6tion (?), n. [L. arctus shut in, narrow, p. p. of
arcere to shut in: cf. F. arctation.] (Med.) Constriction or
contraction of some natural passage, as in constipation from
Arc6tic (?), a. [OE. artik, OF. artique, F. arctique, L.
arcticus, fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? a bear, also a northern
constellation so called; akin to L. ursus bear, Skr. ?ksha.]
Pertaining to, or situated under, the northern constellation
called the Bear; northern; frigid; as, the arctic pole,
circle, region, ocean; an arctic expedition, night,
5 The arctic circle is a lesser circle, parallel to the
equator, 23o 287
from the north pole. This and the antarctic circle are
called the polar circles, and between these and the poles
lie the frigid zones. See Zone.
Arc6tic, n. 1. The arctic circle.
2. A warm waterproof overshoe. [U.S.]
X ArcOtis6ca (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? bear.] (Zo.l.) A
group of Arachnida. See Illust. in Appendix.
Arc7toOge6al (?), a. [Gr. ? the north + ?, ?, country.]
(Zo.l.) Of or pertaining to arctic lands; as, the arctogeal
X ArcOtoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? bear + Ooid.]
(Zo.l.) A group of the Carnivora, that includes the bears,
weasels, etc.
ArcOtu6rus (?), n. [L. Arcturus, Gr. ? bearward, equiv. to
?; ? bear + ? ward, guard. See Arctic.] (Anat.) A fixed star
of the first magnitude in the constellation Bo.tes.
5 Arcturus has sometimes been incorrectly used as the name
of the constellation, or even of Ursa Major.
Canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons [Rev. Ver.: =the
Bear with her train8].
Job xxxviii. 32.
Arc6uOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an arc.
w measure of an angle (Math.), that which the unit angle has
its measuring arc equal to the radius of the circle.
Arc6uOate (?), Arc6uOa7ted (?)(?), } a. [L. arcuatus, p. p.
of arcuare to shape like a bow, fr. arcus. See Arc.] Bent or
curved in the form of a bow. =Arcuate stalks.8
Arc6uOateOly (?), adv. In the form of a bow.
Arc7uOa6tion (?), n. [L. arcuatio.] 1. The act of bending or
curving; incurvation; the state of being bent; crookedness.
2. (Hort.) A mode of propagating trees by bending branches
to the ground, and covering the small shoots with earth;
Ar6cuObaOlist (?), n. [See Arbalist.] A crossbow.
Ar7cuObal6istOer (?), n. [L. arcuballistarius. Cf.
Arbalister.] A crossbowman; one who used the arcubalist.
Ar6cuObus (?), n. See Arquebus. [Obs.]
Oard, Oart. The termination of many English words; as,
coward, reynard, drunkard, mostly from the French, in which
language this ending is of German origin, being orig. the
same word as English hard. It usually has the sense of one
who has to a high or excessive degree the quality expressed
by the root; as, braggart, sluggard. 
X ArOdas6sine (?), n. [F. (cf. Sp. ardacina), fr. ardasse a
kind of silk thread, fr. Ar. & Per. ardan a kind of raw
silk.] A very fine sort of Persian silk.
Ar6denOcy (?), n. 1. Heat. [R.]
Sir T. Herbert.
2. Warmth of passion or affection; ardor; vehemence;
eagerness; as, the ardency of love or zeal.
Ar6dent (?), a. [OE. ardaunt, F. ardant, p. pr. of arder to
burn, fr. L. ardere.] 1. Hot or burning; causing a sensation
of burning; fiery; as, ardent spirits, that is, distilled
liquors; an ardent fever.
2.Having the appearance or quality of fire; fierce;
glowing; shining; as, ardent eyes.
3. Warm, applied to the passions and affections; passionate;
fervent; zealous; vehement; as, ardent love, feelings, zeal,
hope, temper.
An ardent and impetuous race.
Syn. - Burning; hot; fiery; glowing; intense; fierce;
vehement; eager; zealous; keen; fervid; fervent; passionate;
Ar6dentOly (?), adv. In an ardent manner; eagerly; with
warmth; affectionately; passionately.
Ar6dentOness, n. Ardency. [R.]
Ar6dor (?), n. [L. ardor, fr. ardere to burn: cf. OF. ardor,
ardur, F. ardeur.] [Spelt also ardour.] 1. Heat, in a
literal sense; as, the ardor of the sun's rays.
2. Warmth or heat of passion or affection; eagerness; zeal;
as, he pursues study with ardor; the fought with ardor;
martial ardor.
3. pl. Bright and effulgent spirits; seraphim. [Thus used by
Syn. - Fervor; warmth; eagerness. See Fervor.
Ar6duOous (?; 135), a. [L. arduus steep, high; akin to Ir.
ard high, height.] 1. Steep and lofty, in a literal sense;
hard to climb.
Those arduous pats they trod.
2. Attended with great labor, like the ascending of
acclivities; difficult; laborious; as, an arduous
employment, task, or enterprise.
Syn. - Difficult; trying; laborious; painful; exhausting. P
Arduous, Hard, Difficult. Hard is simpler, blunter, and more
general in sense than difficult; as, a hard duty to perform,
hard work, a hard task, one which requires much bodily
effort and perseverance to do. Difficult commonly implies
more skill and sagacity than hard, as when there is
disproportion between the means and the end. A work may be
hard but not difficult. We call a thing arduous when it
requires strenuous and persevering exertion, like that of
one who is climbing a precipice; as, an arduous task, an
arduous duty. =It is often difficult to control our
feelings; it is still harder to subdue our will; but it is
an arduous undertaking to control the unruly and contending
will of others.8
Ar6duOousOly, adv. In an arduous manner; with difficulty or
Ar6duOousOness, n. The quality of being arduous; difficulty
of execution.
Ar6duOrous (?), a. Burning; ardent. [R.]
Lo! further on, 
Where flames the arduous Spirit of Isidore.
Are (?). [AS. (Northumbrian) aron, akin to the 1st pers. pl.
forms, Icel. erum, Goth. sijum, L. sumus, Gr. ?, Skr. smas;
all from a root as. ? See Am and Is, and cf. Be.] The
present indicative plural of the substantive verb to be; but
etymologically a different word from be, or was. Am, art,
are, and is, all come from the root as.
Are (?), n. [F., fr. L. area. See Area.] (Metric system) The
unit of superficial measure, being a square of which each
side is ten meters in length; 100 square meters, or about
119.6 square yards.
A6reOa (?; 277), n. pl. Areas (?). [L. area a broad piece of
level gro???. Cf. Are, n.] 1. Any plane surface, as of the
floor of a room or church, or of the ground within an
inclosure; an open space in a building.
The Alban lake... looks like the area of some vast
2. The inclosed space on which a building stands.
3. The sunken space or court, giving ingress and affording
light to the basement of a building.
4. An extent of surface; a tract of the earth's surface; a
region; as, vast uncultivated areas.
5. (Geom.) The superficial contents of any figure; the
surface included within any given lines; superficial extent;
as, the area of a square or a triangle.
6. (Biol.) A spot or small marked space; as, the germinative
7. Extent; scope; range; as, a wide area of thought.
The largest area of human history and man's common nature.
F. Harrison.
Dry ~. See under Dry.
AOread6, AOreed6 } (?), v. t. [OE. areden, AS. >r?dan to
interpret. See Read.] 1. To tell, declare, explain, or
interpret; to divine; to guess; as, to aread a riddle or a
dream. [Obs.] 
Therefore more plain aread this doubtful case.
2. To read. [Obs.]
3. To counsel, advise, warn, or direct.
But mark what I aread thee now. Avaunt!
4. To decree; to adjudge. [Archaic]
Ld. Lytton.
A6reOal (?), a. [Cf. L. arealis, fr. area.] Of or pertaining
to an area; as, areal interstices (the areas or spaces
inclosed by the reticulate vessels of leaves).
AOrear6 (?), v. t. & i. [AS. >r?ran. See Rear.] To raise; to
set up; to stir up. [Obs.]
AOrear6, adv. [See Arrear, adv.] Backward; in or to the
rear; behindhand.
X AOre6ca (?), n. [Canarese adiki: cf. Pg. & Sp. areca.]
(Bot.) A genus of palms, one species of which produces the ~
nut, or betel nut, which is chewed in India with the leaf of
the Piper Betle and lime.
AOreek6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + reek.] In a reeking
Ar7eOfac6tion (?), n. [L. arefacere to dry.] The act of
drying, or the state of growing dry.
The arefaction of the earth.
Sir M. Hale.
Ar6eOfy (?), v. t. [L. arere to be dry + Ofly.] To dry, or
make dry.
AOre6na (?), n.; pl. E. Arenas (?); L. Aren. (?). [L. arena,
harena, sand, a sandy place.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) The area in
the central part of an amphitheater, in which the gladiators
fought and other shows were exhibited; P so called because
it was covered with sand.
2. Any place of public contest or exertion; any sphere of
action; as, the arenaof debate; the arena of line.
3. (Med.) =Sand8 or =gravel8 in the kidneys.
Ar7eOna6ceous (?), a. [L. arenaceus, fr. arena sand.] Sandy
or consisting largely of sand; of the nature of sand; easily
disintegrating into sand; friable; as, arenaceous limestone.
Ar7eOna6riOous (?), a. [L. arenarius, fr. arena sand.]
Sandy; as, arenarious soil.

<-- p. 80 -->

Ar7eOna6tion (?), n. [L. arenatio, fr. arena sand.] (Med.) A
sand bath; application of hot sand to the body.
X Ar7enOda6tor (?), n. [LL. arendator, arrendator, fr.
arendare, arrendare, to pay rent, fr. arenda yearly rent;
ad + renda, F. rente, E. rent. Cf. Arrentation and Rent.] In
some provinces of Russia, one who farms the rents or
5 A person who rents an estate belonging to the crown is
called crown arendator.
X AOreng6 (?), X AOren6ga (?), n. [Malayan.] A palm tree
(Saguerus saccharifer) which furnishes sago, wine, and
fibers for ropes; the gomuti palm.
Ar7eOnic6oOlite (?), n. [L. arena sand + colere to cherish
or live.] (Paleon.) An ancient wormhole in sand, preserved
in the rocks.
AOren7iOlit6ic (?), a. [L. arena sand + Gr. ? stone.] Of or
pertaining to sandstone; as, arenilitic mountains.
Ar6eOnose (?), a. [L. arenosus, fr. arena sand.] Sandy; full
of sand.
AOren6uOlous (?), a. [L. arenula fine sand, dim. of arena.]
Full of fine sand; like sand. [Obs.]
AOre6oOla (?), n.; pl. Areol. (?). [L. areola, dim. of area:
cf. F. ar.ole. See Area.] 1. An interstice or small space,
as between the cracks of the surface in certain crustaceous
lichens; or as between the fibers composing organs or
vessels that interlace; or as between the nervures of an
insect's wing.
2. (Anat. & Med.) The colored ring around the nipple, or
around a vesicle or pustule.
AOre6oOlar (?), a. Pertaining to, or like, an areola; filled
with interstices or areol..
w tissue (Anat.), a form of fibrous connective tissue in
which the fibers are loosely arranged with numerous spaces,
or areol., between them.
AOre6oOlate (?), AOre6oOlaOted, } a. [L. areola: cf. F.
ar.ole.] Divided into small spaces or areolations, as the
wings of insects, the leaves of plants, or the receptacle of
compound flowers.
A7reOoOla6tion (?), n. 1. Division into areol..
2. Any small space, bounded by some part different in color
or structure, as the spaces bounded by the nervures of the
wings of insects, or those by the veins of leaves; an
A6reOole (?), n. Same as Areola.
AOre6oOlet (?), n. [Dim. of L. areola.] (Zo.l.) A small
inclosed area; esp. one of the small spaces on the wings of
insects, circumscribed by the veins.
A7reOom6eOter (?; 277), n. [Gr. ? ??in, rare + Ometer: cf.
tre.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the
specific gravity of fluids; a form hydrometer.
A7reOoOmet6ric (?), A7reOoOmet6ricOal (?), } a. Pertaining
to, or measured by, an areometer.
A7reOom6eOtry (?), n. [Gr. ? thin, rare + Ometry.] The art
or process of measuring the specific gravity of fluids.
Ar7eOop6aOgist (?), n. See Areopagite.
Ar7eOop6aOgite (?), n. [L. Areopagites, Gr. ?.] A member of
the Areopagus. 
Acts xvii. 34.
Ar7eOop7aOgit6ic (?), a. [L. Areopagiticus, Gr. ?.]
Pertaining to the Areopagus.
Ar7eOop6aOgus , n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, and ? ?, hill of Ares
(Mars' Hill).] The highest judicial court at Athens. Its
sessions were held on Mars' Hill. Hence, any high court or
AOre6oOstyle (?), a. & n. See Intercolumniation, and
AOre7oOsys6tyle (?), a. & n. See Intercolumniation, and
AOrere6 (?), v. t. & i. Arear. [Obs.]
AOrest6 (?), n. A support for the spear when couched for the
attack. [Obs.]
AOret6 (?), v. t. [OE. aretten, OF. areter; a (L. ad) + OF.
reter, L. reputare. See Repute.] To reckon; to ascribe; to
impute. [Obs.]
Ar7eOta6ics (?), n. [Gr. ? virtue.] The ethical theory which
excludes all relations between virtue and happiness; the
science of virtue; P contrasted with eudemonics.
J. Grote.
Ar7eOtol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? virtue + ? discourse, ? to
speak: cf. F. ar.tologie.] That part of moral philosophy
which treats of virtue, its nature, and the means of
attaining to it.
AOrew6 . adv. [See Arow, Row.] In a row. [Obs.] =All her
teeth arew.8
Ar6gal (?), n. Crude tartar. See Argol.
Ar6gal, adv. A ludicrous corruption of the Latin word ergo,
X Ar6gal (?), X Ar6gaOli , } n. [Mongolian.] (Zo.l.) A
species of wild sheep (Ovis ammon, or O. argali), remarkable
for its large horns. It inhabits the mountains of Siberia
and central Asia.
5 The bearded argali is the aoudad. See Aoudad. The name is
also applied to the bighorn sheep of the Rocky Mountains.
See Bighorn.
X Ar6gaOla (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo.l.) The adjutant bird.
Ar6gand lamp7(?) . [Named from the inventor, Aim. Argand of
Geneva.] A lamp with a circular hollow wick and glass
chimney which allow a current of air both inside and outside
of the flame.
Argand burner, a burner for and Argand lamp, or a gas burner
in which the principle of that lamp is applied.
X Ar6gas (?), n. A genus of venomous ticks which attack men
and animals. The famous Persian Argas, also called Miana
bug, is A. Persicus; that of Central America, called talaje
by the natives, is A. Talaje.
ArOge6an (?), a. Pertaining to the ship Argo. See Argo.
Ar6gent (?), n. [F. argent, fr. L. argentum, silver; akin to
Gr. ? silver, ?, ?, white, bright, Skr. rajata white,
silver, raj to shine, Ir. arg white, milk, airgiod silver,
money, and L. arguere to make clear. See Argue.] 1. Silver,
or money. [Archaic]
2. (Fig. & Poet.) Whiteness; anything that is white.
The polished argent of her breast.
3. (Her.) The white color in coats of arms, intended to
represent silver, or, figuratively, purity, innocence,
beauty, or gentleness; P represented in engraving by a plain
white surface.
Ar6gent, a. Made of silver; of a silvery color; white;
Yonder argent fields above.
ArOgen6tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to silver; resembling,
containing, or combined with, silver.
Ar6genOtan , n. An alloy of nicked with copper and zinc;
German silver.
Ar6genOtate , a. [L. argentatus silvered.] (Bot.) Silvery
Ar7genOta6tion , n. [L. argentare to silver, fr. argentum
silver. See Argent.] A coating or overlaying with silver.
ArOgen6tic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or
containing, silver; P said of certain compounds of silver in
which this metal has its lowest proportion; as, argentic
Ar7genOtif6erOous (?), a. [L. argentum silver + Oferous: cf.
F. argentif
re.] Producing or containing silver; as,
argentiferous lead ore or veins.
Ar6genOtine (?; in the 2d sense, commonly ?), a. 1.
Pertaining to, or resembling, silver; made of, or sounding
like, silver; silvery.
Celestial Dian, goddess argentine.
2. Of or pertaining to the Argentine Republic in South
Ar6genOtine, n. [Cf. F. argentin, fr. L. argentum silver.]
1. (Min.) A siliceous variety of calcite, or carbonate of
lime, having a silveryPwhite, pearly luster, and a waving
or curved lamellar structure.
2. White metal coated with silver.
3. (Zo.l.) A fish of Europe (Maurolicus Pennantii) with
silvery scales. The name is also applied to various fishes
of the genus Argentina.
4. A citizen of the Argentine Republic.
Ar6genOtite (?), n. [L. argentum silver.] (Min.) Sulphide of
silver; P also called vitreous silver, or silver glance. It
has a metallic luster, a leadPgray color, and is sectile
like lead.
ArOgen6tous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or
containing, silver; P said of certain silver compounds in
which silver has a higher proportion than in argentic
compounds; as, argentous chloride.
Ar6gentOry (?), n. [F. argenterie, fr. argent silver, L.
argentum.] Silver plate or vessels. [Obs.]
Bowls of frosted argentry.
Ar6gil (?), n. [F. argile, L. argilla white clay, akin to
Gr. ? or ? ~, ? white. See Argent.] (Min.) Clay, or potter's
earth; sometimes pure clay, or alumina. See Clay.
Ar7gilOla6ceous (?), a. [L. argillaceus, fr. argilla.] Of
the nature of clay; consisting of, or containing, argil or
clay; clayey.
w sandstone (Geol.), a sandstone containing much clay. P w
iron ore, the clay ironstone. P w schist or state. See
Ar7gilOlif6erOous (?), a. [L. argilla white clay + Oferous.]
Producing clay; P applied to such earths as abound with
Ar6gilOlite (?), n. [Gr. ? clay + Olite.] (Min.)
Argillaceous schist or slate; clay slate. Its colors is
bluish or blackish gray, sometimes greenish gray, brownish
red, etc. P Ar7gilOlit6ic , a.
ArOgil7loPare7eOna6ceous (?), a. Consisting of, or
containing, clay and sand, as a soil.
ArOgil7loPcalOca6reOous (?), a. Consisting of, or
containing, clay and calcareous earth. 
ArOgil7loPferOru6giOnous (?), a. Containing clay and iron.
ArOgil6lous (?), a. [L. argillosus, fr. argilla. See Argil.]
Argillaceous; clayey.
Sir T. Browne.
Ar6give (?), a. [L. Argivus, fr. Argos, Argi.] Of or
performance to Argos, the capital of Argolis in Greece. P n.
A native of Argos. Often used as a generic term, equivalent
to Grecian or Greek.
X Ar6go (?), n. [L. Argo, Gr. ?.] 1. (Myth.) The name of the
ship which carried Jason and his fiftyfour companions to
Colchis, in quest of the Golden Fleece.
2. (Astron.) A large constellation in the southern
hemisphere, called also Argo Navis. In modern astronomy it
is replaced by its three divisions, Carina, Puppis, and
ArOgo6an (?), a. Pertaining to the ship Argo.
Ar6goile (?), n. Potter's clay. [Obs.]
Ar6gol (?), n. [Cf. Argal, Orgal. Of unknown origin.] Crude
tartar; an acidulous salt from which cream of tartar is
prepared. It exists in the juice of grapes, and is deposited
from wines on the sides of the casks.
ArOgol6ic (?), a. [L. Argolicus, Gr. ?.] Pertaining to
Argolis, a district in the Peloponnesus.
Ar6gon (?), n. [Gr. ? inactive.] (Chem.) A substance
regarded as an element, contained in the atmosphere and
remarkable for its chemical inertness.
Rayleigh and Ramsay.
Ar6goOnaut (?), n. [L. Argonauta, Gr. ?; ? + ? sailor, ?
ship. See Argo.] 1. Any one of the legendary Greek heroes
who sailed with Jason, in the Argo, in quest of the Golden
2.(Zo.l.) A cephalopod of the genus Argonauta.
X Ar7goOnau6ta (?), n. (Zo.l.) A genus of Cephalopoda. The
shell is called paper nautilus or paper sailor.
5 The animal has much resemblance to an Octopus. It has
eight arms, two of which are expanded at the end and clasp
the shell, but are never elevated in the air for sails as
was formerly supposed. The creature swims beneath the
surface by means of a jet of water, like other cephalopods.
The male has no shell, and is much smaller than the female.
See He???ocotylus. 
Ar6goOnaut6ic (?), a. [L. Argonauticus.] Of or pertaining to
the Argonauts.
Ar6goOsy (?), n.; pl. Argosies (?). [Earlier ragusy, fr.
ragusa meaning orig. a vessel of Ragusa.] A large ship, esp.
a merchant vessel of the largest size.
Where your argosies with portly sail...
Do overpeer the petty traffickers.
X Ar7got6 (?), n. [F. Of unknown origin.] A secret language
or conventional slang peculiar to thieves, tramps, and
vagabonds; flash.
Ar6guOaOble (?), a. Capable of being argued; admitting of
Ar6gue (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Argued (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arguing.] [OE. arguen, F. arguer, fr. L. argutare, freq. of
arguere to make clear; from the same root as E. argent.] 1.
To invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a
proposition, opinion, or measure; to use arguments; to
I argue not
Against Heaven's hand or will.
2. To contend in argument; to dispute; to reason; P followed
by with; as, you may argue with your friend without
convincing him.
Ar6gue, v. t. 1. To debate or discuss; to treat by
reasoning; as, the counsel argued the cause before a full
court; the cause was well argued.
2. To prove or evince; too manifest or exhibit by inference,
deduction, or reasoning.
So many laws argue so many sins.
3. To persuade by reasons; as, to argue a man into a
different opinion.
4. To blame; to accuse; to charge with. [Obs.]
Thoughts and expressions... which can be truly argued of
obscenity, profaneness, or immorality.
Syn. - to reason; evince; discuss; debate; expostulate;
remonstrate; controvert. P To Argue, Dispute, Debate. These
words, as here compared, suppose a contest between two
parties in respect to some point at issue. To argue is to
adduce arguments or reasons in support of one's cause or
position. To dispute is to call in question or deny the
statements or arguments of the opposing party. To debate is
to strive for or against in a somewhat formal manner by
Men of many words sometimes argue for the sake of talking;
men of ready tongues frequently dispute for the sake of
victory; men in public life often debate for the sake of
opposing the ruling party, or from any other motive than the
love of truth.
Unskilled to argue, in dispute yet loud,
Bold without caution, without honors proud.
Betwixt the dearest friends to raise debate.
Ar6guOer (?), n. One who argues; a reasoner; a disputant.
Ar6guOfy (?), v. t. & i. [Argue + Ofly.] 1. To argue
pertinaciously. [Colloq.]
2. To signify. [Colloq.]
X Ar6guOlus (?), n. [NL., dim of Argus.] (Zo.l.) A genus of
copepod Crustacea, parasitic of fishes; a fish louse. See
Ar6guOment (?), n. [F. argument, L. argumentum, fr. arguere
to argue.] 1. Proof; evidence. [Obs.]
There is.. no more palpable and convincing argument of the
existence of a Deity.
Why, then, is it made a badge of wit and an argument of
parts for a man to commence atheist, and to cast off all
belief of providence, all awe and reverence for religion?
2. A reason or reasons offered in proof, to induce belief,
or convince the mind; reasoning expressed in words; as, an
argument about, concerning, or regarding a proposition, for
or in favor of it, or against it.
3. A process of reasoning, or a controversy made up of
rational proofs; argumentation; discussion; disputation.
The argument is about things, but names.
4. The subject matter of a discourse, writing, or artistic
representation; theme or topic; also, an abstract or
summary, as of the contents of a book, chapter, poem.
You and love are still my argument.
The abstract or argument of the piece.
[Shields] with boastful argument portrayed.
5. Matter for question; business in hand. [Obs.]
Sheathed their swords for lack of argument.
6. (Astron.) The quantity on which another quantity in a
table depends; as, the altitude is the argument of the
7. (Math.) The independent variable upon whose value that of
a function depends.
Brande & C.

<-- p. 81 -->

<-- p. 81 -->

Ar6guOment (?), v. i. [L. argumentari.] To make an argument;
to argue. [Obs.]
Ar7guOmen6taOble (?), a. [L. argumentabilis.] Admitting of
argument. [R.]
Ar7guOmen6tal (?), a. [L. argumentalis.] Of, pertaining to,
or containing, argument; argumentative.
Ar7guOmenOta6tion (?), n. [L. argumentatio, from
argumentari: cf. F. argumentation.] 1. The act of forming
reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and
applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of
inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from
facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true.
Which manner of argumentation, how false and naught it
is,... every man that hath with perceiveth.
2. Debate; discussion.
Syn. - Reasoning; discussion; controversy. See Reasoning. 
Ar7guOmen6taOtive (?), a. 1. Consisting of, or characterized
by, argument; containing a process of reasoning; as, an
argumentative discourse.
2. Adductive as proof; indicative; as, the adaptation of
things to their uses is argumentative of infinite wisdom in
the Creator. [Obs.]
3. Given to argument; characterized by argument;
disputatious; as, an argumentative writer.
P Ar7guOmen6taOtiveOly, adv. P Ar7guOmen6taOtiveOness, n.
Ar6guOmenOtize (?), v. i. To argue or discuss. [Obs.]
X Ar6gus (?), n. [L. Argus, Gr. ?.] 1. (Myth.) A fabulous
being of antiquity, said to have had a hundred eyes, who has
placed by Juno to guard Io. His eyes were transplanted to
the peacock's tail.
2. One very vigilant; a guardian always watchful.
3.(Zo.l.) A genus of East Indian pheasants. The common
species (A. giganteus) is remarkable for the great length
and beauty of the wing and tail feathers of the male. The
species A. Grayi inhabits Borneo.
Ar6gusPeyed (?), a. Extremely observant; watchful;
Ar6gus shell7 (?) . (Zo.l.) A species of shell (Cypr.a
argus), beutifully variegated with spots resembling those in
a peacock's tail.
Ar7guOta6tion (?), n. [L. argutatio. See Argue.] Caviling;
subtle disputation. [Obs.]
ArOgute6 (?), a. [L. argutus, p. p. of arguere. See Argue.]
1. Sharp; shrill. [Obs.] 
2. Sagacious; acute; subtle; shrewd.
The active preacher... the argue schoolman.
ArOgute6ly, adv. In a subtle; shrewdly.
ArOgute6ness, n. Acuteness.
AOrhi6zal (?), AOrhi6zous (?), AOrhyth6Omic (?),
AOrhyth6mous (?), a. See Arrhizal, Arrhizous, Arrhythmic,
X A6riOa (?), n. [It., fr. L. a r. See Air.] (Mus.) An air
or song; a melody; a tune.
5 The Italian term is now mostly used for the more elaborate
accompanied melodies sung by a single voice, in operas,
oratorios, cantatas, anthems, etc., and not so much for
simple airs or tunes. 
Ar6ian (?), a. & n. (Ethnol.) See Aryan.
A6riOan (?), a. [L. Arianus.] Pertaining to Arius, a
presbyter of the church of Alexandria, in the fourth
century, or to the doctrines of Arius, who held Christ to be
inferior to God the Father in nature and dignity, though the
first and noblest of all created beings. P n. One who
adheres to or believes the doctrines of Arius.
A6riOanOism (?), n. The doctrines of the Arians.
A6riOanOize (?), v. i. To admit or accept the tenets of the
Arians; to become an Arian.
A6riOanOize, v. t. To convert to Arianism.
Ar6iOcine (?), n. [From Arica, in Chile.] (Chem.) An
alkaloid, first found in white cinchona bark.
Ar6id (?), a. [L. aridus, fr. arere to be dry: cf. F.
aride.] Exhausted of moisture; parched with heat; dry;
barren. =An arid waste.8
AOrid6iOty (?), n.; pl. Aridities (?). [L. ariditas, fr.
aridus.] 1. The state or quality of being arid or without
moisture; dryness.
2. Fig.: Want of interest of feeling; insensibility; dryness
of style or feeling; spiritual drought.
Ar6idOness (?), n. Aridity; dryness.
A6riOel (?), n., or A6riOel gaOzelle6 (?). [Ar. aryil,
ayyil, stag.] (Zo.l.) A) A variety of the gazelle (Antilope,
or Gazella, dorcas), found in Arabia and adjacent countries.
(b) A squirrelPlike Australian marsupial, a species of
Petaurus. (c) A beautiful Brazilian toucan Ramphastos
X A6riOes , n. [L.] 1. (Astron.) (a) The Ram; the first of
the twelve signs in the zodiac, which the sun enters at the
vernal equinox, about the 21st of March. (b) A constellation
west of Taurus, drawn on the celestial globe in the figure
of a ram.
2. (Rom. Antiq.) A batteringPram.
Ar6iOtate (?), v. i. [L. arietatus, p. p. of arietare, fr.
aries ram.] To butt, as a ram. [Obs.]
Ar7iOeOta6tion (?), n. [L. arietatio.] 1. The act of butting
like a ram; act of using a batteringPram. [Obs.]
2. Act of striking or conflicting. [R.]
X A7riOet6ta (?), Ar7iOette6 (?), } n. [It. arietta, dim. of
aria; F. ariette.] (Mus.) A short aria, or air. =A military
Sir W. Scott.
AOright6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + right.] Rightly; correctly;
in a right way or form; without mistake or crime; as, to
worship God aright.
Ar6il (?), X AOril6lus (?), n. [From LL. arilli dry grapes,
perh. fr. L. aridus dry: cf. F,. arille.] (Bot.) A exterior
covering, forming a false coat or appendage to a seed, as
the loose, transparent bag inclosing the seed or the white
water lily. The mace of the nutmeg is also an aril.
Ar6ilOlate (?). Ar6lOla7ted (?), Ar6iled (?), a. [Cf. NL.
arillatus, F. arill..] Having an aril.
A6riOman (?), n. See Ahriman.
Ar7iOoOla6tion (?), n. [L. ariolatio, hariolatio, fr.
hariolari to prophesy, fr. hariolus soothsayer.] A
soothsaying; a foretelling. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
Ar6iOose (?), a. [It. arioso, fr. aria.] Characterized by
melody, as distinguished from harmony.
Mendelssohn wants the ariose beauty of Handel; vocal melody
is not his forte; the interest of his airs harmonic.

Foreign Quart. Rev.
X A7riOo6so (?), adv. & a. [It.] (Mus.) In the smooth and
melodious style of an air; ariose.
AOrise6 (?), v. i. [ imp. Arose (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arising; p. p. Arisen (?). [AS. >rFsan; > (equiv. to Goth.
usO, urO, G. erO, orig. meaning out) + rFsan to rise; cf.
Goth. urreisan to arise. See Rise.] 1. To come up from a
lower to a higher position; to come above the horizon; to
come up from one's bed or place of repose; to mount; to
ascend; to rise; as, to arise from a kneeling posture; a
cloud arose; the sun ariseth; he arose early in the
2. To spring up; to come into action, being, or notice; to
become operative, sensible, or visible; to begin to act a
part; to present itself; as, the waves of the sea arose; a
persecution arose; the wrath of the king shall arise.
There arose up a new king... which knew not Joseph.
Ex. i. 8.
The doubts that in his heart arose.
3. To proceed; to issue; to spring.
Whence haply mention may arise
Of something not unseasonable to ask.
AOrise6, n. Rising. [Obs.]
AOrist6 (?), 3d sing. pres. of Arise, for ariseth. [Obs.]
X AOris6ta (?), n. [L.] (Bot.) An awn.
Ar6isOtarch (?), n. [From Aristarchus, a Greek grammarian
and critic, of Alexandria, about 200 b. c.] A severe critic.
Ar7isOtar6chiOan (?), a. Severely critical.
Ar6isOtar7chy (?), n. Severely criticism.
Ar6isOtar7chy (?), n. Severe criticism. [Obs.]
Sir J. Harrington.
AOris6tate (?), a. [L. aristatus, fr. arista. See Arista.]
1. (Bot.) Having a pointed, beardlike process, as the glumes
of wheat; awned.
2. (Zo.l.)Having a slender, sharp, or spinelike tip.
Ar7isOtoc6raOcy (?), n.; pl. Aristocracies (?). [Gr. ?; ?
best + ? to be strong, to rule, ? strength; ? is perh. from
the same root as E. arm, and orig. meant fitting: cf. F.
aristocratie. See Arm, and Create, which is related to Gr.
?.] 1. Government by the best citizens.
2. A ruling body composed of the best citizens. [Obs.]
In the Senate
Right not our quest in this, I will protest them
To all the world, no aristocracy.
B. Jonson.
3. A form a government, in which the supreme power is vested
in the principal persons of a state, or in a privileged
order; an oligarchy.
The aristocracy of Venice hath admitted so many abuses,
trough the degeneracy of the nobles, that the period of its
duration seems approach.
4. The nobles or chief persons in a state; a privileged
class or patrician order; (in a popular use) those who are
regarded as superior to the rest of the community, as in
rank, fortune, or intellect.
AOris6toOcrat (?; 277), n. [F. aristocrate. See
Aristocracy.] 1. One of the aristocracy or people of rank in
a community; one of a ruling class; a noble.
2. One who is overbearing in his temper or habits; a proud
or haughty person.
A born aristocrat, bred radical.
Mrs. Browning.
3. One who favors an aristocracy as a form of government, or
believes the aristocracy should govern.
His whole family are accused of being aristocrats.
Ar7isOtoOcrat6ic (?), Ar7isOtoOcrat6icOal (?), } a. [Gr. ?:
cf. F. aristocratique.] 1. Of or pertaining to an
aristocracy; consisting in, or favoring, a government of
nobles, or principal men; as, an aristocratic constitution.
2. Partaking of aristocracy; befitting aristocracy;
characteristic of, or originating with, the aristocracy; as,
an aristocratic measure; aristocratic pride or manners. P 
Ar7isOtoOcrat6icOalOly, adv. P Ar7isOtoOcrat6icOalOness, n.
Ar6isOtoOcrat7ism (?), n. 1. The principles of aristocrats.
2. Aristocrats, collectively. [R.]
Ar7isOtol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? dinner + Ology.] The science
of dining.
Quart. Rev.
Ar7isOtoOphan6ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aristophanes,
the Athenian comic poet.
Ar7isOtoOte6liOan (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to
Aristotle, the famous Greek philosopher (384P322 b. c.). P
n. A follower of Aristotle; a Peripatetic. See Peripatetic.
Ar7isOtoOte6liOanOism (?). The philosophy of Aristotle,
otherwise called the Peripatetic philosophy.
Ar7isOtoOtel6ic (?), a. Pertaining to Aristotle or to his
philosophy. =Aristotelic usage.8
Sir W. Hamilton.
Ar6isOto7tle's lan6tern (?). (Zo.l.) The five united jaws
and accessory ossicles of certain sea urchins.
AOris6tuOlate (?; 135), a. [Dim. fr. arista.] (Bot.)
Pertaining a short beard or awn.
Ar6ithOman7cy (?), n. [Gr. ? number + Omancy.] Divination by
means of numbers.
AOrith6meOtic (?), n. [OE. arsmetike, OF. arismetique, L.
arithmetica, fr. Gr. ? (sc. ?), fr. ? arithmetical, fr. ? to
number, fr. ? number, prob. fr. same root as E. arm, the
idea of counting coming from that of fitting, attaching. See
Arm. The modern Eng. and French forms are accommodated to
the Greek.] 1. The science of numbers; the art of
computation by figures.
2. A book containing the principles of this science.
w of sines, trigonometry. P Political ~, the application of
the science of numbers to problems in civil government,
political economy, and social science. P Universal ~, the
name given by Sir Isaac Newton to algebra.
Ar7ithOmet6icOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to arithmetic;
according to the rules or method of arithmetic.
w complement of a logarithm. See Logarithm. P w mean. See
Mean. P w progression. See Progression. P w proportion. See
Ar7ithOmet6icOalOly, adv. Conformably to the principles or
methods of arithmetic.
AOrith7meOti6cian (?), n. [Cf. F. arithm.ticien.] One
skilled in arithmetic.
AOrith6moOman6cy (?), n. Arithmancy.
Ar7ithOmom6eOter (?), n. [Gr. ? number + Ometer: cf. F.
tre.] A calculating machine.
Ark (?), n. [OE. ark, arke, arche, AS. arc, earc, earce, fr.
L. arca, fr. arcere to inclose, keep off; akin to Gr. ? to
keep off.] 1. A chest, or coffer. [Obs.]
Bearing that precious relic in an ark.
2. (Jewish Hist.) The oblong chest of acacia wood, overlaid
with gold, which supported the mercy seat with its golden
cherubs, and occupied the most sacred place in the
sanctuary. In it Moses placed the two tables of stone
containing the ten commandments. Called also the Ark of the
3. The large, chestlike vessel in which Noah and h?? family
were preserved during the Deluge. Gen. vi. Hence: Any place
of refuge.
4. A large flatboat used on Western American rivers to
transport produce to market.
Ark6ite (?), a. Belonging to the ark. [R.]
Ark6 shell7 (?). (Zo.l.) A marine bivalve shell belonging to
the genus Arca and its allies.
Arles (?), n. pl. [Cf. F. arrhes, Scot. airles. Cf. Earles
penny.] An earnest; earnest money; money paid to bind a
bargain. [Scot.]
w penny, earnest money given to servants.
Arm (?), n. [AS. arm, earm; akin to OHG. aram, G., D., Dan.,
& Sw. arm, Icel. armr, Goth. arms, L. armus arm, shoulder,
and prob. to Gr. ? joining, joint, shoulder, fr. the root ?
to join, to fit together; cf. Slav. rame. ?. See Art,
Article.] 1. The limb of the human body which extends from
the shoulder to the hand; also, the corresponding limb of a
2. Anything resembling an arm; as, (a) The fore limb of an
animal, as of a bear. (b) A limb, or locomotive or
prehensile organ, of an invertebrate animal. (c) A branch of
a tree. (d) A slender part of an instrument or machine,
projecting from a trunk, axis, or fulcrum; as, the arm of a
steelyard. (e) (Naut) The end of a yard; also, the part of
an anchor which ends in the fluke. (f) An inlet of water
from the sea. (g) A support for the elbow, at the side of a
chair, the end of a sofa, etc.
3. Fig.: Power; might; strength; support; as, the secular
arm; the arm of the law.
To whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?
Isa. lii. 1.
Arm's end, the end of the ~; a good distance off. Dryden. P
Arm's length, the length of the ~. P Arm's reach, reach of
the ~; the distance the ~ can reach. P To go (or walk) ~ in
~, to go with the ~ or hand of one linked in the ~ of
another. =When arm in armwe went along.8 Tennyson. P To keep
at arm's length, to keep at a distance (literally or
figuratively); not to allow to come into close contact or
familiar intercourse. P To work at arm's length, to work
Arm, n. [See Arms.] (Mil.) (a) A branch of the military
service; as, the cavalry arm was made efficient. (b) A
weapon of offense or defense; an instrument of warfare; P
commonly in the pl.
Arm, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Armed (?) p. pr. & vb. n. Arming.]
[OE. armen, F. armer, fr. L. armare, fr. arma, pl., arms.
See arms.] 1. To take by the arm; to take up in one's arms.
And make him with our pikes and partisans
A grave: come, arm him.
Arm your prize;
I know you will not lose him.
Two N. Kins.
2. To furnish with arms or limbs. [R.]
His shoulders broad and strong,
Armed long and round.
Beau. & Fl.
3. To furnish or equip with weapons of offense or defense;
as, to arm soldiers; to arm the country.
Abram... armed his trained servants.
Gen. xiv. 14.
4. To cover or furnish with a plate, or with whatever will
add strength, force, security, or efficiency; as, to arm the
hit of a sword; to arm a hook in angling.
5. Fig.: To furnish with means of defense; to prepare for
resistance; to fortify, in a moral sense.
Arm yourselves... with the same mind.
1 Pet. iv. 1.
To ~ a magnet, to fit it with an armature.
Arm, v. i. To provide one's self with arms, weapons, or
means of attack or resistance; to take arms. = 'Ti? time to

<-- p. 82 -->

ArOma6da (?), n. [Sp. armada, L. as if armata (sc. classic
fleet), fr. armatus, p. p. of armare. See Arm, v. t. Army.]
A fleet of armed ships; a squadron. Specifically, the
Spanish fleet which was sent to assail England, a. d. 1558.
Ar7maOdil6lo (?), n.; pl. Armadillos (?). [Sp. armadillo,
dim. of armado armed, p. p. of armar to arm. Do called from
being armed with a bony shell.] (Zo.l.) (a) Any edentate
animal if the family Dasypid., peculiar to America. The body
and head are incased in an armor composed of small bony
plates. The armadillos burrow in the earth, seldom going
abroad except at night. When attacked, they curl up into a
ball, presenting the armor on all sides. Their flesh is good
food. There are several species, one of which (the peba) ?
found as far north as Texas. See Peba, Poyou, Tatouay. (b) A
genus of small isopod Crustacea that can roll themselves
into a ball.
ArOma6do (?), n. Armada. [Obs.]
Ar6maOment (?), n. [L. armamenta, pl., utensils, esp. the
tackle of a ship, fr. armare to arm: cf. LL. armamentum, F.
armement.] 1. A body of forces equipped for war; P used of a
land or naval force. =The whole united armament of Greece.8
2. (Mil. & Nav.) All the cannon and small arms collectively,
with their equipments, belonging to a ship or a
3. Any equipment for resistance.
Ar7maOmen6taOry (?), n. [L. armamentarium, fr. armamentum:
cf. F. armamentaire.] An armory; a magazine or arsenal. [R.]
Ar6maOture (?), n. [L. armatura, fr. armare to arm: cf. F.
armature. See Arm, v. t., Armor.] 1. Armor; whatever is worn
or used for the protection and defense of the body, esp. the
protective outfit of some animals and plants.
2. (Magnetism) A piece of soft iron used to connect the two
poles of a magnet, or electroPmagnet, in order to complete
the circuit, or to receive and apply the magnetic force. In
the ordinary horseshoe magnet, it serves to prevent the
dissipation of the magnetic force.
3. (Arch.) Iron bars or framing employed for the
consolidation of a building, as in sustaining slender
columns, holding up canopies, etc.
Oxf. Gloss.
Arm6chair7 (?), n. A chair with arms to support the elbows
or forearms.
Armed (?), a. 1. Furnished with weapons of offense or
defense; furnished with the means of security or protection.
=And armed host.8
2. Furnished with whatever serves to add strength, force, or
A distemper eminently armed from heaven.
De Foe.
3. (Her.) Having horns, beak, talons, etc; P said of beasts
and birds of prey.
w at all points (Blazoning), completely incased in armor,
sometimes described as armed capP.Ppie. Cussans. P w en
flute. (Naut.) See under Flute. P w magnet, a magnet
provided with an armature. P w neutrality. See under
ArOme6niOan (?), a. [Cf. F. Arm.nien, L. Armenias, fr.
Armenia.] Of or pertaining to Armenia.
w bole, a soft clayey earth of a bright red color found in
Armenia, Tuscany, etc. P w stone. (a) The commercial name of
lapis lazurit. (b) Emery.
ArOme6niOan, n. 1. A native or one of the people of Armenia;
also, the language of the Armenians.
2. (Eccl. Hist.) An adherent of the w Church, an
organization similar in some doctrines and practices to the
Greek Church, in others to the Roman Catholic.
Arm6et (?), n. [F., dim. of arme arm, or corrupted for
healmet helmet.] A kind of helmet worn in the 14th, 15th,
and 16th centuries.
Arm6ful (?), n.; pl. Armfulus (?). As much as the arm can
Arm6gaunt7 (?), a. With gaunt or slender legs (?) =An
armgaunt steed.8
5 This word is peculiar to Shakespeare. Its meaning has not
yet been satisfactorily explained.
Arm6Pgret7 (?), a. Great as a man's arm. [Obs.]
A wreath of gold, armPgret.
Arm6hole7 (?), n. [Arm + hole.] 1. The cavity under the
shoulder; the armpit.
2. A hole for the arm in a garment.
ArOmif6erOous (?), a. [L. armifer; arma arms + ferre to
bear.] Bearing arms or weapons. [R.]
Ar6miOger (?), n. [L. armiger armor bearer; arma arms +
gerere to bear.] Formerly, an armor bearer, as of a knight,
an esquire who bore his shield and rendered other services.
In later use, one next in degree to a knight, and entitled
to armorial bearings. The term is now superseded by esquire.
ArOmig6erOous (?), a. Bearing arms. [R.]
They belonged to the armigerous part of the population, and
were entitled to write themselves Esquire.
De Quincey.
Ar6mil (?), n. [L. armilla a bracelet, fr. armus arm: cf.
OF. armille.] 1. A bracelet. [Obs.]
2. An ancient astronomical instrument.
5 When composed of one ring placed in the plane of the
equator for determining the time of the equinoxes, it is
called an equinoctial armil; when of two or more rings, one
in the plane of the meridian, for observing the solstices,
it is called a solstitial armil.
X ArOmil6la (?), n.; pl. E. Armillas (?), L. Armill. (?).
[L., a bracelet.] 1. An armil.
2. (Zo.l.) A ring of hair or feathers on the legs.
Ar6milOlaOry (?), a. [LL. armillarius, fr. L. armilla arm
ring, bracelet, fr. armus arm: cf. F. armillaire. See Arm,
n.] Pertaining to, or resembling, a bracelet or ring;
consisting of rings or circles.
w sphere, an ancient astronomical machine composed of an
assemblage of rings, all circles of the same sphere,
designed to represent the positions of the important circles
of the celestial sphere.
Arm6ing (?), n. 1. The act of furnishing with, or taking,
The arming was now universal.
2. (Naut.) A piece of tallow placed in a cavity at the lower
end of a sounding lead, to bring up the sand, shells, etc.,
of the sea bottom.
3. pl. (Naut.) Red dress cloths formerly hung fore and aft
outside of a ship's upper works on holidays.
w press (Bookbinding), a press for stamping titles and
designs on the covers of books.
ArOmin6iOan (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to Arminius of his
followers, or to their doctrines. See note under Arminian,
ArOmin6iOan, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One who holds the tenets of
Arminius, a Dutch divine (b. 1560, d. 1609).
The ~ doctrines are: 1. Conditional election and
reprobation, in opposition to absolute predestination. 2.
Universal redemption, or that the atonement was made by
Christ for all mankind, though none but believers can be
partakers of the benefit. 3. That man, in order to exercise
true faith, must be regenerated and renewed by the operation
of the Holy Spirit, which is the gift of God. 4. That man
may resist divine grace. 5. That man may relapse from a
state of grace.
ArOmin6iOanOism (?), n. The religious doctrines or tenets of
the Arminians.
ArOmip6oOtence (?), n. [L. armipotentia, fr. armipotents.]
Power in arms. [R.]
ArOmip6oOtent (?), a. [L. armipotents; arma arms + potens
powerful, p. pr. of posse to be able.] Powerful in arms;
mighty in battle.
The temple stood of Mars armipotent.
ArOmis6oOnant (?), ArOmis6oOnous (?), } a. [L. armisonus;
arma arms + sonare (p. pr. sonans) to sound.] Rustling in
arms; resounding with arms. [Obs.]
Ar6misOtice (?), n. [F. armistice, fr. (an assumed word) L.
armistitium; arma arms + stare, statum (combining form,
Ostitum), to stand still.] A cessation of arms for a short
time, by convention; a temporary suspension of hostilities
by agreement; a truce.
Arm6less (?), a. 1. Without any arm or branch.
2. Destitute of arms or weapons.
Arm6let (?), n. [Arm + Olet.] 1. A small arm; as, an armlet
of the sea.
2. An arm ring; a bracelet for the upper arm.
3. Armor for the arm.
ArOmo6niOac (?), a. Ammoniac. [Obs.]
Ar6mor (?), n. [OE. armure, fr. F. armure, OF. armeure, fr.
L. armatura. See Armature.] [Spelt also armour.] 1.
Defensive arms for the body; any clothing or covering worn
to protect one's person in battle.
5 In English statues, armor is used for the whole apparatus
of war, including offensive as well as defensive arms. The
statues of armor directed what arms every man should
2. Steel or iron covering, whether of ships or forts,
protecting them from the fire of artillery.
Coat ~, the escutcheon of a person or family, with its
several charges and other furniture, as mantling, crest,
supporters, motto, etc. P Submarine , a waterPtight dress or
covering for a diver. See under Submarine.
Ar6morPbear7er (?), n. One who carries the armor or arms of
another; an armiger.
Judg. ix. 54.
Ar6mored (?), a. Clad with armor. 
Ar6morOer (?), n. [OE. armurer, armerer, fr. F. armurter,
fr. armure armor.] 1. One who makes or repairs armor or
2. Formerly, one who had care of the arms and armor of a
knight, and who dressed him in armor.
3. One who has the care of arms and armor, cleans or repairs
them, etc.
ArOmo6riOal (?), a. [F. armorial, fr. armoiries arms, coats
of arms, for armoieries, fr. OF. armoier to paint arms,
coats of arms, fr. armes, fr. L. arma. See Arms, Armory.]
Belonging to armor, or to the heraldic arms or escutcheon of
a family.
Figures with armorial signs of race and birth.
w bearings. See Arms, 4.
ArOmor6ic (?), ArOmor6iOcan (?), } a. [L. Armoricus, fr.
Celtic ar on, at + mor sea.] Of or pertaining to the
northwestern part of France (formerly called Armorica, now
Bretagne or Brittany), or to its people. P n. The language
of the Armoricans, a Celtic dialect which has remained to
the present times.
ArOmor6iOcan, n. A native of Armorica.
Ar6morOist (?), n. [F. armoriste.] One skilled in coat armor
or heraldry.
Ar6morPplat7ed (?), a. Covered with defensive plates of
metal, as a ship of war; steelPclad.
This day will be launched... the first armorPplated steam
frigate in the possession of Great Britain.
Times (Dec. 29, 1860).
Ar6moOry (?), n.; pl. Armories (?). [OF. armaire, armarie,
F. armoire, fr. L. armarium place for keeping arms; but
confused with F. armoiries. See Armorial, Ambry.] 1. A place
where arms and instruments of war are deposited for safe
2. Armor: defensive and offensive arms.
Celestial armory, shields, helms, and spears.
3. A manufactory of arms, as rifles, muskets, pistols,
bayonets, swords. [U.S.]
4. Ensigns armorial; armorial bearings.
5. That branch of heraldry which treats of coat armor.
The science of heraldry, or, more justly speaking, armory,
which is but one branch of heraldry, is, without doubt, of
very ancient origin.
Ar7moOzeen6, Ar7moOzine6 } (?), n. [F. armosin, armoisin.] A
thick plain silk, generally black, and used for clerical.
Arm6pit7 (?), n. [Arm + pit.] The hollow beneath the
junction of the arm and shoulder; the axilla.
Arm6rack7 (?), n. A frame, generally vertical, for holding
small arms.
Arms (?), n. pl. [OE. armes, F. arme, pl. armes, fr. L.
arma, pl., arms, orig. fittings, akin to armus shoulder, and
E. arm. See Arm, n.] 1. Instruments or weapons of offense or
He lays down his arms, but not his wiles.
Three horses and three goodly suits of arms.
2. The deeds or exploits of war; military service or
science. =Arms and the man I sing.8
3. (Law) Anything which a man takes in his hand in anger, to
strike or assault another with; an aggressive weapon.
Cowell. Blackstone.
4. (Her.) The ensigns armorial of a family, consisting of
figures and colors borne in shields, banners, etc., as marks
of dignity and distinction, and descending from father to
5. (Falconry) The legs of a hawk from the thigh to the foot.
Bred to ~, educated to the profession of a soldier. P In ~,
armed for war; in a state of hostility. P Small ~, portable
firearms known as muskets, rifles, carbines, pistols, etc. P
A stand of ~, a complete set for one soldier, as a musket,
bayonet, cartridge box and belt; frequently, the musket and
bayonet alone. P To ~! a summons to war or battle. P Under
~, armed and equipped and in readiness for battle, or for a
military parade. 
Arm's end, Arm's length, Arm's reach. See under Arm.
Ar6mure (?), n. [F. See Armor.] 1. Armor. [Obs.]
2. A variety of twilled fabric ribbed on the surface.
Ar6my (?), n. [F. arm.e, fr. L. armata, fem. of armatus, p.
p. of armare to arm. Cf. Armada.] 1. A collection or body of
men armed for war, esp. one organized in companies,
battalions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, under proper
2. A body of persons organized for the advancement of a
cause; as, the Blue Ribbon Army.
3. A great number; a vast multitude; a host.
An army of good words.
Standing ~, a permanent ~ of professional soldiers, as
distinguished from militia or volunteers.
Ar6my worm7 (?). (Zo.l.) (a) A lepidopterous insect, which
in the larval state often travels in great multitudes from
field to field, destroying grass, grain, and other crops.
The common army worm of the northern United States is
Leucania unipuncta. The name is often applied to other
related species, as the cotton worm. (b) The larva of a
small twoPwinged fly (Sciara), which marches in large
companies, in regular order. See Cotton worm, under Cotton. 
X Ar6na (?), X Ar6nee (?), } n. (Zo.l.) The wild buffalo of
India (Bos, or Bubalus, arni), larger than the domestic
buffalo and having enormous horns.
ArOnat6to (?), n. See Annotto.
Ar6niOca (?), n. [Prob. a corruption of ptarmica.] (Bot.) A
genus of plants; also, the most important species (Arnica
montana), native of the mountains of Europe, used in
medicine as a narcotic and stimulant.
5 The tincture of arnica is applied externally as a remedy
for bruises, sprains, etc.
Ar6niOcin (?), n. [See Arnica.] (Chem.) An active principle
of Arnica montana. It is a bitter resin.
Ar6niOcine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid obtained from the
arnica plant.
Ar6not (?), Ar6nut (?), } n. [Cf. D. aardnoot, E. earthut.]
The earthnut. [Obs.]
ArOnot6to (?), n. Same as Annotto.
A6roid (?), AOroid6eOous (?), a. [Arum + Ooid.] (Bot.)
Belonging to, or resembling, the Arum family of plants.
AOroint6 (?), interj. [Cf. Prov. E. rynt, rynt thee, roynt,
or runt, terms used by milkmaids to a cow that has been
milked, in order to drive her away, to make room for others;
AS. r?man to make room or way, fr. r?m room. The final t is
perh. for ta, for thou. Cf. Room space.] Stand off, or
begone. [Obs.]
Aroint thee, witch, the rumpPfed ronyon cries.
AOroint6, v. t. To drive or scare off by some exclamation.
[R.] =Whiskered cats arointed flee.8 Mrs. Browning.
AOro6ma (?), n. [L. aroma, Gr. ?: cf. OE. aromaz, aromat,
spice, F. aromate.] 1. The quality or principle of plants or
other substances which constitutes their fragrance;
agreeable odor; as, the aroma of coffee.
2. Fig.: The fine diffusive quality of intellectual power;
flavor; as, the subtile aroma of genius.
Ar7oOmat6ic (?), Ar7oOmat6icOal (?), } a. [L. aromaticus,
Gr. ?: cf. F. aromatique. See Aroma.] Pertaining to, or
containing, aroma; fragrant; spicy; strongPscented;
odoriferous; as, aromatic balsam.
<-- p. 83 -->

Aromatic compound (Chem.), one of a large class of organic
substances, as the oils of bitter almonds, wintergreen, and
turpentine, the balsams, camphors, etc., many of which have
an aromatic odor. They include many of the most important of
the carbon compounds and may all be derived from the benzene
group, C6H6. The term is extended also to many of their
derivatives. P Aromatic vinegar. See under Vinegar.
Ar7oOmat6ic (?), n. A plant, drug, or medicine,
characterized by a fragrant smell, and usually by a warm,
pungent taste, as ginger, cinnamon spices.
Ar7oOmat7iOza6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. aromatisation.] The act
of impregnating or secting with aroma.
AOro6maOtize (?; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aromatized (?);
p. pr. & vb. n. Aromatizing.] [ L. aromatizare, Gr. ?: cf.
F. aromatiser.] To impregnate with aroma; to render
aromatic; to give a spicy scent or taste to; to perfume.
AOro6maOti7zer (?), n. One who, or that which, aromatizes or
renders aromatic.
AOro6maOtous (?), a. Aromatic. [Obs.]
Ar6oph (?), n. [A contraction of aroma philosophorum.] A
barbarous word used by the old chemists to designate various
medical remedies. [Obs.]
AOrose6 (?). The past or preterit tense of Arise.
AOround6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + round.] 1. In a circle;
circularly; on every side; round.
2. In a circuit; here and there within the surrounding
space; all about; as, to travel around from town to town.
3. Near; in the neighborhood; as, this man was standing
around when the fight took place. [Colloq. U. S.]
5 See Round, the shorter form, adv. & prep., which, in some
of the meanings, is more commonly used.
AOround6, prep. 1. On all sides of; encircling;
encompassing; so as to make the circuit of; about.
A lambent flame arose, which gently spread
Around his brows.
2. From one part to another of; at random through; about; on
another side of; as, to travel around the country; a house
standing around the corner. [Colloq. U. S.]
AOrous6al (?), n. The act of arousing, or the state of being
Whatever has associated itself with the arousal and activity
of our better nature.
AOrouse6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aroused (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Arousing.] [Pref. aO + rouse.] To excite to action from a
state of rest; to stir, or put in motion or exertion; to
rouse; to excite; as, to arouse one from sleep; to arouse
the dormant faculties.
Grasping his spear, forth issued to arouse
His brother, mighty sovereign on the host.
No suspicion was aroused.
AOrow6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + row.] In a row, line, or rank;
successively; in order.
And twenty, rank in rank, they rode arow.
AOroynt6 (?), interj. See Aroint.
X ArOpeg6gio (?), n. [It., fr. arpeggiare to play on the
harp, fr. arpa harp.] (Mus.) The production of the tones of
a chord in rapid succession, as in playing the harp, and not
simultaneously; a strain thus played.
Ar6pent (?), Ar6pen (?), } n. [F. arpent, fr. L. arepennis,
arapennis. According to Columella, a Gallic word for a
measure equiv. to half a Roman jugerum.] Formerly, a measure
of land in France, varying in different parts of the
country. The arpent of Paris was 46o88 sq. yards, or nearly
five sixths of an English acre. The woodland arpent was
about 1 acre, 1 rood, 1 perch, English.
Ar7penOta6tor (?), n. [See Arpent.] The Anglicized form of
the French arpenteur, a land surveyor. [R.]
Ar6pine (?), n. An arpent. [Obs.]
Webster (1623).
Ar6quaOted (?), a. Shaped like a bow; arcuate; curved. [R.]
Ar6queObus, Ar6queObuse } (?; 277), n. [F. arquebuse, OF.
harquebuse, fr. D. haakPbus; cf. G. hakenb.chse a gun with a
hook. See Hagbut.] A sort of hand gun or firearm a
contrivance answering to a trigger, by which the burning
match was applied. The musket was a later invention.
[Written also harquebus.] 
Ar7queObusOade6 (?), n. [F. arquebusade shot of an arquebus;
eau d'arquebusade a vulnerary for gunshot wounds.] 1. The
shot of an arquebus. 
2. A distilled water from a variety of aromatic plants, as
rosemary, millefoil, etc.; P originally used as a vulnerary
in gunshot wounds.
Ar7queObusOier (?), n. [F. arquebusier.] A soldier armed
with an arquebus.
Soldiers armed with guns, of whatsoever sort or
denomination, appear to have been called arquebusiers.
E. Lodge.
Ar6quiOfoux (?), n. Same as Alquifou.
Ar6rach (?), n. See Orach.
Ar6rack (?; 277), n. [Ar. araq sweat, juice, spirituous
liquor, fr. araqa to sweat. Cf. Rack arrack.] A name in the
East Indies and the Indian islands for all ardent spirits.
Arrack is often distilled from a fermented mixture of rice,
molasses, and palm wine of the cocoanut tree or the date
palm, etc.
ArOrag6oOnite (?), n. See Aragonite.
ArOraign6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arraigned (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Arraigning.] [OE. arainen, arenen, OF. aragnier,
aranier, araisnier, F. arraisonner, fr. LL. arrationare to
address to call before court; L. ad + ratio reason,
reasoning, LL. cause, judgment. See Reason.] 1. (Law) To
call or set as a prisoner at the bar of a court to answer to
the matter charged in an indictment or complaint.
2. To call to account, or accuse, before the bar of reason,
taste, or any other tribunal.
They will not arraign you for want of knowledge.
It is not arrogance, but timidity, of which the Christian
body should now be arraigned by the world.
I. Taylor.
Syn. - To accuse; impeach; charge; censure; criminate;
indict; denounce. See Accuse.
ArOraign6, n. Arraignment; as, the clerk of the arraigns.
Blackstone. Macaulay.

ArOraign6 (?), v. t. [From OF. aramier, fr. LL. adhramire.]
(Old Eng. Law) To appeal to; to demand; as, to arraign an
assize of novel disseizin.
ArOraign6er (?), n. One who arraigns.
ArOraign6ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. arraynement, aresnement.] 1.
(Law) The act of arraigning, or the state of being
arraigned; the act of calling and setting a prisoner before
a court to answer to an indictment or complaint.
2. A calling to an account to faults; accusation.
In the sixth satire, which seems only an Arraignment of the
whole sex, there is a latent admonition.
ArOrai6ment, ArOray6ment (?), n. [From Array, v. t.]
Clothes; raiment. [Obs.]
ArOrange6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arranged ; p. pr. & vb.
n. Arranging (?).] [OE. arayngen, OF. arengier, F. arranger,
fr. a (L. ad) + OF. rengier, rangier, F. ranger. See Range,
v. t.] 1. To put in proper order; to dispose (persons, or
parts) in the manner intended, or best suited for the
purpose; as, troops arranged for battle.
So [they] came to the market place, and there he arranged
his men in the streets.
[They] were beginning to arrange their hampers.
A mechanism previously arranged.
2. To adjust or settle; to prepare; to determine; as, to
arrange the preliminaries of an undertaking.
Syn. - Adjust; adapt; range; dispose; classify.
ArOrange6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. arrangement.] 1. The act of
arranging or putting in an orderly condition; the state of
being arranged or put in order; disposition in suitable
2. The manner or result of arranging; system of parts
disposed in due order; regular and systematic
classification; as, arrangement of one's dress; the
arrangement of plants.
3. Preparatory proceeding or measure; preparation; as, we
have made arrangement for receiving company.
4. Settlement; adjustment by agreement; as, the parties have
made an arrangement between themselves concerning their
disputes; a satisfactory arrangement.
5. (Mus.) (a) The adaptation of a composition to voices or
instruments for which it was not originally written. (b) A
piece so adapted; a transcription; as, a pianoforte
arrangement of Beethoven's symphonies; an orchestral
arrangement of a song, an opera, or the like.
ArOran6ger (?), n. One who arranges.
Ar6rant (?), a. [OE. erraunt, errant, errand, equiv. to E.
errant wandering, which was first applied to vagabonds, as
an errant rogue, an errant thief, and hence passed gradually
into its present and worse sense. See Errant.] Notoriously
or pre minently bad; thorough or downright, in a bad sense;
shameless; unmitigated; as, an arrant rogue or coward.
I discover an arrant laziness in my soul.
2. Thorough or downright, in a good sense. [Obs.]
An arrant honest woman.
Ar6rantOly, adv. Notoriously, in an ill sense; infamously;
impudently; shamefully.
Ar6ras (?), n. [From Arras the capital of Artois, in the
French Netherlands.] Tapestry; a rich figured fabric;
especially, a screen or hangings of heavy cloth with
interwoven figures.
Stateliest couches, with rich arras spread.
Behind the arras I'll convey myself.
Ar6ras, v. t. To furnish with an ~.
Ar7rasOene6 (?), n. [From Arras.] A material of wool or silk
used for working the figures in embroidery.
X ArOras6tre (?), n. [Sp.] A rude apparatus for pulverizing
ores, esp. those containing free gold.
Ar6rasOwise7 (?), Ar6rasOways7 , adv. [Prob. a corruption of
arriswise. See Arris.] Placed in such a position as to
exhibit the top and two sides, the corner being in front; P
said of a rectangular form.
Encyc. Brit. Cussans.
ArOraught6 (?). [The past tense of an old v. areach or
arreach. Cf. Reach, obs. pret. raught.] Obtained; seized.
ArOray6 (?), n. [OE. arai, arrai, OF. arrai, arrei, arroi,
order, arrangement, dress, F. arroi; a (L. ad) + OF. rai,
rei, roi, order, arrangement, fr. G. or Scand.; cf. Goth.
raidjan, garaidjan, to arrange, MHG. gereiten, Icel. rei?i
rigging, harness; akin to E. ready. Cf. Ready, Greith,
Curry.] 1. Order; a regular and imposing arrangement;
disposition in regular lines; hence, order of battle; as,
drawn up in battle array.
Wedged together in the closest array.
2. The whole body of persons thus placed in order; an
orderly collection; hence, a body of soldiers.
A gallant array of nobles and cavaliers.
3. An imposing series of things.
Their long array of sapphire and of gold.
4. Dress; garments disposed in order upon the person; rich
or beautiful apparel. 
5. (Law) (a) A ranking or setting forth in order, by the
proper officer, of a jury as impaneled in a cause. (b) The
panel itself. (c) The whole body of jurors summoned to
attend the court.
To challenge the ~ (Law), to except to the whole panel.
Cowell. Tomlins. Blount. P Commission of ~ (Eng. Hist.), a
commission given by the prince to officers in every county,
to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a
condition for war.
ArOray6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arraying.] [OE. araien, arraien, fr. OE. arraier, arreier,
arreer, arroier, fr. arrai. See Array, n.] 1. To place or
dispose in order, as troops for battle; to marshal.
By torch and trumpet fast arrayed,
Each horseman drew his battle blade.
These doubts will be arrayed before their minds.
2. To deck or dress; to adorn with dress; to cloth to
envelop; P applied esp. to dress of a splendid kind.
Pharaoh... arrayed him in vestures of fine linen.
Gen. xli. ?.
In gelid caves with horrid glo?m arrayed.
3. (Law) To set in order, as a jury, for the trial of a
cause; that is, to call them man by man.
To ~ a panel, to set forth in order the m?n that are
Cowell. Tomlins.
Syn. - To draw up; arrange; dispose; set in order.
ArOray6er , n. One who arrays. In some early English
statutes, applied to an officer who had care of the
soldiers' armor, and who saw them duly accoutered.
ArOrear6 (?), adv. [OE. arere, OF. arere, ariere, F.
re, fr. L. ad + retro backward. See Rear.] To or in
the rear; behind; backwards. [Obs.]
ArOrear6, n. That which is behind in payment, or which
remains unpaid, though due; esp. a remainder, or balance
which remains due when some part has been paid; arrearage; P
commonly used in the plural, as, arrears of rent, wages, or
For much I dread due payment by the Greeks
Of yesterday's arrear.
I have a large arrear of letters to write.
J. D. Forbes.
In ~ or In arrears, behind; backward; behindhand; in debt.
ArOrear6age (?), n. [F. arr.rage, fr. arri
re, OF. arere.
See Arrear.] That which remains unpaid and overdue, after
payment of a part; arrears.
The old arrearages... being defrayed.
ArOrect6 (?), ArOrect6ed, } a. [L. arrectus, p. p. of
arrigere to raise, erect; ad + regere to lead straight, to
direct.] 1. Lifted up; raised; erect.
2. Attentive, as a person listening. [Obs.]
God speaks not the idle and unconcerned hearer, but to the
vigilant and arrect.
ArOrect6, v. t. 1. To direct. [Obs.]
My supplication to you I arrect.
2. [See Aret.] To impute. [Obs.]
Sir T. More.
ArOrect6aOry (?), n. [L. arrectarius, fr. arrigere o set
up.] An upright beam. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
Ar7reOnot6oOkous (?), a. [Gr. ? bearing males; ? a male + ?
a bringing forth.] (Zo.l.) Producing males from unfertilized
eggs, as certain wasps and bees.
Ar7renOta6tion (?)(?). [Cf. F. arrenter to give or take as
rent. See Arendator.] (O. Eng. Law) A letting or renting,
esp. a license to inclose land in a forest with a low hedge
and a ditch, under a yearly rent.
ArOrep6tion (?), n. [L. arripere, arreptum, to seize,
snatch; ad + rapere to snatch. See Rapacious.] The act of
taking away. [Obs.] =This arreption was sudden.8
Bp. Hall.
Ar7repOti6tious (?), a. [L. arreptitius.] Snatched away;
seized or possessed, as a demoniac; raving; mad;
crackPbrained. [Obs.]
Odd, arreptitious, frantic extravagances.
ArOrest6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrested; p. pr. & vb. n.
Arresting.] [OE. aresten, OF. arester, F. arr.ter, fr. LL.
arrestare; L. ad + restare to remain, stop; re + stare to
stand. See Rest remainder.] 1. To stop; to check or hinder
the motion or action of; as, to arrest the current of a
river; to arrest the senses.
Nor could her virtues the relentless hand
Of Death arrest.
2. (Law) To take, seize, or apprehend by authority of law;
as, to arrest one for debt, or for a crime.
5 After his word Shakespeare uses of (=I arrest thee of high
treason8) or on; the modern usage is for.
3. To seize on and fix; to hold; to catch; as, to arrest the
eyes or attention.
4. To rest or fasten; to fix; to concentrate. [Obs.]
We may arrest our thoughts upon the divine mercies.
Jer. Taylor.
Syn. - To obstruct; delay; detain; check; hinder; stop;
apprehend; seize; lay hold of.
ArOrest6, v. i. To tarry; to rest. [Obs.]
ArOrest6, n. [OE. arest, arrest, OF. arest, F. arr.t, fr.
arester. See Arrest, v. t., Arr?t.] 1. The act of stopping,
or restraining from further motion, etc.; stoppage;
hindrance; restraint; as, an arrest of development.
As the arrest of the air showeth.
2. (Law) The taking or apprehending of a person by authority
of law; legal restraint; custody. Also, a decree, mandate,
or warrant.
William... ordered him to be put under arrest.
[Our brother Norway] sends out arrests
On Fortinbras; which he, in brief, obeys.
5 An ~ may be made by seizing or touching the body; but it
is sufficient in the party be within the power of the
officer and submit to the ~. In Admiralty law, and in old
English practice, the term is applied to the seizure of
3. Any seizure by power, physical or moral.
The sad stories of fire from heaven, the burning of his
sheep, etc.,.. were sad arrests to his troubled spirit.
Jer. Taylor.
4. (Far.) A scurfiness of the back part of the hind leg of a
horse; P also named ratOtails.
w of judgment (Law), the staying or stopping of a judgment,
after verdict, for legal cause. The motion for this purpose
is called a motion in arrest of judgment.
Ar7resOta6tion (?), n. [F. arrestation, LL. arrestatio.]
Arrest. [R.]
The arrestation of the English resident in France was
decreed by the National Convention.
H. M. Williams.
Ar7resOtee6 (?), n. [See Arrest, v.] (Scots Law) The person
in whose hands is the property attached by arrestment.
ArOrest6er (?), n. 1. One who arrests.
2. (Scots Law) The person at whose suit an arrestment is
made. [Also written arrestor.]

<-- p. 84 -->

ArOrest6ing (?), a. Striking; attracting attention;
This most solemn and arresting occurrence.
J. H. Newman.
ArOrest6ive (?), a. Tending to arrest.
ArOrest6ment , n. [OF. arrestement.] 1. (Scots Law) The
arrest of a person, or the seizure of his effects; esp., a
process by which money or movables in the possession of a
third party are attached.
2. A stoppage or check.
X ArOr.t (?), n. [F. See Arrest, n.] (F. Law) (a) A
judgment, decision, or decree of a court or high tribunal;
also, a decree of a sovereign. (b) An arrest; a legal
ArOret6 (?), v. t. Same as Aret. [Obs.]
Ar7rhaOphos6tic (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to sew
together.] Seamless. [R.]
ArOrhi6zal (?), ArOrhi6zous (?), } a. [Gr. ? not rooted; ?
priv. + ? a root.] (Bot.) Destitute of a true root, as a
parasitical plant.
ArOrhyth6mic (?), ArOrhyth6mous (?), } a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. +
? rhythm.] (Med.) Being without rhythm or regularity, as the
Ar6rhytOmy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? rhythm.] Want of
rhythm. [R.]
ArOride6 (?), v. t. [L. arridere; ad + ridere to laugh.] To
please; to gratify. [Archaic]
B. Jonson.
Above all thy rarities, old Oxenford, what do most arride
and solace me are thy repositories of moldering learning.
ArOriere6 (?), n. [F. arri
re. See Arrear.] =That which is
behind8; the rear; P chiefly used as an adjective in the
sense of behind, rear, subordinate.
w fee, w fief, a fee or fief dependent on a superior fee, or
a fee held of a feudatory. P w vassal, the vassal of a
ArOriere6Pban7 (?), n. [F., fr. OE. arban, heriban, fr. OHG.
hariban, heriban, G. heerbann, the calling together of an
army; OHG. heri an army + ban a public call or order. The
French have misunderstood their old word, and have changed
it into arri
rePban, though arri
re has no connection with
its proper meaning. See Ban, Abandon.] A proclamation, as of
the French kings, calling not only their immediate
feudatories, but the vassals of these feudatories, to take
the field for war; also, the body of vassals called or
liable to be called to arms, as in ancient France.
Ar6ris (?), n. [OF. areste, F. ar.te, fr. L. arista the top
or beard of an ear of grain, the bone of a fish.] (Arch.)
The sharp edge or salient angle formed by two surfaces
meeting each other, whether plane or curved; P applied
particularly to the edges in moldings, and to the raised
edges which separate the flutings in a Doric column.
P. Cyc.
w fillet, a triangular piece of wood used to raise the
slates of a roof against a chimney or wall, to throw off the
rain. Gwilt. P w gutter, a gutter of a V form fixed to the
eaves of a building. Gwilt.
Ar6rish (?), n. [See Eddish.] The stubble of wheat or grass;
a stubble field; eddish. [Eng.] [Written also arish, ersh,
The moment we entered the stubble or arrish.
Blackw. Mag.
Ar6risOwise7 (?), adv. Diagonally laid, as ??es; ridgewise.
ArOriv6al (?), n. [From Arrive.] 1. The act of arriving, or
coming; the act of reaching a place from a distance, whether
by water (as in its original sense) or by land.
Our watchmen from the towers, with longing eyes,
Expect his swift arrival.
2. The attainment or reaching of any object, by effort, or
in natural course; as, our arrival at this conclusion was
wholly unexpected.
3. The person or thing arriving or which has arrived; as,
news brought by the last arrival.
Another arrival still more important was speedily announced.
4. An approach. [Obs.]
The house has a corner arrival.
H. Walpole.
ArOriv6ance (?), n. Arrival. [Obs.]
ArOrive6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Arrived (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Arriving.] [OE. ariven to arrive, land, OF. ariver, F.
arriver, fr. LL. arripare, adripare, to come to shore; L. ad
+ ripa the shore or sloping bank of a river. Cf. Riparian.]
1. To come to the shore or bank. In present usage: To come
in progress by water, or by traveling on land; to reach by
water or by land; P followed by at (formerly sometimes by
to), also by in and from. =Arrived in Padua.8
[.neas] sailing with a fleet from Sicily, arrived... and
landed in the country of Laurentum.
There was no outbreak till the regiment arrived at Ipswich.
2. To reach a point by progressive motion; to gain or
compass an object by effort, practice, study, inquiry,
reasoning, or experiment.
To ~ at, or attain to.
When he arrived at manhood.
We arrive at knowledge of a law of nature by the
generalization of facts.
If at great things thou wouldst arrive.
3. To come; said of time; as, the time arrived.
4. To happen or occur. [Archaic]
Happy! to whom this glorious death arrives.
ArOrive6, v. t. 1. To bring to shore. [Obs.]
And made the seaPtrod ship arrive them.
2. To reach; to come to. [Archaic]
Ere he arrive the happy isle.
Ere we could arrive the point proposed.
Arrive at last the blessed goal.
ArOrive6, n. Arrival. [Obs.]
How should I joy of thy arrive to hear!
ArOriv6er (?), n. One who arrives.
X ArOro6ba (?), n. [Sp. and Pg., from Ar. arrub, arPrubu, a
fourth part.] 1. A Spanish weight used in Mexico and South
America ? 25736 lbs. avoir.; also, an old Portuguese weight,
used in Brazil ? 32738 lbs. avoir.
2. A Spanish liquid measure for wine ? 3754 imp. gallons,
and for oil ? 2.78 imp. gallons.
Ar6roOgance (?), n. [F., fr. L. arrogantia, fr. arrogans.
See Arrogant.] The act or habit of arrogating, or making
undue claims in an overbearing manner; that species of pride
which consists in exorbitant claims of rank, dignity,
estimation, or power, or which exalts the worth or
importance of the person to an undue degree; proud contempt
of others; lordliness; haughtiness; selfPassumption;
i hate not you for her proud arrogance.
Syn. - Haughtiness; hauteur; assumption; lordliness;
presumption; pride; disdain; insolence; conceit;
conceitedness. See Haughtiness.
Ar6roOganOcy (?), n. Arrogance.
Ar6roOgant (?), a. [F. arrogant, L. arrogans, p. pr. of
arrogare. See Arrogate.] 1. Making, or having the
disposition to make, exorbitant claims of rank or
estimation; giving one's self an undue degree of importance;
assuming; haughty; P applied to persons.
Arrogant Winchester, that haughty prelate.
2. Containing arrogance; marked with arrogance; proceeding
from undue claims or selfPimportance; P applied to things;
as, arrogant pretensions or behavior.
Syn. - Magisterial; lordly; proud; assuming; overbearing;
presumptuous; haughty. See Magisterial.
Ar6roOgantOly, adv. In an arrogant manner; with undue pride
or selfPimportance.
Ar6roOgantOness, n. Arrogance. [R.]
Ar6roOgate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrogated (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Arrogating (?).] [L. arrogatus, p. p. of adrogare,
arrogare, to ask, appropriate to one's self; ad + rogare to
ask. See Rogation.] To assume, or claim as one's own,
unduly, proudly, or presumptuously; to make undue claims to,
from vanity or baseless pretensions to right or merit; as,
the pope arrogated dominion over kings.
He arrogated to himself the right of deciding dogmatically
what was orthodox doctrine.
Ar7roOga6tion (?), n. [L. arrogatio, fr. arrogare. Cf.
Adrogation.] 1. The act of arrogating, or making exorbitant
claims; the act of taking more than one is justly entitled
2. (Civ. Law) Adoption of a person of full age.
Ar6roOgaOtive (?), a. Making undue claims and pretension;
prone to arrogance. [R.]
Dr. H. More.
X Ar7ron7disse7ment6 (?), n. [F., fr. arrondir to make
round; ad + rond round, L. rotundus.] A subdivision of a
department. [France]
5 The territory of France, since the revolution, has been
divided into departments, those into arrondissements, those
into cantons, and the latter into communes.
ArOrose6 (?), v. t. [F. arroser.] To drench; to besprinkle;
to moisten. [Obs.]
The blissful dew of heaven does arrose you.
Two N. Kins.
ArOro6sion (?), n. [L. arrodere, arrosum, to gnaw: cf. F.
arrosion.] A gnawing. [Obs.]
Ar6row (?), n. [OE. arewe, AS. arewe, earh; akin to Icel.
.r, .rvar, Goth. arhwazna, and perh. L. arcus bow. Cf. Arc.]
A missile weapon of offense, slender, pointed, and usually
feathered and barbed, to be shot from a bow.
Broad ~. (a) An ~ with a broad head. (b) A mark placed upon
British ordnance and government stores, which bears a rude
resemblance to a broad arrowhead.
Ar6row grass7 (?), n. (Bot.) An herbaceous grasslike plant
(Triglochin palustre, and other species) with pods opening
so as to suggest barbed arrowheads.
Ar6rowOhead7 (?), n. 1. The head of an arrow.
2. (Bot.) An aquatic plant of the genus Sagittaria, esp. S.
sagittifolia, P named from the shape of the leaves.
Ar6rowOhead7ed, a. Shaped like the head of an arow;
w characters, characters the elements of which consist of
strokes resembling arrowheads, nailheads, or wedges; P hence
called also nailPheaded, wedgePformed, cuneiform, or
cuneatic characters; the oldest written characters used in
the country about the Tigris and Euphrates, and subsequently
in Persia, and abounding among the ruins of Persepolis,
Nineveh, and Babylon. See Cuneiform.
Ar6rowOroot7 (?), n. 1. (Bot.) A west Indian plant of the
genus Maranta, esp. M. arundinacea, now cultivated in many
hot countries. It said that the Indians used the roots to
neutralize the venom in wounds made by poisoned arrows.
2. A nutritive starch obtained from the rootstocks of
Maranta arundinacea, and used as food, esp. for children an
invalids; also, a similar starch obtained from other plants,
as various species of Maranta and Curcuma.
Ar6rowOwood7 (?), n. A shrub (Viburnum dentatum) growing in
damp woods and thickets; P so called from the long,
straight, slender shoots.
Ar6rowOworm7 , n. (Zo.l.) A peculiar transparent worm of the
genus Sagitta, living at the surface of the sea. See
Ar6rowOy (?), a. 1. Consisting of arrows.
How quick they wheeled, and flying, behind them shot
Sharp sleet of arrowy showers.
2. Formed or moving like, or in any respect resembling, an
arrow; swift; darting; piercing. =His arrowy tongue.8
By the blue rushing of the arrowy Rhone.
With arrowy vitalities, vivacities, and ingenuities.
X ArOroy6o (?), n.; pl Arroyos (?). [Sp., fr. LL. arrogium;
cf. Gr. ? river, stream, fr. ? to flow.] 1. A water course;
a rivulet.
2. The dry bed of a small stream. [Western U. S.]
X Ar6schin (?), n. See Arshine.
Arse , n. [AS. ears; .rs; akin to OHG. ars. G. arsch, D.
aars, Sw. ars, Dan. arts, Gr. ? (cf. ? tail).] The buttocks,
or hind part of an animal; the posteriors; the fundament;
the bottom.
Ar6seOnal , n. [Sp. & F. arsenal arsenal, dockyard, or It.
arzanale, arsenale (cf. It. & darsena dock); all fr. Ar.
d>r?in>'a house of industry or fabrication; d>r house + ?in>
art, industry.] A public establishment for the storage, or
for the manufacture and storage, of arms and all military
equipments, whether for land or naval service.
Ar6seOnate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of arsenic acid.
ArOse6niOate , n. See Arsenate. [R.]
Ar6seOnic (?; 277), n. [L. arsenicum, Gr. ?, ?, yellow
orpiment, perh. fr. ? or better Attic ? masculine, ? male,
on account of its strength, or fr. Per. zernFkh: cf. F.
arsenic.] 1. (Chem.) One of the elements, a solid substance
resembling a metal in its physical properties, but in its
chemical relations ranking with the nonmetals. It is of a
steelPgray color and brilliant luster, though usually dull
from tarnish. It is very brittle, and sublimes at 3560
Fahrenheit. It is sometimes found native, but usually
combined with silver, cobalt, nickel, iron, antimony, or
sulphur. Orpiment and realgar are two of its sulphur
compounds, the first of which is the true arsenticum of the
ancients. The element and its compounds are active poisons.
Specific gravity from 5.7 to 5.9. Atomic weight. Symbol As.
2. (Com.) Arsenious oxide or arsenious anhydride; P called
also arsenious acid, white arsenic, and ratsbane.
ArOsen6ic , a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, ~; P
said of those compounds of ~ in which this element hat its
highest equivalence; as, arsenic acid.
ArOsen6icOal , a. Of or pertaining to, or containing,
arsenic; as, arsenical vapor; arsenical wall papers.
~ silver, an ore of silver containing arsenic.
ArOsen6iOcate , v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arsenicated; p. pr. &
vb. n. Arsenicating.] To combine with arsenic; to treat or
impregnate with arsenic.
ArOsen6iOcism , n. (Med.) A diseased condition produced by
slow poisoning with arsenic.
Ar6senOide (?), n. (Chem.) A compound of arsenic with a
metal, or positive element or radical; P formerly called
Ar7senOif6erOous (?), a. [Arsenic + Oferous.] Containing or
producing arsenic.
ArOse6niOous (?), a. [Cf. F. ars.nieux.] 1. Pertaining to,
consisting of, or containing, arsenic; as, arsenious powder
or glass.
2. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, arsenic, when
having an equivalence next lower than the highest; as,
arsenious acid.
Ar6senOite (?), n. [Cf. F. ars.nite.] (Chem.) A salt formed
by the union of arsenious acid with a base.
Ar7seOni6uOret (?), n. (Chem.) See Arsenide.
Ar7seOni6uOret7ed, a.(Chem.) Combined with arsenic; P said
some elementary substances or radicals; as, arseniureted
hydrogen. [Also spelt arseniuretted.]
Ar7senOoOpyr6ite (?), n. [Arsenic + pyrite.] (Min.) A
mineral of a tinPwhite color and metallic luster, containing
arsenic, sulphur, and iron; P also called arsenical pyrites
and mispickel.
Arse6smart (?), n. Smartweed; water pepper.
Dr. Prior.
X Ar6shine (?), n. [Russ. arshin, of TurkishPTartar origin;
Turk. arshin, arsh?n, ell, yard.] A Russian measure of
length = 2 ft. 4.246 inches.
Ar6sine (?), n. [From Arsenic.] (Chem.) A compound of
arsenic and hydrogen, AsH3, a colorless and exceedingly
poisonous gas, having and odor like garlic; arseniureted
X Ar6sis (?), n. [L. arsis, Gr. ? a raising or lifting, an
elevation of the voice, fr. ? to raise or apprehension;
originally and properly it denotes the lifting of the hand
in beating time, and hence the unaccented part of the
rhythm.] 1. (Pros.) (a) That part of a foot where the ictus
is put, or which is distinguished from the rest (known as
the thesis) of the foot by a greater stress of voice.
Hermann. (b) That elevation of voice now called metrical
accentuation, or the rhythmic accent.
5 It is uncertain whether the arsis originally consisted in
a higher musical tone, greater volume, or longer duration of
sound, or in all combined.
2. (Mus.) The elevation of the hand, or that part of the bar
at which it is raised, in beating time; the weak or
unaccented part of the bar; P opposed to thesis.
Ars7met6rike (?), n. [An erroneous form of arithmetic, as if
from L. ars metrica the measuring art.] Arithmetic. [Obs.]
Ar6son (?; 277), n. [OF. arson, arsun, fr. L. ardere, arsum,
to burn.] (Law) The malicious burning of a dwelling house or
outhouse of another man, which by the common law is felony;
the malicious and voluntary firing of a building or ship.
5 The definition of this crime is varied by statues in
different countries and states. The English law of ~ has
been considerably modified in the United States; in some of
the States it has been materially enlarged, while in others,
various degrees of ~ have been established, with
corresponding punishment.
Art (?). The second person singular, indicative mode,
present tense, of the substantive verb Be; but formed after
the analogy of the plural are, with the ending Ot, as in
thou shalt, witt, orig. an ending of the second person sing.
pret. Cf. Be. Now used only in solemn or poetical style.

<-- p. 85 -->

Art (?), n. [F. art, L. ars, artis, orig., skill in joining
or fitting; prob. akin to E. arm, aristocrat, article.] 1.
The employment of means to accomplish some desired end; the
adaptation of things in the natural world to the uses of
life; the application of knowledge or power to practical
Blest with each grace of nature and of art.
2. A system of rules serving to facilitate the performance
of certain actions; a system of principles and rules for
attaining a desired end; method of doing well some special
work; P often contradistinguished from science or
speculative principles; as, the art of building or
engraving; the art of war; the art of navigation.
Science is systematized knowledge... Art is knowledge made
efficient skill.
J. F. Genung.
3. The systematic application of knowledge or skill in
effecting a desired result. Also, an occupation or business
requiring such knowledge or skill.
The fishermen can't employ their art with so much success in
so troubled a sea.
4. The application of skill to the production of the
beautiful by imitation or design, or an occupation in which
skill is so employed, as in painting and sculpture; one of
the fine arts; as, he prefers art to literature.
5. pl. Those branches of learning which are taught in the
academical course of colleges; as, master of arts.
In fearless youth we tempt the heights of arts.
Four years spent in the arts (as they are called in
colleges) is, perhaps, laying too laborious a foundation.
6. Learning; study; applied knowledge, science, or letters.
So vast is art, so narrow human wit.
7. Skill, dexterity, or the power of performing certain
actions, asquired by experience, study, or observation;
knack; a, a man has the art of managing his business to
8. Skillful plan; device.
They employed every art to soothe... the discontented
9. Cunning; artifice; craft.
Madam, I swear I use no art at all.
Animals practice art when opposed to their superiors in
10 To black art; magic. [Obs.]
w and part (Scots Law), share or concern by aiding and
abetting a criminal in the perpetration of a crime, whether
by advice or by assistance in the execution; complicity.
5 The arts are divided into various classes. The useful,
mechanical, or industrial arts are those in which the hands
and body are concerned than the mind; as in making clothes
and utensils. These are called trades. The fine arts are
those which have primarily to do with imagination taste, and
are applied to the production of what is beautiful. They
include poetry, music, painting, engraving, sculpture, and
architecture; but the term is often confined to painting,
sculpture, and architecture. The liberal arts (artes
liberales, the higher arts, which, among the Romans, only
freemen were permitted to pursue) were, in the Middle Ages,
these seven branches of learning, P grammar, logic,
rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. In
modern times the liberal arts include the sciences,
philosophy, history, etc., which compose the course of
academical or collegiate education. Hence, degrees in the
arts; master and bachelor of arts. 
In America, literature and the elegant arts must grow up
side by side with the coarser plants of daily necessity.
Syn. - Science; literature; aptitude; readiness; skill;
dexterity; adroitness; contrivance; profession; business;
trade; calling; cunning; artifice; duplicity. See Science.
X ArOte6miOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, a Greek goddess.]
(Zo.l.) A genus of phyllopod Crustacea found in salt lakes
and brines; the brine shrimp. See Brine shrimp.
Ar7teOmi6siOa (?), n. [L. Artemisia, Gr. ?.] (Bot.) A genus
of plants including the plants called mugwort, southernwood,
and wormwood. Of these A. absinthium, or common wormwood, is
well known, and A. tridentata is the sage brush of the Rocky
Mountain region.
ArOte6riOac (?), a. [L. arteriacus, Gr. ?. See Artery.] Of
or pertaining to the windpipe.
ArOte6riOal (?), a. [Cf. F. art.riel.] 1. Of or pertaining
to an artery, or the arteries; as, arterial action; the
arterial system.
2. Of or pertaining to a main channel (resembling an
artery), as a river, canal, or railroad.
w blood, blood which has been changed and vitalized
(arterialized) during passage through the lungs.
ArOte7riOalOiOza6tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The process of
converting venous blood into arterial blood during its
passage through the lungs, oxygen being absorbed and
carbonic acid evolved; P called also a ration and hematosis.
ArOte6riOalOize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arterialized ; p.
pr. & vb. n. Arterializing.] To transform, as the venous
blood, into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen in the
lungs; to make arterial.
ArOte7riOog6raOphy , n. [Gr. ? + Ography.] A systematic
description of the arteries.
ArOte6riOole (?), n. [NL. arteriola, dim. of L. arteria: cf.
F. art.riole.] A small artery.
ArOte7riOol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? + Ology.] That part of
anatomy which treats of arteries.
ArOte7riOot6oOmy (?), n. [L. arteriotomia, Gr. ?; ? + ? a
cutting.] 1. (Med.) The opening of an artery, esp. for
2. That part of anatomy which treats of the dissection of
the arteries.
X Ar7teOri6tis (?), n. [Artery + Oetis.] Inflammation of an
artery or arteries.
Ar6terOy (?), n.; pl. Arteries (?). [L. arteria windpipe,
artery, Gr. ?.] 1. The trachea or windpipe. [Obs.] =Under
the artery, or windpipe, is the mouth of the stomach.8
2. (Anat.) One of the vessels or tubes which carry either
venous or arterial blood from the heart. They have tricker
and more muscular walls than veins, and are connected with
them by capillaries.
5 In man and other mammals, the arteries which contain
arterialized blood receive it from the left ventricle of the
heart through the aorta. See Aorta. The pulmonary artery
conveys the venous blood from the right ventricle to the
lungs, whence the arterialized blood is returned through
the pulmonary veins.
3. Hence: Any continuous or ramified channel of
communication; as, arteries of trade or commerce.
ArOte6sian (?), a. [F. art.sien, fr. Artois in France, where
many such wells have been made since the middle of the last
century.] Of or pertaining to Artois (anciently called
Artesium), in France.
w wells, wells made by boring into the earth till the
instrument reaches water, which, from internal pressure,
flows spontaneously like a fountain. They are usually of
small diameter and often of great depth.
Art6ful (?), a. [From Art.] 1. Performed with, or
characterized by, art or skill. [Archaic] =Artful strains.8
=Artful terms.8
2. Artificial; imitative.
3. Using or exhibiting much art, skill, or contrivance;
dexterous; skillful.
He [was] too artful a writer to set down events in exact
historical order.
4. Cunning; disposed to cunning indirectness of dealing;
crafty; as, an artful boy. [The usual sense.]
Artful in speech, in action, and in mind.
The artful revenge of various animals.
Syn. - Cunning; skillful; adroit; dexterous; crafty; tricky;
deceitful; designing. See Cunning.
Art6fulOly, adv. In an artful manner; with art or cunning;
skillfully; dexterously; craftily.
Art6fulOness, n. The quality of being artful; art; cunning;
Ar6then (?), a. Same as Earthen. [Obs.] =An arthen pot.8
ArOthrit6ic (?), ArOthrit6icOal (?), } a. [L. arthriticus,
Gr. ?. See Arthritis.] 1. Pertaining to the joints. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
2. Of or pertaining to arthritis; gouty.
X ArOthri6tis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ? (as if fem. of ?
belonging to the joints, sc. ? disease) gout, fr. ? a
joint.] (Med.) Any inflammation of the joints, particularly
the gout.
Ar6throOderm (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + 'derm.] (Zo.l.) The
external covering of an Arthropod.
X ArOthro6diOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? well
articulated; ? a joint + ? shape.] (Anat.) A form of
diarthrodial articulation in which the articular surfaces
are nearly flat, so that they form only an imperfect ball
and socket.
ArOthro6diOal (?), ArOthrod6ic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to
X Ar7throOdyn6iOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ?? pain.]
(Med.) An affection characterized by pain in or about a
joint, not dependent upon structural disease.
Ar7throOdyn6ic , a. Pertaining to arthrodynia, or pain in
the joints; rheumatic.
X Ar7throOgas6tra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ?
stomach.] (Zo.l.) A division of the Arachnida, having the
abdomen annulated, including the scorpions, harvestmen,
etc.; pedipalpi.
ArOthrog6raOphy (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + Ography.] The
description of joints.
ArOthrol6oOgy , n. [Gr. ? joint + Ology.] That part of
anatomy which treats of joints.
Ar6throOmere (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + Omere.] (Zo.l.) One of
the body segments of Arthropods. See Arthrostraca.
X Ar7throOpleu6ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? the
side.] (Zo.l.) The side or limbPbearing portion of an
Ar6throOpod (?), n (Zo.l.) One of the Arthropoda.
X ArOthrop6oOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + Opoda.]
(Zo.l.) A large division of Articulata, embracing all those
that have jointed legs. It includes Insects, Arachnida,
Pychnogonida, and Crustacea. P ArOthrop6oOdal (?), a.
X Ar7throOpom6aOta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ?
lid.] (Zo.l.) One of the orders of Branchiopoda. See
X ArOthro6sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? joint.] (Anat.)
X ArOthros6traOca , n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? a
shell.] (Zo.l.) One of the larger divisions of Crustacea, so
called because the thorax and abdomen are both segmented;
Tetradecapoda. It includes the Amphipoda and Isopoda.
Ar7throOzo6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? joint + ? animal, fr. ? an
animal.] (Zo.l.) Of or pertaining to the Articulata;
Ar6tiOad (?), a. [Gr. ? even, fr. ? exactly.] (Chem.) Even;
not odd; P said of elementary substances and of radicals the
valence of which is divisible by two without a remainder.
Ar6tiOchoke (?), n. [It. articioc?o, perh. corrupted fr. the
same word as carciofo; cf. older spellings archiciocco,
archicioffo, carciocco, and Sp. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra;
prob. fr. Ar. alPharshaf, alPkharsh?f.] (Bot.) 1. The Cynara
scolymus, a plant somewhat resembling a thistle, with a
dilated, imbricated, and prickly involucre. The head (to
which the name is also applied) is composed of numerous oval
scales, inclosing the florets, sitting on a broad
receptacle, which, with the fleshy base of the scales, is
much esteemed as an article of food.
2. See Jerusalem artichoke.
Ar6tiOcle (?), n. [F., fr. L. articulus, dim. of artus
joint, akin to Gr. ?, fr. a root ar to join, fit. See Art,
n.] 1. A distinct portion of an instrument, discourse,
literary work, or any other writing, consisting of two or
more particulars, or treating of various topics; as, an
article in the Constitution. Hence: A clause in a contract,
system of regulations, treaty, or the like; a term,
condition, or stipulation in a contract; a concise
statement; as, articles of agreement.
2. A literary composition, forming an independent portion of
a magazine, newspaper, or cyclopedia.
3. Subject; matter; concern; distinct. [Obs.]
A very great revolution that happened in this article of
good breeding.
This last article will hardly be believed.
De Foe.
4. A distinct part. =Upon each article of human duty.8
Paley. =Each article of time.8 Habington.
The articles which compose the blood.
E. Darwin.
5. A particular one of various things; as, an article of
merchandise; salt is a necessary article.
They would fight not for articles of faith, but for articles
of food.
6. Precise point of time; moment. [Obs. or Archaic]
This fatal news coming to Hick's Hall upon the article of my
Lord Russell's trial, was said to have had no little
influence on the jury and all the bench to his prejudice.
7. (Gram.) One of the three words, a, an, the, used before
nouns to limit or define their application. A (or an) is
called the indefinite article, the the definite article.
8. (Zo.l.) One of the segments of an articulated appendage.
Articles of Confederation, the compact which was first made
by the original thirteen States of the United States. They
were adopted March 1, 1781, and remained the supreme law
until March, 1789. P Articles of impeachment, an instrument
which, in cases of impeachment, performs the same office
which an indictment does in a common criminal case. P
Articles of war, rules and regulations, fixed by law, for
the better government of the army. P In the ~ of death [L.
in articulo mortis], at the moment of death; in the dying
struggle. P Lords of the articles (Scot. Hist.), a standing
committee of the Scottish Parliament to whom was intrusted
the drafting and preparation of the acts, or bills for laws.
P The ThirtyPnine Articles, statements (thirtyPnine in
number) of the tenets held by the Church of England.
Ar6tiOcle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Articled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Articling (?).] [Cf. F. articuler, fr. L. articulare. See
Article, n., Articulate.] 1. To formulate in articles; to
set forth in distinct particulars.
If all his errors and follies were articled against him, the
man would seem vicious and miserable.
Jer. Taylor.
2. To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles.
He shall be articled against in the high court of admiralty.
Stat. 33 Geo. III.
3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to
article an apprentice to a mechanic.
Ar6tiOcle, v. i. To agree by articles; to stipulate; to
bargain; to covenant. [R.]
Then he articled with her that he should go away when he
Ar6tiOcled (?), a. Bound by articles; apprenticed; as, an
articled clerk.
ArOtic6uOlar (?), a. [L. articularis: cf. F. articulaire.
See Article, n.] Of or pertaining to the joints; as, an
articular disease; an articular process.
ArOtic6uOlar (?), ArOtic6uOlaOry (?), } n. (Anat.) A bone in
the base of the lower jaw of many birds, reptiles,
amphibians, and fishes.

<-- p. 86 -->

ArOtic6uOlarOly , adv. In an articular or an articulate
X ArOtic7uOla6ta (?), n. pl. [Neut. pl. from L. articulatus
furnished with joints, distinct, p. p. of articulare. See
Article, v.] (Zo.l.) 1. One of the four subkingdoms in the
classification of Cuvier. It has been much modified by later
5 It includes those Invertebrata having the body composed of
ringlike segments (arthromeres). By some writers, the
unsegmented worms (helminths) have also been included; by
others it is restricted to the Arthropoda. It corresponds
nearly with the Annulosa of some authors. The chief
subdivisions are Arthropoda (Insects, Myriapoda, Arachnida,
Pycnogonida, Crustacea); and Anarthropoda, including the
Annelida and allied forms.
2. One of the subdivisions of the Brachiopoda, including
those that have the shells united by a hinge.
3. A subdivision of the Crinoidea.
ArOtic6uOlate (?), a. [L. articulatus. See Articulata.] 1.
Expressed in articles or in separate items or particulars.
2. Jointed; formed with joints; consisting of segments
united by joints; as, articulate animals or plants.
3. Distinctly uttered; spoken so as to be intelligible;
characterized by division into words and syllables; as,
articulate speech, sounds, words.
Total changes of party and articulate opinion.
ArOtic6uOlate, n. (Zo.l.) An animal of the subkingdom
ArOtic6uOlate (?)(?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Articulated (?);
p. pr. & vb. n. Articulating (?). 1. To utter ~ sounds; to
utter the elementary sounds of a language; to enunciate; to
speak distinctly.
2. To treat or make terms. [Obs.]
3. To join or be connected by articulation.
ArOtic6uOlate, v. t. 1. To joint; to unite by means of a
joint; to put together with joints or at the joints.
2. To draw up or write in separate articles; to
particularize; to specify. [Obs.]
3. To form, as the elementary sounds; to utter in distinct
syllables or words; to enunciate; as, to articulate letters
or language. =To articulate a word.8
4. To express distinctly; to give utterance to.
Luther articulated himself upon a process that hand already
begun in the Christian church.
Bibliotheca Sacra.
To... articulate the dumb, deep want of the people.
ArOtic6uOla7ted (?), a. 1. United by, or provided with,
articulations; jointed; as, an articulated skeleton.
2. Produced, as a letter, syllable, or word, by the organs
of speech; pronounced.
ArOtic6uOlateOly (?), adv. 1. After the manner, or in the
form, of a joint.
2. Article by article; in distinct particulars; in detail;
I had articulately set down in writing our points.
3. With distinct utterance of the separate sounds.
ArOtic6uOlateOness, n. Quality of being articulate.
ArOtic7uOla6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. articulation, fr. L.
articulatio.] 1. (Anat.) A joint or juncture between bones
in the skeleton.
5 Articulations may be immovable, when the bones are
directly united (synarthrosis), or slightly movable, when
they are united intervening substance (amphiarthrosis), or
they may be more or less freely movable, when the articular
surfaces are covered with synovial membranes, as in complete
joints (diarthrosis). The last (diarthrosis) includes hinge
joints, admitting motion in one plane only (ginglymus), ball
and socket joints (enarthrosis), pivot and rotation joints,
2. (Bot.) (a) The connection of the parts of a plant by
joints, as in pods. (b) One of the nodes or joints, as in
cane and maize. (c) One of the parts intercepted between the
joints; also, a subdivision into parts at regular or
irregular intervals as a result of serial intermission in
growth, as in the cane, grasses, etc.
3. The act of putting together with a joint or joints; any
meeting of parts in a joint.
4. The state of being jointed; connection of parts. [R.]
That definiteness and articulation of imagery.
5. The utterance of the elementary sounds of a language by
the appropriate movements of the organs, as in
pronunciation; as, a distinct articulation.
6. A sound made by the vocal organs; an articulate utterance
or an elementary sound, esp. a consonant.
ArOtic6uOlaOtive (?), a. Of or pertaining to articulation.
ArOtic6uOla7tor (?), n. One who, or that which, articulates;
as: (a) One who enunciates distinctly. (b) One who prepares
and mounts skeletons. (c) An instrument to cure stammering.
X ArOtic6uOlus (?)(?) n.; pl. Articuli (?). [L. See
Article.] (Zo.l.) A joint of the cirri of the Crinoidea; a
joint or segment of an arthropod appendage.
Ar6tiOfice (?), n. [L. artificium, fr. artifex artificer;
ars, artis, art + facere to make: cf. F. artifice.] 1. A
handicraft; a trade; art of making. [Obs.]
2. Workmanship; a skillfully contrived work.
The material universe.. in the artifice of God, the artifice
of the best Mechanist.
3. Artful or skillful contrivance.
His [Congreve's] plots were constructed without much 
4. Crafty device; an artful, ingenious, or elaborate trick.
[Now the usual meaning.]
Those who were conscious of guilt employed numerous
artifices for the purpose of averting inquiry.
ArOtif6iOcer (?), n. [Cf. F. artificier, fr. LL.
artificiarius.] 1. An artistic worker; a mechanic or
manufacturer; one whose occupation requires skill or
knowledge of a particular kind, as a silversmith.
2. One who makes or contrives; a deviser, inventor, or
framer. =Artificer of fraud.8
The great Artificer of all that moves.
3. A cunning or artful fellow. [Obs.] 
B. Jonson.
4. (Mil.) A military mechanic, as a blacksmith, carpenter,
etc.; also, one who prepares the shells, fuses, grenades,
etc., in a military laboratory.
Syn. - Artisan; artist. See Artisan.
Ar7tiOfi6cial (?), a. [L. artificialis, fr. artificium: cf.
F. artificiel. See Artifice.] 1. Made or contrived by art;
produced or modified by human skill and labor, in opposition
to natural; as, artificial heat or light, gems, salts,
minerals, fountains, flowers.
Artificial strife
Lives in these touches, livelier than life.
2. Feigned; fictitious; assumed; affected; not genuine.
=Artificial tears.8
3. Artful; cunning; crafty. [Obs.]
4. Cultivated; not indigenous; not of spontaneous growth;
as, artificial grasses.
w arguments (Rhet.), arguments invented by the speaker, in
distinction from laws, authorities, and the like, which are
called inartificial arguments or proofs. Johnson. P w
classification (science), an arrangement based on
superficial characters, and not expressing the true natural
relations species; as, =the artificial system8 in botany,
which is the same as the system. P w horizon. See
under Horizon. w light, any light other than that which
proceeds from the heavenly bodies. P w lines, lines on a
sector or scale, so contrived as to represent the
logarithmic sines and tangents, which, by the help of the
line of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, questions
in trigonometry, navigation, etc. P w numbers, logarithms. P
w person (Law). See under Person. P w sines, tangents, etc.,
the same as logarithms of the natural, tangents, etc.
Ar7tiOfi7ciOal6iOty (?), n. The quality or appearance of
being artificial; that which is artificial.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOize (?), v. t. To render artificial.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOly, adv. 1. In an artificial manner; by art,
or skill and contrivance, not by nature.
2. Ingeniously; skillfully. [Obs.]
The spider's web, finely and artificially wrought.
3. Craftily; artfully. [Obs.]
Sharp dissembled so artificially.
Bp. Burnet.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOness, n. The quality of being artificial.
Ar7tiOfi6cious (?), a. [L. artificiosus.] Artificial. [Obs.]
Art6iOlize (?), v. t. To make resemble. [Obs.]
If I was a philosopher, says Montaigne, I would naturalize
art instead of artilizing nature.
ArOtil6lerOist (?), n. A person skilled in artillery or
gunnery; a gunner; an artilleryman.
ArOtil6lerOy (?), n. [OE. artilrie, OF. artillerie,
arteillerie, fr. LL. artillaria, artilleria, machines and
apparatus of all kinds used in war, vans laden with arms of
any kind which follow camps; F. artillerie great guns,
ordnance; OF. artillier to work artifice, to fortify, to
arm, prob. from L. ars, artis, skill in joining something,
art. See Art.] 1. Munitions of war; implements for warfare,
as slings, bows, and arrows. [Obs.]
And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad.
1 Sam. xx. 40.
2. Cannon; great guns; ordnance, including guns, mortars,
howitzers, etc., with their equipment of carriages, balls,
bombs, and shot of all kinds.
5 The word is sometimes used in a more extended sense,
including the powder, cartridges, matches, utensils,
machines of all kinds, and horses, that belong to a train of
3. The men and officers of that branch of the army to which
the care and management of ~ are confided.
4. The science of ~ or gunnery.
w park, or Park of ~. (a) A collective body of siege or
field ~, including the guns, and the carriages, ammunition,
appurtenances, equipments, and persons necessary for working
them. (b) The place where the ~ is encamped or collected. P
w train, or Train of ~, a number of pieces of ordnance
mounted on carriages, with all their furniture, ready for
ArOtil6lerOyOman (?), n. A man who manages, or assists in
managing, a large gun in firing.
X Ar7tiOoOdac6tyOla (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? even + ?
finger or toe.] (Zo.l.) One of the divisions of the ungulate
animals. The functional toes of the hind foot are even in
number, and the third digit of each foot (corresponding to
the middle finger in man) is asymmetrical and paired with
the fourth digit, as in the hog, the sheep, and the ox; P
opposed to Perissodactyla.
Ar7tiOoOdac6tyle (?), n. (Zo.l.) One of the Artiodactyla.
Ar7tiOoOdac6tyOlous (?), a. (Zo.l.) EvenPtoed.
Ar6tiOsan (?; 277), n. [F. artisan, fr. L. artitus skilled
in arts, fr. ars, artis, art: cf. It. artigiano. See Art,
n.] 1. One who professes and practices some liberal art; an
artist. [Obs.]
2. One trained to manual dexterity in some mechanic art or
trade; and handicraftsman; a mechanic.
This is willingly submitted to by the artisan, who can...
compensate his additional toil and fatigue.
Syn. - Artificer; artist. P Artisan, Artist, Artificer. An
artist is one who is skilled in some one of the fine arts;
an artisan is one who exercises any mechanical employment. A
portrait painter is an artist; a sign painter is an artisan,
although he may have the taste and skill of an artist. The
occupation of the former requires a fine taste and delicate
manipulation; that of the latter demands only an ordinary
degree of contrivance and imitative power. An artificer is
one who requires power of contrivance and adaptation in the
exercise of his profession. The word suggest neither the
idea of mechanical conformity to rule which attaches to the
term artisan, nor the ideas of refinement and of peculiar
skill which belong to the term artist.
Art6ist (?), n. [F. artiste, LL. artista, fr. L. ars. See
Art, n., and cf. Artiste.] 1. One who practices some
mechanic art or craft; an artisan. [Obs.]
How to build ships, and dreadful ordnance cast,
Instruct the articles and reward their.
2. One who professes and practices an art in which science
and taste preside over the manual execution.
5 The term is particularly applied to painters, sculptors,
musicians, engravers, and architects.
3. One who shows trained skill or rare taste in any manual
art or occupation.
4. An artful person; a schemer. [Obs.]
Syn. - Artisan. See Artisan.
X ArOtiste6 (?), n. [F. See Artist.] One peculiarly
dexterous and tasteful in almost any employment, as an opera
dancer, a hairdresser, a cook.
5 This term should not be confounded with the English word
ArOtis6tic , ArOtis6ticOal (?), } a. [Cf. F. artistique, fr.
artiste.] Of or pertaining to art or to artists; made in the
manner of an artist; conformable to art; characterized by
art; showing taste or skill. P ArOtis6ticOalOly, adv.
Art6istOry (?), n. 1. Works of art collectively.
2. Artistic effect or quality.
3. Artistic pursuits; artistic ability.
The Academy.
Art6less (?), a. 1. Wanting art, knowledge, or skill;
ignorant; unskillful.
Artless of stars and of the moving sand.
2. Contrived without skill or art; inartistic. [R.]
Artless and massy pillars.
T. Warton.
3. Free from guile, art, craft, or stratagem; characterized
by simplicity and sincerity; sincere; guileless; ingenuous;
honest; as, an artless mind; an artless tale.
They were plain, artless men, without the least appearance
of enthusiasm or credulity about them.
O, how unlike the complex works of man,
Heaven's easy, artless, unencumbered plan!
Syn. - Simple; unaffected; sincere; undesigning; guileless;
unsophisticated; open; frank; candid.
Art6lessOly, adv. In an artless manner; without art, skill,
or guile; unaffectedly.
Art6lessOness, n. The quality of being artless, or void of
art or guile; simplicity; sincerity.
Art6ly, adv. With art or skill. [Obs.]
Ar7toOcar6peOous (?), Ar7toOcar6pous (?), } a. [Gr. ? bread
+ ? fruit.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the breadfruit, or to
the genus Artocarpus.
Ar6toOtype (?), n. [Art + type.] A kind of autotype.
Ar7toOty6rite (?), n. [LL. Artotyritae, pl., fr. Gr. ? bread
+ ? cheese.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect in the primitive
church, who celebrated the Lord's Supper with bread and
cheese, alleging that the first oblations of men not only
of the fruit of the earth, but of their flocks. [Gen. iv. 3,
Ar6tow (?). A contraction of art thou. [Obs.]
Arts6man (?), n. A man skilled in an art or in arts. [Obs.]
Art7 un6ion (?). An association for promoting art (esp. the
arts of design), and giving encouragement to artists.
X A6rum , n. [L. arum, aros, Gr. ?.] A genus of plants found
in central Europe and about the Mediterranean, having
flowers on a spadix inclosed in a spathe. The cuckoopint of
the English is an example.
Our common arums the lords and ladies of village children.
5 The American =Jack in the pulpit8 is now separated from
the genus Arum.
Ar7unOdel6ian (?), a. Pertaining to an Earl of Arundel; as,
Arundel or Arundelian marbles, marbles from ancient Greece,
bought by the Earl of Arundel in 1624.
Ar7unOdif6erOous , a. [L. arundifer; arundo reed + ferre to
bear.] Producing reeds or canes.
AOrun7diOna6ceous (?), a. [L. arundinaceus, fr. arundo
reed.] Of or pertaining to a reed; resembling the reed or
Ar7unOdin6eOous (?), a. [L. arundineus, fr. arundo reed.]
Abounding with reeds; reedy.
X AOrus6pex (?), n.; pl. Aruspices (?). [L. aruspex or
haruspex.] One of the class of diviners among the Etruscans
and Romans, who foretold events by the inspection of the
entrails of victims offered on the altars of the gods.
AOrus6pice (?), n. [L. aruspex: cf. F. aruspice. Cf.
Aruspex, Haruspice.] A soothsayer of ancient Rome. Same as
Aruspex. [Written also haruspice.]
AOrus6piOcy (?), n. [L. aruspicium, haruspicium.]
Prognostication by inspection of the entrails of victims
slain sacrifice.
Ar6val (?), n. [W. arwyl funeral; ar over + wylo to weep, or
cf. arf.l; Icel. arfr inheritance + Sw. .l ale. Cf. Bridal.]
A funeral feast. [North of Eng.]
Ar6viOcole (?), n. [L. arvum field + colere to inhabit.]
(Zo.l.) A mouse of the genus Arvicola; the meadow mouse.
There are many species.
Ar6yan (?), n. [Skr. >rya excellent, honorable; akin to the
name of the country Iran, and perh. to Erin, Ireland, and
the early name of this people, at least in Asia.] 1. One of
a primitive people supposed to have lived in prehistoric
times, in Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, and north
of the Hindoo ???? and Paropamisan Mountains, and to have
been the stock from which sprang the Hindoo, Persian, Greek,
Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, and other races; one of
that ethnological division of mankind called also
IndoPEuropean or IndoPGermanic.

<-- p. 87 -->

2. The language of the original Aryans. 
[Written also Arian.] 
Ar6yan (?), a. Of or pertaining to the people called Aryans;
IndoPEuropean; IndoPGermanic; as, the Aryan stock, the Aryan
Ar6yanOize , v. t. To make Aryan (a language, or in
K. Johnston.
AOryt6eOnoid (?), a. [Gr. ? shaped like a ladle; ? a ladle +
? form.] (Anat.) LadlePshaped; P applied to two small
cartilages of the larynx, and also to the glands, muscles,
etc., connected with them. The cartilages are attached to
the cricoid cartilage and connected with the vocal cords.
As (?), adv. & conj. [OE. as, als, alse, also, al swa, AS.
eal sw>, lit. all so; hence, quite so, quite as: cf. G. als
as, than, also so, then. See Also.] 1. Denoting equality or
likeness in kind, degree, or manner; like; similar to; in
the same manner with or in which; in accordance with; in
proportion to; to the extent or degree in which or to
which; equally; no less than; as, ye shall be as gods,
knowing good and evil; you will reap as you sow; do as you
are bidden.
His spiritual attendants adjured him, as he loved his soul,
to emancipate his brethren.
5 As is often preceded by one of the antecedent or
correlative words such, same, so, or as, in expressing an
equality or comparison; as, give us such things as you
please, and so long as you please, or as long as you please;
he is not so brave as Cato; she is as amiable as she is
handsome; come as quickly as possible. =Bees appear
fortunately to prefer the same colors as we do.8 Lubbock.
As, in a preceding part of a sentence, has such or so to
answer correlatively to it; as with the people, so with the
2. In the idea, character, or condition of, P limiting the
view to certain attributes or relations; as, virtue
considered as virtue; this actor will appear as Hamlet.
The beggar is greater as a man, than is the man merely as a
3. While; during or at the same time that; when; as, he
trembled as he spoke.
As I return I will fetch off these justices.
4. Because; since; it being the case that.
As the population of Scotland had been generally trained to
arms... they were not indifferently prepared.
Sir W. Scott.
[See Synonym under Because.]
5. Expressing concession. (Often approaching though in
We wish, however, to avail ourselves of the interest,
transient as it may be, which this work has excited.
6. That, introducing or expressing a result or consequence,
after the correlatives so and such.[Obs.]
I can place thee in such abject state, as help shall never
find thee.
So ~, so that. [Obs.]
The relations are so uncertain as they require a great deal
of examination.
7. As if; as though. [Obs. or Poetic]
He lies, as he his bliss did know.
8. For instance; by way of example; thus; P used to
introduce illustrative phrases, sentences, or citations.
9. Than. [Obs. & R.]
The king was not more forward to bestow favors on them as
they free to deal affronts to others their superiors.
10 Expressing a wish. [Obs.] =As have,8 i. e., may he have.

As... as. See So... as, under So. P As far as, to the extent
or degree. =As far as can be ascertained.8 Macaulay. P As
far forth as, as far as. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As for, or As to,
in regard to; with respect to. P As good as, not less than;
not falling short of. P As good as one's word, faithful to a
promise. P As if, or As though, of the same kind, or in the
same condition or manner, that it would be if. P As it were
(as it were), a qualifying phrase used to apologize for or
to relieve some expression which might be regarded as
inappropriate or incongruous; in a manner. P As now, just
now. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As swythe, as quickly as possible.
[Obs.] Chaucer. P As well, also; too; besides. Addison. P As
well as, equally with, no less than. =I have understanding
as well as you.8 Job xii. 3. P As yet, until now; up to or
at the present time; still; now.
As (?), n. [See Ace.] An ace. [Obs.]
AmbesPas, double aces.
X As (?), n.; pl. Asses (?). [L. as. See Ace.] 1. A Roman
weight, answering to the libra or pound, equal to nearly
eleven ounces Troy weight. It was divided into twelve
2. A Roman copper coin, originally of a pound weight (12
oz.); but reduced, after the first Punic war, to two ounces;
in the second Punic war, to one ounce; and afterwards to
half an ounce.
X As6a (?), n. [NL. asa, of oriental origin; cf. Per. az>
mastic, Ar. as> healing, is> remedy.] An ancient name of a
As7aOfet6iOda, As7aOf?t6iOda } (?), n. [Asa + L. foetidus
fetid.] The fetid gum resin or inspissated juice of a large
umbelliferous plant (Ferula asaf?tida) of Persia and the
East India. It is used in medicine as an antispasmodic.
[Written also assaf?tida.]
X As6aOphus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? indistinct, uncertain.]
(Paleon.) A genus of trilobites found in the Lower Silurian
formation. See Illust. in Append.
X As7aOraObac6ca (?), n. [L. asarum + bacca a berry. See
Asarone.] (Bot.) An acrid herbaceous plant (Asarum, the leaves and roots of which are emetic and
cathartic. It is principally used in cephalic snuffs.
As6aOrone (?), n. [L. asarum hazelwort, wild spikenard, Gr.
?] (Chem.) A crystallized substance, resembling camphor,
obtained from the Asarum; P called also camphor of
AsObes6tic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling
asbestus; inconsumable; asbestine.
AsObes6tiOform (?), a. [L. asbestus + Oform.] Having the
form or structure of asbestus.
AsObes6tine (?), a. Of or pertaining to asbestus, or
partaking of its nature; incombustible; asbestic.
AsObes6tous (?), a. Asbestic.
AsObes6tus (?), AsObes6tos (?; 277), } n. [L. asbestos (NL.
asbestus) a kind of mineral unaffected by fire, Gr. ? (prop.
an adj.) inextinguishable; ? priv. + ? to extinguish.]
(Min.) A variety of amphibole or of pyroxene, occurring in
long and delicate fibers, or in fibrous masses or seams,
usually of a white, gray, or greenPgray color. The name is
also given to a similar variety of serpentine.
5 The finer varieties have wrought into gloves and cloth
which are incombustible. The cloth was formerly used as a
shroud for dead bodies, and has been recommended for
firemen's clothes. Asbestus in also employed in the
manufacture of iron sa?es, for fireproof roofing, and for
lampwicks. Some varieties are called amianthus.
Ab6soOlin (?), n. [Gr. ? soot.] (Chem.) A peculiar acrid and
bitter oil, obtained from wood soot.
As6caOrid (?), n.; pl. Ascarides (?) or Ascarids. [NL.
ascaris, fr. Gr. ?.] (Zo.l.) A parasitic nematoid worm,
espec. the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, often occurring
in the human intestine and allied species found in domestic
animals; also commonly applied to the pinworm (Oxyuris),
often troublesome to children and aged persons.
AsOcend6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ascended; p. pr. & vb. n.
Ascending.] [L. ascendere; ad + scandere to climb, mount.
See Scan.] 1. To move upward; to mount; to go up; to rise; P
opposed to descend.
Higher yet that star ascends.
I ascend unto my father and your father.
John xx. 17.
Formerly used with up.
The smoke of it ascended up to heaven.
2. To rise, in a figurative sense; to proceed from an
inferior to a superior degree, from mean to noble objects,
from particulars to generals, from modern to ancient times,
from one note to another more acute, etc.; as, our inquiries
ascend to the remotest antiquity; to ascend to our first
Syn. - To rise; mount; climb; scale; soar; tower.
AsOcend6, v. t. To go or move upward upon or along; to
climb; to mount; to go up the top of; as, to ascend a hill,
a ladder, a tree, a river, a throne.
AsOcend6aOble (?), a. Capable of being ascended.
AsOcend6anOcy (?), AsOcend6ance (?), } n. Same as
AsOcend6ant (?), n. [F. ascendant, L. ascendens; p. pr. of
ascendere.] 1. Ascent; height; elevation. [R.]
Sciences that were then in their highest ascendant.
2. (Astrol.) The horoscope, or that degree of the ecliptic
which roses above the horizon at the moment of one's birth;
supposed to have a commanding influence on a person's life
and fortune.
5 Hence the phrases To be in the ~, to have commanding power
or influence, and Lord of the ~, one who has possession of
such power or influence; as, to rule, for a while, lord of
the ascendant.
3. Superiority, or commanding influence; ascendency; as, one
man has the ascendant over another.
Chievres had acquired over the mind of the young monarch the
ascendant not only of a tutor, but of a parent.
4. An ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy or degrees
of kindred; a relative in the ascending line; a progenitor;
P opposed to descendant.
AsOcend6ant (?), AsOcend6ent (?), } a. 1. Rising toward the
zenith; above the horizon.
The constellation... about that time ascendant.
2. Rising; ascending.
3. Superior; surpassing; ruling.
An ascendant spirit over him.
The ascendant community obtained a surplus of wealth.
J. S. Mill.
Without some power of persuading or confuting, of defending
himself against accusations, ... no man could possibly hold
an ascendent position.
AsOcend6enOcy (?), n. Governing or controlling influence;
domination; power.
An undisputed ascendency.
Custom has an ascendency over the understanding.
Syn. - Control; authority; influence; sway' dominion;
prevalence; domination.
AsOcend6iOble (?), a. [L. ascendibilis.] Capable of being
ascended; climbable.
AsOcend6ing, a. Rising; moving upward; as, an ascending
kite. P AsOcend6ingOly, adv.
w latitude (Astron.), the increasing latitude of a planet.
Ferguson. P w line (Geneal.), the line of relationship
traced backward or through one's ancestors. One's father and
mother, grandfather and grandmother, etc., are in the line
direct ascending. P w nodehaving, that node of the moon or
a planet wherein it passes the ecliptic to proceed
northward. It is also called the northern node. Herschel. P
w series. (Math.) (a) A series arranged according to the ~
powers of a quantity. (b) A series in which each term is
greater than the preceding. P w signs, signs east of the
AsOcen6sion , n. [F. ascension, L. ascensio, fr. ascendere.
See Ascend.] 1. The act of ascending; a rising; ascent.
2. Specifically: The visible ascent of our Savior on the
fortieth day after his resurrection. (Acts i. 9.) Also,
Ascension Day.
3. An ascending or arising, as in distillation; also that
which arises, as from distillation.
Vaporous ascensions from the stomach.
Sir T. Browne.
w Day, the Thursday but one before Whitsuntide, the day on
which commemorated our Savior's ~ into heaven after his
resurrection; P called also Holy Thursday. P Right ~
(Astron.), that degree of the equinoctial, counted from the
beginning of Aries, which rises with a star, or other
celestial body, in a right sphere; or the arc of the equator
intercepted between the first point of Aries and that point
of the equator that comes to the meridian with the star; P
expressed either in degrees or in time. P Oblique ~
(Astron.), an arc of the equator, intercepted between the
first point of Aries and that point of the equator which
rises together with a star, in an oblique sphere; or the arc
of the equator intercepted between the first point of Aries
and that point of the equator that comes to the horizon with
a star. It is little used in modern astronomy.
AsOcen6sionOal (?), a. Relating to ascension; connected with
ascent; ascensive; tending upward; as, the ascensional power
of a balloon.
w difference (Astron.), the difference between oblique and
right ascension; P used chiefly as expressing the difference
between the time of the rising or setting of a body and six
o'clock, or six hours from its meridian passage.
AsOcen6sive (?), a. [See Ascend.] 1. Rising; tending to
rise, or causing to rise. 
2. (Gram.) Augmentative; intensive.
AsOcent6 (?). [Formed like descent, as if from a F. ascente,
fr. a verb ascendre, fr. L. ascendere. See Ascend, Descent.]
1. The act of rising; motion upward; rise; a mounting
upward; as, he made a tedious ascent; the ascent of vapors
from the earth.
To him with swift ascent he up returned.
2. The way or means by which one ascends.
3. An eminence, hill, or high place.
4. The degree of elevation of an object, or the angle it
makes with a horizontal line; inclination; rising grade; as,
a road has an ascent of five degrees. 
As7cerOtain6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ascertained (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Ascertaining.] [OF. acertener; a (L. ad) +
certain. See Certain.] 1. To render (a person) certain; to
cause to feel certain; to make confident; to assure; to
apprise. [Obs.]
When the blessed Virgin was so ascertained.
Jer. Taylor.
Muncer assured them that the design was approved of by
Heaven, and that the Almighty had in a dream ascertained him
of its effects.
2. To make (a thing) certain to the mind; to free from
obscurity, doubt, or change; to make sure of; to fix; to
determine. [Archaic]
The divine law... ascertaineth the truth.
The very deferring [of his execution] shall increase and 
ascertain the condemnation.
Jer. Taylor.
The ministry, in order to ascertain a majority... persuaded
the queen to create twelve new peers.
The mildness and precision of their laws ascertained the
rule and measure of taxation.
3. To find out or learn for a certainty, by trial,
examination, or experiment; to get to know; as, to ascertain
the weight of a commodity, or the purity of a metal. 
He was there only for the purpose of ascertaining whether a
descent on England was practicable.
As7cerOtain6aOble (?), a. That may be ascertained. P
As7cerOtain6aObleOness, n. P As7cerOtain6aObly, adv.
As7cerOtain6er (?), n. One who ascertains.
As7cerOtain6ment (?), n. The act of ascertaining; a reducing
to certainty; a finding out by investigation; discovery.
The positive ascertainment of its limits.
AsOces6sanOcy (?), n. AsOces6sant (?), a. See Acescency,
Acescent. [Obs.]
AsOcet6ic (?) a. [Gr. ?, fr. ? to exercise, to practice
gymnastics.] Extremely rigid in selfPdenial and devotions;
austere; severe.
The stern ascetic rigor of the Temple discipline.
Sir W. Scott.
AsOcet6ic, n. In the early church, one who devoted himself
to a solitary and contemplative life, characterized by
devotion, extreme selfPdenial, and selfPmortification; a
hermit; a recluse; hence, one who practices extreme rigor
and selfPdenial in religious things.
I am far from commending those ascetics that take up their
quarters in deserts.
w theology, the science which treats of the practice of the
theological and moral virtues, and the counsels of
Am. Cyc.
AsOcet6iOcism (?), n. The condition, practice, or mode of
life, of ascetics.
As6cham (?), n. [From Roger Ascham, who was a great lover of
archery.] A sort of cupboard, or case, to contain bows and
other implements of archery.
X As6ci , n. pl. See Ascus.
As6cian , n. One of the Ascii.
AsOcid6iOan (?), n. [Gr. ? bladder, pouch.] (Zo.l.) One of
the Ascidioidea, or in a more general sense, one of the
Tunicata. Also as an Adj.
X AsOcid7iOa6riOum (?), n. [NL. See Ascidium.] (Zo.l.) The
structure which unites together the ascidiozooids in a
compound ascidian.
AsOcid6iOform , a. [Gr. ? a pouch + Oform.] (Zo.l.) Shaped
like an ascidian.
X AsOcid7iOoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. ascidium + Ooid.
See Ascidium.] (Zo.l.) A group of Tunicata, often shaped
like a twoPnecked bottle. The group includes, social, and
compound species. The gill is a netlike structure within the
oral aperture. The integument is usually leathery in
texture. See Illustration in Appendix.

<-- p. 88 -->

AsOcid7iOoOzo6oid (?), n. [Ascidium + zooid.] (Zo.l.) One
of the individual members of a compound ascidian. See
X AsOcid6iOum (?), n.; pl. Ascidia (?). [NL., fr. ascus. See
Ascus.] 1. (Bot.) A pitcherPshaped, or flaskPshaped, organ
or appendage of a plant, as the leaves of the pitcher plant,
or the little bladderlike traps of the bladderwort
2. pl. (Zo.l.) A genus of simple ascidians, which formerly
included most of the known species. It is sometimes used as
a name for the Ascidioidea, or for all the Tunicata.
AsOcig6erOous (?), a. [Ascus + Ogerous.] (Bot.) Having asci.
X As6ciOi (?), As6cians (?), } n. pl. [L. ascii, pl. of
ascius, Gr. ? without shadow; ? priv. + ? shadow.] Persons
who, at certain times of the year, have no shadow at noon; P
applied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have,
twice a year, a vertical sun.
X AsOci6tes (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ? (sc. ? disease), fr. ?
bladder, belly.] (Med.) A collection of serous fluid in the
cavity of the abdomen; dropsy of the peritoneum.
AsOcit6ic (?), AsOcit6icOal (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or
affected by, ascites; dropsical.
As7ciOti6tious (?), a. [See Adscititious.] Supplemental; not
inherent or original; adscititious; additional; assumed.
Homer has been reckoned an ascititious name.
AsOcle6piOad (?), n. (Gr. & L. Pros.) A choriambic verse,
first used by the Greek poet Asclepias, consisting of four
feet, viz., a spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus.
AsOcle7piOaOda6ceous , a. [See Asclepias.] (Bot.) Of,
pertaining to, or resembling, plants of the Milkweed family.
X AsOcle6piOas , n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, named from Asclepios or
Aesculapius.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including the
milkweed, swallowwort, and some other species having
medicinal properties.
w butterfly (Zo.l.), a large, handsome, red and black
butterfly (Danais Archippus), found in both hemispheres. It
feeds on plants of the genus Asclepias.
X As7coOcoc6cus (?), n.; pl. Ascococci (?). [NL., fr. Gr. ?
bladder, bag + ? kernel.] (Biol.) A form of micrococcus,
found in putrid meat infusions, occurring in peculiar
masses, each of which is inclosed in a hyaline capsule and
contains a large number of spherical micrococci.
As6coOspore (?), n. [Ascus + spore.] (Bot.) One of the
spores contained in the asci of lichens and fungi. [See
Illust. of Ascus.]
AsOcrib6aOble (?), a. Capable of being ascribed;
AsOcribe6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ascribed (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Ascribing.] [L. ascribere, adscribere, to ascribe; ad
+ scribere to write: cf. OF. ascrire. See Scribe.] 1. To
attribute, impute, or refer, as to a cause; as, his death
was ascribed to a poison; to ascribe an effect to the right
cause; to ascribe such a book to such an author.
The finest [speech] that is ascribed to Satan in the whole
2. To attribute, as a quality, or an appurtenance; to
consider or allege to belong.
Syn. - To Ascribe, Attribute, Impute. Attribute denotes, 1.
To refer some quality or attribute to a being; as, to
attribute power to God. 2. To refer something to its cause
or source; as, to attribute a backward spring to icebergs
off the coast. Ascribe is used equally in both these senses,
but involves a different image. To impute usually denotes to
~ something doubtful or wrong, and hence, in general
literature, has commonly a bad sense; as, to impute unworthy
motives. The theological sense of impute is not here taken
into view.
More than goodPwill to me attribute naught.
Ascribes his gettings to his parts and merit.
And fairly quit him of the imputed blame.
As6cript (?), a. See Adscript. [Obs.]
AsOcrip6tion (?), n. [L. ascriptio, fr. ascribere. See
Ascribe.] The act of ascribing, imputing, or affirming to
belong; also, that which is ascribed.
As7cripOti6tious (?), a. [L. ascriptitius, fr. ascribere.]
1. Ascribed.
2. Added; additional. [Obs.]
An ascriptitious and supernumerary God.
As6cus (?), n.; pl Asci (?). [NL., fr. Gr. ? a bladder.]
(Bot.) A small membranous bladder or tube in which are
inclosed the seedlike reproductive particles or sporules of
lichens and certain fungi.
APsea , adv. [Pref. aO + sea.] On the sea; at sea; toward
the sea.
AOsep6tic (?), a. [Pref. aO not + septic.] Not liable to
putrefaction; nonputrescent. P n. An ~ substance.
AOsex6uOal (?; 135), a. [Pref. aO not + sexual.] (Biol.)
Having no distinct; without sexual action; as, asexual
reproduction. See Fission and Gemmation.
AOsex6uOalOly (?), adv. In an asexual manner; without sexual
Ash (?), n. [OE. asch, esh, AS. .sc; akin to OHG. asc, Sw. &
Dan. ask, Icel. askr, D. esch, G. esche.] 1. (Bot.) A genus
of trees of the Olive family, having opposite pinnate
leaves, many of the species furnishing valuable timber, as
the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the white ash (F.
Prickly ~ (Zanthoxylum Americanum) and Poison ~ (R??s
venerala) are shrubs of different families, somewhat
resembling the true ashes in their foliage. P Mountain ~.
See Roman tree, and under Mountain. 
2. The tough, elastic wood of the ~ tree.
Ash is used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound
term; as, ash bud, ash wood, ash tree, etc.
Ash, n., sing. of Ashes.
5 Ash is rarely used in the singular except in connection
with chemical or geological products; as, soda ash, coal
which yields a red ash, etc., or as a qualifying or
combining word; as, ash bin, ash heap, ash hole, ash pan,
ash pit, ashPgrey, ashPgrey, ashPcolored, pearlash, potash.
Bone ~, burnt powered; bone earth. P Volcanic ~. See under
Ash, v. t. To strew or sprinkle with ashes.
AOshame (?), v. t. [Pref. aO + shame: cf. AS. >scamian to
shame (where >O is the same as Goth. usO, G. erO, and orig.
meant out), gescamian, gesceamian, to shame.] To shame. [R.]
AOshamed6 (?), a. [Orig. a p. p. of ashame, v. t.] Affected
by shame; abashed or confused by guilt, or a conviction or
consciousness of some wrong action or impropriety. =I am
ashamed to beg.8
All that forsake thee shall be ashamed.
Jer. xvii. 13.
I began to be ashamed of sitting idle.
Enough to make us ashamed of our species.
An ashamed person can hardly endure to meet the gaze of
those present.
5 Ashamed seldom precedes the noun or pronoun it qualifies.
By a Hebraism, it is sometimes used in the Bible to mean
disappointed, or defeated.
AOsham6edOly (?), adv. Bashfully. [R.]
Ash7anOtee6 (?), n.; pl. Ashantees (?). A native or an
inhabitant of Ashantee in Western Africa.
Ash7anOtee6, a. Of or pertaining to Ashantee.
Ash6Pcol7ored (?), a. Of the color of ashes; a whitish gray
or brownish gray.
Ash6en (?), a. [See Ash, the tree.] Of or pertaining to the
ash tree. =Ashen poles.8
Ash6en, a. Consisting of, or resembling, ashes; of a color
between brown and gray, or white and gray.
The ashen hue of age.
Sir W. Scott.
Ash6en (?), n., obs. pl. for Ashes.
Ash6erOy (?), n. 1. A depository for ashes.
2. A place where potash is made.
Ash6es (?), n. pl. [OE. asche, aske, AS. asce, .sce, axe;
akin to OHG. asca, G. asche, D. asch, Icel. & Sw. aska, Dan.
aske, Goth. azgo.] 1. The earthy or mineral particles of
combustible substances remaining after combustion, as of
wood or coal.
2. Specifically: The remains of the human body when burnt,
or when 8returned to dust8 by natural decay.
Their martyred blood and ashes sow.
The coffins were broken open. The ashes were scattered to
the winds.
3. The color of ashes; deathlike paleness.
The lip of ashes, and the cheek of flame.
In dust and ~, In sackcloth and ~, with humble expression of
grief or repentance; P from the method of mourning in
Eastern lands. P Volcanic ~, or Volcanic ash, the loose,
earthy matter, or small fragments of stone or lava, ejected
by volcanoes. 
Ash6Ofire , n. A low fire used in chemical operations.
Ash6Pfur7nace (?), Ash6Pov7en (?), n. A furnace or oven for
fritting materials for glass making.
AOschine6 (?), a. Shining; radiant.
Ash6lar, Ash6ler } (?), n. [OE. ascheler, achiler, OF.
aiseler, fr. aiselle, dim. of ais plank, fr. L. axis, assis,
plank, axle. See Axle.] 1. (Masonry) (a) Hewn or squared
stone; also, masonry made of squared or hewn stone.
Rough ashlar, a block of freestone as brought from the
quarry. When hammerOdressed it is known as common ashlar.
(b) In the United States especially, a thin facing of
squared and dressed stone upon a wall of rubble or brick.
2. (Carp.) One of the short upright pieces or studs between
the floor beams and the rafters of a garret. Ashlar pieces
cut off the sharp angles between the floor and ceiling.
Ash6larOing, Ash6lerOing, } n. 1. The act of bedding ashlar
in mortar.
2. Ashlar when in thin slabs and made to serve merely as a
case to the body of the wall.
Brande & C.
3. (Carp.) The short upright pieces between the floor beams
and rafters in garrets. See Ashlar, 2.
AOshore6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + shore.] On shore or on land;
on the land adjacent to water; to the shore; to the land;
aground (when applied to a ship); P sometimes opposed to
aboard or afloat.
Here shall I die ashore.
I must fetch his necessaries ashore.
Ash6toOreth (?), n.; pl. Ashtaroth (?). The principal female
divinity of the Ph?nicians, as Baal was the principal male
W. Smith.
Ash7 Wednes6day (?). The first day of Lent; P so called from
a custom in the Roman Catholic church of putting ashes, on
that day, upon the foreheads of penitents.
Ash6weed7 (?), n. (Bot.) [A corruption of achePweed; F.
ache. So named from the likeness of its leaves to those of
ache (celery).] Goutweed.
Ash6y (?), a. 1. Pertaining to, or composed of, ?shes;
filled, or strewed with, ashes.
2. AshPcolored; whitish gray; deadly pale.
w pale, pale as ~.
A6sian (?), a. [L. Asianus, Gr. ?, fr. ?, L. Asia.] Of or
pertaining to Asia; Asiatic. =Asian princes.8 Jer. Taylor. P
n. An Asiatic.
A6siOarch (?), n. [L. Asiarcha, Gr. ?; ? + ? ruler.] One of
the chiefs or pontiffs of the Roman province of Asia, who
had the superintendence of the public games and religious
A7siOat6ic (?), a. [L. Asiaticus, Gr. ?.] Of or pertaining
to Asia or to its inhabitants. P n. A native, or one of the
people, of Asia.
A7siOat6iOcism (?), n. Something peculiar to Asia or the
AOside6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + side.] 1. On, or to, one side;
out of a straight line, course, or direction; at a little
distance from the rest; out of the way; apart.
Thou shalt set aside that which is full.
2 Kings iv. 4.
But soft! but soft! aside: here comes the king.
The flames were blown aside.
2. Out of one's thoughts; off; away; as, to put aside gloomy
thoughts. =Lay aside every weight.8
Heb. xii. 1.
3. So as to be heard by others; privately.
Then lords and ladies spake aside.
Sir W. Scott.
To set ~ (Law), to annul or defeat the effect or operation
of, by a subsequent decision of the same or of a superior
tribunal; to declare of no authority; as, to set aside a
verdict or a judgment.
AOside6, n. Something spoken ~; as, a remark made by a
stageplayer which the other players are not supposed to
X AOsi6lus (?), n. [L., a gadfly.] (Zo.l.) A genus of large
and voracious twoPwinged flies, including the bee killer and
robber fly.
As7One6go, As7siOne6go (?), n. [Sp. asnico, dim. of asno an
ass.] A stupid fellow. [Obs.]
As6iOnine (?), a. [L. asininus, fr. asinus ass. See Ass.] Of
or belonging to, or having the qualities of, the ass, as
stupidity and obstinacy. =Asinine nature.8 B. Jonson.
=Asinine feast.8 Milton.
As7iOnin6iOty (?), n. The quality of being asinine;
stupidity combined with obstinacy.
AOsi6phonOate (?), a. (Zo.l.) Destitute of a siphon or
breathing tube; P said of many bivalve shells. P n. An ~
X As7iOpho6neOa (?), X AOsi7phoOna6ta (?), X As7iOphon6iOda
(?), } n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? a tube.] (Zo.l.) A
group of bivalve mollusks destitute of siphons, as the
oyster; the asiphonate mollusks.
X AOsi6tiOa (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? food.] (Med.) Want
of appetite; loathing of food.
Ask (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asked (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Asking.] [OE. asken, ashen, axien, AS. >scian, >csian; akin
to OS. ?sc?n, OHG. eisc?n, Sw. >ska, Dan. .ske, D. eischen,
G. heischen, Lith. j sk"ti, OSlav. iskati to seek, Skr. ish
to desire. ?.] 1. To request; to seek to obtain by words; to
petition; to solicit; P often with of, in the sense of from,
before the person addressed.
Ask counsel, we pray thee, of God.
Judg. xviii. 5.
If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask
what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.
John xv. 7.
2. To require, demand, claim, or expect, whether by way of
remuneration or return, or as a matter of necessity; as,
what price do you ask?
Ask me never so much dowry.
Gen. xxxiv. 12.
To whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the
Luke xii. 48.
An exigence of state asks a much longer time to conduct a
design to maturity.
3. To interrogate or inquire of or concerning; to put a
question to or about; to question.
He is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself.
John ix. 21.
He asked the way to Chester.
4. To invite; as, to ask one to an entertainment.
5. To publish in church for marriage; P said of both the
banns and the persons.
Syn. - To beg; request; seek; petition; solicit; entreat;
beseech; implore; crave; require; demand; claim; exhibit;
inquire; interrogate. See Beg.
Ask, v. i. 1. To request or petition; P usually folllowed by
for; as, to ask for bread.
Ask, and it shall be given you.
Matt. vii. 7.
2. To make inquiry, or seek by request; P sometimes followed
by after.
Wherefore... dost ask after my name?
Gen. xxxii. 29.
Ask (?), n. [See 2d Asker.] (Zo.l.) A water newt. [Scot. &
North of Eng.]
AOskance6 (?), AOskant6 (?), } adv. [Cf. D. schuin, schuins,
sideways, schuiven to shove, schuinte slope. Cf. Asquint.]
Sideways; obliquely; with a side glance; with disdain, envy,
or suspicion.
They dart away; they wheel askance.
My palfrey eyed them askance.
Both... were viewed askance by authority.
AOskance6 , v. t. To turn aside. [Poet.]
O, how are they wrapped in with infamies
That from their own misdeeds askance their eyes!
Ask6er , n. One who asks; a petitioner; an inquirer.
Ask6er, n. [A corruption of AS. a?exe lizard, newt.] (Zo.l.)
An ask; a water newt. [Local Eng.]
AOskew6 , adv. & a. [Pref. aO + skew.] Awry; askance;
asquint; oblique or obliquely; P sometimes indicating scorn,
or contempt, or entry.
Ask6ing , n. 1. The act of inquiring or requesting; a
petition; solicitation.
2. The publishing of banns.

<-- p. 89 -->

AOslake6 (?), v. t. & i. [AS. >slacian, slacian, to slacken.
Cf. Slake.] To mitigate; to moderate; to appease; to abate;
to diminish. [Archaic]
AOslant6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + slant.] Toward one side;
in a slanting direction; obliquely.
[The shaft] drove through his neck aslant.
AOslant6, prep. In a slanting direction over; athwart.
There is a willow grows aslant a brook.
AOsleep6 , a. & adv. [Pref. aO + sleep.] 1. In a state of
sleep; in sleep; dormant.
Fast asleep the giant lay supine.
By whispering winds soon lulled asleep.
2. In the sleep of the grave; dead.
Concerning them which are asleep... sorrow not, even as
others which have no hope.
1 Thess. iv. 13.
3. Numbed, and, usually, tingling.
Leaning long upon any part maketh it numb, and, as we call
it, asleep.
AOslope6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + slope.] Slopingly;
aslant; declining from an upright direction; sloping. =Set
them not upright, but aslope.8
AOslug6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + slug to move slowly.]
Sluggishly. [Obs.]
AOsmear6 (?), a. [Pref. aO + smear.] Smeared over.
As7moOne6an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the patriotic Jewish
family to which the Maccabees belonged; Maccabean; as, the
Asmonean dynasty. [Written also]
As7moOne6an, n. One of the w family. The Asmoneans were
leaders and rulers of the Jews from 168 to 35 b. c.
AOsoak6 (?), a. [Pref. aO + soak.] Soaking.
AOso6maOtous (?), a. [L. asomatus, Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? body.]
Without a material body; incorporeal.
As6oOnant (?), a. [Pref. aO not + sonant.] Not sounding or
sounded. [R.]
C. C. Felton.
Asp (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Aspen. =Trembling poplar or asp.8
Asp (?), n. [L. aspis, fr. Gr. ?: cf. OF. aspe, F. aspic.]
(Zo.l.) A small, hooded, poisonous serpent of Egypt and
adjacent countries, whose bite is often fatal. It is the
Naja haje. The name is also applied to other poisonous
serpents, esp. to Vipera aspis of southern Europe. See Haje.
X AsOpal6aOthus (?), n. [L. aspalathus, Gr. ?.] (Bot.) (a) A
thorny shrub yielding a fragrant oil. Ecclus. xxiv. 15. (b)
A genus of plants of the natural order Leguminos.. The
species are chiefly natives of the Cape of Good Hope.
AsOpar6aOgine (?), n. [Cf. F. asparagine.] (Chem.) A white,
nitrogenous, crystallizable substance, C4H8N2O3+H2O, found
in many plants, and first obtained from asparagus It is
believed to aid in the disposition of nitrogenous matter
throughout the plant; P called also altheine.
As7paOrag6iOnous (?), a. Pertaining or allied to, or
resembling, asparagus; having shoots which are eaten like
asparagus; as, asparaginous vegetables.
AsOpar6aOgus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, ?; cf. ? to swell with
sap or juice, and Zend ?paregha prong, sprout, Pers.
asparag, Lith. spurgas sprout, Skr. sphurj to swell. Perh.
the Greek borrowed from the Persian. Cf. Sparrowgrass.] 1.
(Bot.) A genus of perennial plants belonging to the natural
order Liliace., and having erect much branched stems, and
very slender branchlets which are sometimes mistaken for
leaves. Asparagus racemosus is a shrubby climbing plant with
fragrant flowers. Specifically: The Asparagus officinalis, a
species cultivated in gardens.
2. The young and tender shoots of A. officinalis, which form
a valuable and wellPknown article of food.
5 This word was formerly pronounced sparrowgrass; but this
pronunciation is now confined exclusively to uneducated
w beetle (Zo.l.), a small beetle (Crioceris asparagi)
injurious to ~. 
AsOpar6tic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived,
asparagine; as, aspartic acid.
As6pect (?), n. [L. aspectus, fr. aspicere, aspectum, to
look at; ad + spicere, specere, to look, akin to E. spy.] 1.
The act of looking; vision; gaze; glance. [R.] =The basilisk
killeth by aspect.8
His aspect was bent on the ground.
Sir W. Scott.
2. Look, or particular appearance of the face; countenance;
mien; air. =Serious in aspect.8
[Craggs] with aspect open shall erect his head.
3. Appearance to the eye or the mind; look; view. =The
aspect of affairs.8
The true aspect of a world lying in its rubbish.
T. Burnet.
4. Position or situation with regard to seeing; that
position which enables one to look in a particular
direction; position in relation to the points of the
compass; as, a house has a southern aspect, that is, a
position which faces the south.
5. Prospect; outlook. [Obs.]
This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence
we descended.
6. (Astrol.) The situation of planets or stars with respect
to one another, or the angle formed by the rays of light
proceeding from them and meeting at the eye; the joint look
of planets or stars upon each other or upon the earth.
5 The aspects which two planets can assume are five;
sextile, ?, when the planets are 600 apart; quartile, or
quadrate, ?, when their distance is 900 or the quarter of a
circle; trine, ?, when the distance is 1200; opposition, ?,
when the distance is 1800, or half a circle; and
conjunction, ?, when they are in the same degree. Astrology
taught that the aspects of the planets exerted an influence
on human affairs, in some situations for good and in others
for evil.
7. (Astrol.) The influence of the stars for good or evil;
as, an ill aspect.
The astrologers call the evil influences of the stars evil
w of a plane (Geom.), the direction of the plane.
AsOpect6 (?), v. t. [L. aspectare, v. intens. of aspicere.
See Aspect, n.] To behold; to look at. [Obs.]
AsOpect6aOble (?), a. [L. aspectabilis.] Capable of being;
visible. =The aspectable world.8 Ray. =Aspectable stars.8
Mr. Browning.
AsOpect6ant (?), a. (Her.) Facing each other.
AsOpect6ed, a. Having an aspect. [Obs.]
B. Jonson.
AsOpec6tion (?), n. [L. aspectio, fr. aspicere to look at.]
The act of viewing; a look. [Obs.]
Asp6en (?), Asp (?), } n. [AS. .sp, .ps; akin to OHG. aspa,
Icel. .sp, Dan. .sp, Sw. asp, D. esp, G. espe, .spe, aspe;
cf. Lettish apsa, Lith. apuszis.] (Bot.) One of several
species of poplar bearing this name, especially the Populus
tremula, so called from the trembling of its leaves, which
move with the slightest impulse of the air.
Asp6en (?), a. Of or pertaining to the ~, or resembling it;
made of ~ wood.
Nor aspen leaves confess the gentlest breeze.
As6per (?), a. [OE. aspre, OF. aspre, F. .pre, fr. L. asper
rough.] Rough; rugged; harsh; bitter; stern; fierce.
[Archaic] =An asper sound.8
X As6per (?), n. [L. spiritus asper rough breathing.] (Greek
Gram.) The rough breathing; a mark (?) placed over an
initial vowel sound or over ? to show that it is aspirated,
that is, pronounced with h before it; thus ?, pronounced
h?s, ?, pronounced hr>6t?r.
X As6per, n. [F. aspre or It. aspro, fr. MGr. ?, ?, white
(prob. from the whiteness of new silver coins).] A Turkish
money of account (formerly a coin), of little value; the
120th part of a piaster.
As6perOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asperated; p. pr. & vb.
n. Asperating.] [L. asperatus, p. p. of asperare, fr. asper
rough.] To make rough or uneven.
The asperated part of its surface.
As7perOa6tion (?), n. The act of asperating; a making or
becoming rough.
X AsOper6ges (?), n. [L., Thou shalt sprinkle.] (R. C. Ch.)
(a) The service or ceremony of sprinkling with holy water.
(b) The brush or instrument used in sprinkling holy water;
an aspergill.
As6perOgill (?), X As7perOgil6lum (?), } n. [LL.
aspergillum, fr. L. aspergere. See Asperse, v. t. 1. The
brush used in the Roman Catholic church for sprinkling holy
water on the people. [Also written aspergillus.]
2. (Zo.l.) See Wateringpot shell.
As7perOgil6liOform (?), a. [Aspergillum + Oform.] (Bot.)
Resembling the aspergillum in form; as, an aspergilliform
As7perOiOfo6liOate (?), As7perOiOfo6liOous (?), } a. [L.
asper rough + folium leaf.] (Bot.) Having rough leaves.
5 By some applied to the natural order now called
Boraginace. or borageworts.
AsOper6iOty (?), n.; pl. Asperities (?). [L. asperitas, fr.
asper rough: cf. F. asp.rit..] 1. Roughness of surface;
unevenness; P opposed to smoothness. =The asperities of dry
2. Roughness or harshness of sound; that quality which
grates upon the ear; raucity.
3. Roughness to the taste; sourness; tartness.
4. Moral roughness; roughness of manner; severity;
crabbedness; harshness; P opposed to mildness. =Asperity of
It is no very cynical asperity not to confess obligations
where no benefit has been received.
5. Sharpness; disagreeableness; difficulty.
The acclivities and asperities of duty.
Syn. - Acrimony; moroseness; crabbedness; harshness;
sourness; tartness. See Acrimony.
AOsper6maOtous (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, seed.] (Bot.)
AOsper6mous , a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? seed.] (Bot.)
Destitute of seeds; aspermatous.
AOsperne6 (?), v. t. [L. aspernari; a (ab) + spernari.] To
spurn; to despise. [Obs.]
Sir T. More.
As6perOous (?), a. [See Asper, a.] Rough; uneven.
AsOperse6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aspersed (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Aspersing.] [L. aspersus, p. p. of aspergere to
scatter, sprinkle; ad + spargere to strew. See Sparse.] 1.
To sprinkle, as water or dust, upon anybody or anything, or
to besprinkle any one with a liquid or with dust.
2. To bespatter with foul reports or false and injurious
charges; to tarnish in point of reputation or good name; to
slander or calumniate; as, to asperse a poet or his
writings; to asperse a man's character.
With blackest crimes aspersed.
Syn. - To slander; defame; detract from; calumniate; vilify.
P To Asperse, Defame, Slander, Calumniate. These words have
in common the idea of falsely assailing the character of
another. To asperse is figuratively to cast upon a character
hitherto unsullied the imputation of blemishes or faults
which render it offensive or loathsome. To defame is to
detract from a man's honor and reputation by charges
calculated to load him with infamy. Slander (etymologically
the same as scandal) and calumniate, from the Latin, have in
common the sense of circulating reports to a man's injury
from unworthy or malicious motives. Men asperse their
neighbors by malignant insinuations; they defame by
advancing charges to blacken or sully their fair fame; they
slander or calumniate by spreading injurious reports which
are false, or by magnifying slight faults into serious
errors or crimes.
AsOpersed6 (?), a. 1. (Her.) Having an indefinite number of
small charges scattered or strewed over the surface.
2. Bespattered; slandered; calumniated.
AsOpers6er (?), n. One who asperses; especially, one who
vilifies another.
AsOper6sion (?), n. [L. aspersio, fr. aspergere: cf. F.
aspersion.] 1. A sprinkling, as with water or dust, in a
literal sense.
Behold an immersion, not and aspersion.
Jer. Taylor.
2. The spreading of calumniations reports or charges which
tarnish reputation, like the bespattering of a body with
foul water; calumny.
Every candid critic would be ashamed to cast wholesale
aspersions on the entire body of professional teachers.
Who would by base aspersions blot thy virtue.
AsOpers6ive (?), a. Tending to asperse; defamatory;
slanderous. P AsOpers6iveOly, adv.
X As7per7soir6 (?), n. [F.] An aspergill.
X As7perOso6riOum (?), n.; pl. Aspersoria (?). [LL. See
Asperse.] 1. The stoup, basin, or other vessel for holy
water in Roman Catholic churches.
2. A brush for sprinkling holy water; an aspergill.
As6phalt (?), AsOphal6tum (?), } n. [Gr. ?, of eastern
origin: cf. F. asphalte.] 1. Mineral pitch, Jews' pitch, or
compact native bitumen. It is brittle, of a black or brown
color and high luster on a surface of fracture; it melts and
burns when heated, leaving no residue. It occurs on the
surface and shores of the Dead Sea, which is therefore
called Asphaltites, or the Asphaltic Lake. It is found also
in many parts of Asia, Europe, and America. See Bitumen.
2. A composition of bitumen, pitch, lime, and gravel, used
for forming pavements, and as a waterPproof cement for
bridges, roofs, etc.; asphaltic cement. Artificial asphalt
is prepared from coal tar, lime, sand, etc.
Asphalt stone, Asphalt rock, a limestone found impregnated
with asphalt.
As6phalt, v. t. To cover with ~; as, to asphalt a roof;
asphalted streets.
X As7phalte6 (?), n. [F. See Asphalt.] Asphaltic mastic or
cement. See Asphalt, 2.
AsOphal6tic (?), a. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or
containing, asphalt; bituminous. =Asphaltic pool.8
=Asphaltic slime.8
AsOphal6tite (?), a. Asphaltic.
AsOphal6tite (?), a. Asphaltic.
X AsOphal6tus , n. See Asphalt.
As6phoOdel (?), n. [L. asphodelus, Gr. ?. See Daffodil.]
(Bot.) A general name for a plant of the genus Asphodelus.
The asphodels are hardy perennial plants, several species of
which are cultivated for the beauty of their flowers.
5 The name is also popularly given to species of other
genera. The asphodel of the early English and French poets
was the daffodil. The asphodel of the Greek poets is
supposed to be the Narcissus poeticus.
Dr. Prior.
Pansies, and violets, and asphodel.
AsOphyc6tic (?), a. Pertaining to asphyxia.
X AsOphyx6iOa (?), AsOphyx6y (?), } n. [NL. asphyxia, fr.
Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to throb, beat.] (Med.) Apparent death,
or suspended animation; the condition which results from
interruption of respiration, as in suffocation or drowning,
or the inhalation of irrespirable gases.
AsOphyx6iOal (?), a. Of or relating to asphyxia; as,
asphyxial phenomena.
AsOphyx6iOate (?), v. t. To bring to a state of asphyxia; to
suffocate. [Used commonly in the past pple.]
AsOphyx6iOa7ted (?), AsOphyx6ied (?), p. p. In a state of
asphyxia; suffocated.
AsOphyx7iOa6tion (?), n. The act of causing asphyxia; a
state of asphyxia.
As6pic (?), n. [F. See Asp.] 1. The venomous asp. [Chiefly
Shak. Tennyson.
2. A piece of ordnance carrying a 12 pound shot. [Obs.]
As6pic, n. [F., a corrupt. of spic (OF. espi, F. .pi), L.
spica (spicum, spicus), ear, spike. See Spike.] A European
species of lavender (Lavandula spica), which produces a
volatile oil. See Spike.
As6pic, n. [F., prob. fr. aspic an asp.] A savory meat jelly
containing portions of fowl, game, fish, hard boiled eggs,
X As7piOdoObran6chiOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?, shield
+ ? gills.] (Zo.l.) A group of Gastropoda, with limpetlike
shells, including the abalone shells and keyhole limpets.
AsOpir6ant (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. aspirant, p. pr. of aspirer.
See Aspire.] Aspiring.
AsOpir6ant, n. [Cf. F. aspirant.] One who aspires; one who
eagerly seeks some high position or object of attainment.
In consequence of the resignations... the way to greatness
was left clear to a new set of aspirants.
As6piOrate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aspirated (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Aspirating (?).] [L. aspiratus, p. p. of aspirare to
breathe toward or upon, to add the breathing h; ad + spirare
to breathe, blow. Cf. Aspire.] To [pronounce with a
breathing, an ~, or an h sound; as, we aspirate the words
horse and house; to aspirate a vowel or a liquid consonant.
As6piOrate (?), n. 1. A sound consisting of, or
characterized by, a breath like the sound of h; the
breathing h or a character representing such a sound; an
aspirated sound.

<-- p. 90 -->

2. A mark of aspiration (?) used in Greek; the asper, or
rough breathing.
3. An elementary sound produced by the breath alone; a surd,
or nonvocal consonant; as, f, th in thin, etc.
As6piOrate (?), As6piOra6ted (?), } a. [L. aspiratus, p. p.]
Pronounced with the h sound or with audible breath.
But yet they are not aspirate, i. e., with such an
aspiration as h.
As7piOra6tion (?), n. [L. aspiratio, fr. aspirare: cf. F.
aspiration.] 1. The act of aspirating; the pronunciation of
a letter with a full or strong emission of breath; an
aspirated sound.
If aspiration be defined to be an impetus of breathing.
2. The act of breathing; a breath; an inspiration.
3. The act of aspiring of a ardently desiring; strong wish;
high desire. =Aspirations after virtue.8
Vague aspiration after military renown.
As6piOra7tor (?), n. 1. (Chem.) An apparatus for passing air
or gases through or over certain liquids or solids, or for
exhausting a closed vessel, by means of suction.
2. (Med.) An instrument for the evacuation of the fluid
contents of tumors or collections of blood.
AsOpir6aOtoOry (?), a. Of or pertaining to breathing; suited
to the inhaling of air
AsOpire6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aspired (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Aspiring.] [F. aspirer, L. aspirare. See Aspirate, v. t.]
1. To desire with eagerness; to seek to attain something
high or great; to pant; to long; P followed by to or after,
and rarely by at; as, to aspire to a crown; to aspire after
Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell;
Aspiring to be angels, men rebel.
2. To rise; to ascend; to tower; to soar.
My own breath still foments the fire,
Which flames as high as fancy can aspire.
AsOpire6, v. t. To ~ to; to long for; to try to reach; to
mount to. [Obs.]
That gallant spirit hath aspired the clouds.
AsOpire6, n. Aspiration. [Obs.]
AsOpire6ment (?), n. Aspiration. [Obs.]
AsOpir6er (?), n. One who aspires.
AsOpir6ing, a. That aspires; as, an Aspiring mind. P
AsOpir6ingOly, adv. P AsOpir6ingOness, n.
Asp6ish (?), a. Pertaining to, or like, an asp.
As7porOta6tion (?), n. [L. asportatio, fr. asportare to
carry away; abs = ab + portare to bear, carry.] (Law) The
felonious removal of goods from the place where they were
5 It is adjudged to be larceny, though the goods are not
carried from the house or apartment.
AOsprawl6 (?), adv. & a. Sprawling.
AOsquat6 (?), adv. & a. Squatting.
AOsquint6 (?), adv. [Cf. Askant, Squint.] With the eye
directed to one side; not in the straight line of vision;
obliquely; awry, so as to see distortedly; as, to look
Ass (?), n. [OE. asse, AS. assa; akin to Icel. asni, W.
asen, asyn, L. asinus, dim. aselus, Gr. ?; also to AS. esol,
OHG. esil, G. esel, Goth. asilus, Dan. .sel, Lith. asilas,
Bohem. osel, Pol. osiel. The word is prob. of Semitic
origin; cf. Heb. ath?n she ~. Cf. Ease.] 1. (Zo.l.) A
quadruped of the genus Equus (E. asinus), smaller than the
horse, and having a peculiarly harsh bray and long ears. The
tame or domestic ~ is patient, slow, and surePfooted, and
has become the type of obstinacy and stupidity. There are
several species of wild asses which are swiftPfooted.
2. A dull, heavy, stupid fellow; a dolt.
Asses' Bridge. [L. pons asinorum.] The fifth proposition of
the first book of Euclid, =The angles at the base of an
isosceles triangle are equal to one another.8 [Sportive] =A
schoolboy, stammering out his Asses' Bridge.8 F. Harrison. P
To make an ~ of one's self, to do or say something very
foolish or absurd. 
As7saOf?t6iOda (?), n. Same as Asafetida.
As6saOgai (?), As6seOgai (?), n. [Pg. azagaia, Sp. azagaya,
fr. a Berber word. Cf. Lancegay.] A spear used by tribes in
South Africa as a missile and for stabbing, a kind of light
X AsOsa6i (?). [It., fr. L. ad + satis enough. See Assets.]
(Mus.) A direction equiv?lent to very; as, adagio assai,
very slow.
AsOsail6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assailed (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Assailing.] [OE. assailen, asailen, OF. asaillir,
assailler, F. assaillir; ? (L. ad) + saillir to burst out,
project, fr. L. salire to leap, spring; cf. L. assilire to
leap or spring upon. See Sally.] 1. To attack with violence,
or in a vehement and hostile manner; to assault; to molest;
as, to assail ? man with blows; to assail a city with
No rude noise mine ears assailing.
No storm can now assail
The charm he wears within.
2. To encounter or meet purposely with the v??? of
??stering, as an obstacle, difficulty, or the like.
The thorny wilds the woodmen fierce assail.
3. To attack morally, or with a view to produce ?anges in
the feelings, character, conduct, existing usages,
institutions; to attack by words, hostile influence, etc.;
as, to assail one with appeals, arguments, abuse, ridicule,
and the like.
The papal authority... assailed.
They assailed him with keen invective; they assailed him
with still keener irony.

Syn. - To attack; assault; invade; encounter; fall upon. See
AsOsail6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assailed.
AsOsail6ant (?), a. [F. assaillant, p. pr. of assaillir.]
Assailing; attacking.
AsOsail6ant, n. [F. assaillant.] One who, or that which,
assails, attacks, or assaults; an assailer.
An assailant of the church.
AsOsail6er (?), n. One who assails.
AsOsail6ment (?), n. The act or power of assailing; attack;
assault. [R.]
His most frequent assailment was the headache.
As6saOmar (?), n. [L. assare to roast + amarus, bitter.]
(Chem.) The peculiar bitter substance, soft or liquid, and
of a yellow color, produced when meat, bread, gum, sugar,
starch, and the like, are roasted till they turn brown.
As7samOese6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to Assam, a province of
British India, or to its inhabitants. P n. sing. & pl. A
native or natives of Assam.
X As7saOpan6 (?), X As7saOpan6ic (?), n. [Prob. Indian
name.] (Zo.l.) The American flying squirrel (Pteromys
AsOsart6 , n. [OF. essart the grubbing up of trees, fr.
essarter to grub up or clear ground of bushes, shrubs,
trees, etc., fr. LL. exartum, exartare, for exsaritare; L.
ex + sarire, sarrire, saritum, to hoe, weed.] 1. (Old Law)
The act or offense of grubbing up trees and bushes, and thus
destroying the tickets or coverts of a forest.
Spelman. Cowell.
2. A piece of land cleared of trees and bushes, and fitted
for cultivation; a clearing.
w land, forest land cleared of woods and brush.
AsOsart6, v. t. To grub up, as trees; to commit an ~ upon;
as, to assart land or trees.
AsOsas6sin (?), n. [F. (cf. It. assassino), fr. Ar.
?hashishin one who has drunk of the hashish. Under its
influence the Assassins of the East, followers of the Shaikh
alPJabal (Old Man of the Mountain), were said to commit the
murders required by their chief.] One who kills, or attempts
to kill, by surprise or secret assault; one who
treacherously murders any one unprepared for defense.
AsOsas6sin, v. t. To assassinate. [Obs.]
AsOsas6sinOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assassinated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Assassinating (?).] [LL. assassinatus, p. p. of
assassinare.] 1. To kill by surprise or secret assault; to
murder by treacherous violence.
Help, neighbors, my house is broken open by force, and I am
ravished, and like to be assassinated.
2. To assail with murderous intent; hence, by extended
meaning, to maltreat exceedingly. [Archaic]
Your rhymes assassinate our fame.
Such usage as your honorable lords
Afford me, assassinated and betrayed.
Syn. - To kill; murder; slay. See Kill.
AsOsas6sinOate (?), n. [F. assassinat.] 1. An assassination,
murder, or murderous assault. [Obs.]
If i had made an assassinate upon your father.
B. Jonson.
2. An assassin. [Obs.]
AsOsas7siOna6tion (?), n. The act of assassinating; a
killing by treacherous violence.
AsOsas6siOna7tor (?), n. An assassin.
AsOsas6sinOous (?), a. Murderous.
AsOsas6tion (?), n. [F., fr. LL. assatio, fr. L. assare to
roast.] Roasting. [Obs.] 
Sir T. Browne.
AsOsault6 (?), n. [OE. asaut, assaut, OF. assaut, asalt, F.
assaut, LL. assaltus; L. ad + saltus a leaping, a springing,
salire to leap. See Assail.] 1. A violent onset or attack
with physical means, as blows, weapons, etc.; an onslaught;
the rush or charge of an attacking force; onset; as, to make
assault upon a man, a house, or a town.
The Spanish general prepared to renew the assault.
Unshaken bears the assault
Of their most dreaded foe, the strong southwest.
2. A violent onset or attack with moral weapons, as words,
arguments, appeals, and the like; as, to make an assault on
the prerogatives of a prince, or on the constitution of a
3. (Law) An apparently violent attempt, or ? offer with
force or violence, to do hurt to another; an attempt or
offer to beat another, accompanied by a degree of violence,
but without touching his person, as by lifting the fist, or
a cane, in a threatening manner, or by striking at him, and
missing him. If the blow aimed takes effect, it is a
Blackstone. Wharton.
Practically, however, the word assault is used to include
the battery.
Mozley & W.
Syn. - Attack; invasion; incursion; descent; onset;
onslaught; charge; storm.
AsOsault6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assaulted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Assaulting.] From Assault, n.: cf. OF. assaulter, LL.
assaltare.] 1. To make an ~ upon, as by a sudden rush of
armed men; to attack with unlawful or insulting physical
violence or menaces.
Insnared, assaulted, overcome, led bound.
2. To attack with moral means, or with a view of producing
moral effects; to attack by words, arguments, or unfriendly
measures; to assail; as, to assault a reputation or an
Before the gates, the cries of babes newborn,...
Assault his ears.
5 In the latter sense, assail is more common.
Syn. - To attack; assail; invade; encounter; storm; charge.
See Attack.
AsOsaut6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assaulted.
AsOsault6er (?), n. One who assaults, or violently attacks;
an assailant.
E. Hall.
AsOsay6 (?), n. [OF. asai, essai, trial, F. essa. See Essay,
n.] 1. Trial; attempt; essay. [Obs.]
I am withal persuaded that it may prove much more easy in
the assay than it now seems at distance.
2. Examination and determination; test; as, an assay of
bread or wine. [Obs.]
This can not be, by no assay of reason.
3. Trial by danger or by affliction; adventure; risk;
hardship; state of being tried. [Obs.]
Through many hard assays which did betide.
4. Tested purity or value. [Obs.]
With gold and pearl of rich assay.
5. (Metallurgy) The act or process of ascertaining the
proportion of a particular metal in an ore or alloy;
especially, the determination of the proportion of gold or
silver in bullion or coin.
6. The alloy or metal to be assayed.
[Assay and essay are radically the same word; but modern
usage has appropriated assay chiefly to experiments in
metallurgy, and essay to intellectual and bodily efforts.
See Essay.]
5 Assay is used adjectively or as the first part of a
compound; as, assay balance, assay furnace.
w master, an officer who assays or tests gold or silver coin
or bullion. P w ton, a weight of 29.166% grams.
AsOsay6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Assaying.] [OF. asaier, essaier, F. essayer, fr. essai. See
Assay, n., Essay, v.] 1. To try; to attempt; to apply. [Obs.
or Archaic]
ToPnight let us assay our plot.
Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed.
2. To affect. [Obs.]
When the heart is ill assayed.
3. To try tasting, as food or drink. [Obs.]
4. To subject, as an ore, alloy, or other metallic compound,
to chemical or metallurgical examination, in order to
determine the amount of a particular metal contained in it,
or to ascertain its composition.
AsOsay6, v. i. To attempt, try, or endeavor. [Archaic. In
this sense essay is now commonly used.]
She thrice assayed to speak.
AsOsay6aOble (?), a. That may be assayed.
AsOsay6er , n. One who assays. Specifically: One who
examines metallic ores or compounds, for the purpose of
determining the amount of any particular metal in the same,
especially of gold or silver.
AsOsay6ing, n. The act or process of testing, esp. of
analyzing or examining metals and ores, to determine the
proportion of pure metal.
X Asse (?), n. (Zo.l.) A small foxlike animal (Vulpes cama)
of South Africa, valued for its fur.
As7seOcuOra6tion (?), n. [LL. assecuratio, fr. assecurare.]
Assurance; certainty. [Obs.]
As7seOcure6 (?), v. t. [LL. assecurare.] To make sure or
safe; to assure. [Obs.]
As7seOcu6tion (?), n. [F. ass.cution, fr. L. assequi to
obtain; ad + sequi to follow.] An obtaining or acquiring.
As6seOgai (?), n. Same as Assagai.
AsOsem6blage , n. [Cf. F. assemblage. See Assemble.] 1. The
act of assembling, or the state o? being; association.
In sweet assemblage every blooming grace.
2. A collection of individuals, or of individuals, or of
particular things; as, a political assemblage; an assemblage
of ideas.
Syn. - Company; group; collection; concourse; gathering;
meeting; convention. Assemblage, Assembly. An assembly
consists only of persons; an assemblage may be composed of
things as well as persons, as, an assemblage of incoherent
objects. Nor is every assemblage of persons an assembly;
since the latter term denotes a body who have met, and are
acting, in concert for some common end, such as to hear, to
deliberate, to unite in music, dancing, etc. An assemblage
of skaters on a lake, or of horse jockeys at a race course,
is not an assembly, but might be turned into one by
collecting into a body with a view to discuss and decide as
to some object of common interest.
AsOsem6blance , n. [Cf. OF. assemblance.] 1. Resemblance;
likeness; appearance. [Obs.]
Care I for the... stature, bulk, and big assemblance of a
man ? Give me the spirit.
2. An assembling; assemblage. [Obs.]
To weete [know] the cause of their assemblance.
AsOsem6ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assembled (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Assembling (?).] [F. assembler, fr. LL. assimulare to
bring together to collect; L. ad + simul together; akin to
similis like, Gr. ? at the same time, and E. same. Cf.
Assimilate, Same.] To collect into one place or body; to
bring or call together; to convene; to congregate.
Thither he assembled all his train.
All the men of Israel assembled themselves.
1 Kings viii. 2.
AsOsem6ble, v. i. To meet or come together, as a number of
individuals; to convene; to congregate.

The Parliament assembled in November.
W. Massey.
AsOsem6ble, v. i. To liken; to compare. [Obs.]
Bribes may be assembled to pitch.
AsOsem6bler (?), n. One who assembles a number of
individuals; also, one of a number assembled.
AsOsem6bly (?), n.; pl. Assemblies (?). [F. assembl.e, fr.
assembler. See Assemble.] 1. A company of persons collected
together in one place, and usually for some common purpose,
esp. for deliberation and legislation, for worship, or for
social entertainment.
2. A collection of inanimate objects. [Obs.]
3. (Mil.) A beat of the drum or sound of the bugle as a
signal to troops to assemble.
5 In some of the United States, the legislature, or the
popular branch of it, is called the Assembly, or the General
Assembly. In the Presbyterian Church, the General Assembly
is the highest ecclesiastical tribunal, composed of
ministers and ruling elders delegated from each presbytery;
as, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the
United States, or of Scotland.

<-- p. 91 -->

Assembly room, a room in which persons assemble, especially
for dancing. P Unlawful assembly (Law), a meeting of three
or more persons on a common plan, in such a way as to cause
a reasonable apprehension that they will disturb the peace
tumultuously. P Westminster Assembly, a convocation,
consisting chiefly of divines, which, by act of Parliament,
assembled July 1, 1643, and remained in session some years.
It framed the =Confession of Faith,8 the =Larger Catechism,8
and the =Shorter Catechism,8 which are still received as
authority by Presbyterians, and are substantially accepted
by Congregationalists.
Syn. - See Assemblage.
AsOsem6blyOman (?), n.; pl. Assemblymen (?). A member of an
assembly, especially of the lower branch of a state
AsOsent6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assented; p. pr. & vb. n.
Assenting.] [ F. assentir, L. assentire, assentiri; ad +
sentire to feel, think. See Sense.] To admit a thing as
true; to express one's agreement, acquiescence, concurrence,
or concession.
Who informed the governor... And the Jews also assented,
saying that these things were so.
Acts xxiv. 9.
The princess assented to all that was suggested.
Syn. - To yield; agree; acquiesce; concede; concur.
AsOsent6 (?), n. [OE. assent, fr. assentir. See Assent, v.]
The act of assenting; the act of the mind in admitting or
agreeing to anything; concurrence with approval; consent;
agreement; acquiescence.
Faith is the assent to any proposition, on the credit of the
The assent, if not the approbation, of the prince.
Too many people read this ribaldry with assent and
Royal ~, in England, the ~ of the sovereign to a bill which
has passed both houses of Parliament, after which it becomes
Syn. - Concurrence; acquiescence; approval; accord. P
Assent, Consent. Assent is an act of the understanding,
consent of the will or feelings. We assent to the views of
others when our minds come to the same conclusion with
theirs as to what is true, right, or admissible. We consent
when there is such a concurrence of our will with their
desires and wishes that we decide to comply with their
requests. The king of England gives his assent, not his
consent, to acts of Parliament, because, in theory at least,
he is not governed by personal feelings or choice, but by a
deliberate, judgment as to the common good. We also use
assent in cases where a proposal is made which involves but
little interest or feeling. A lady may assent to a
gentleman's opening the window; but if he offers himself in
marriage, he must wait for her consent.
As7senOta6tion (?), n. [L. assentatio. See Assent, v.]
Insincere, flattering, or obsequious assent; hypocritical or
pretended concurrence.
Abject flattery and indiscriminate assentation degrade as
much as indiscriminate contradiction and noisy debate
Ld. Chesterfield.
As7senOta6tor , n. [L., fr. assentari to assent constantly.]
An obsequious; a flatterer. [R.]
AsOsent6aOtoOry (?), a. Flattering; obsequious. [Obs.] P
AsOsent6aOtoOriOly, adv. [Obs.]
AsOsent6er (?), n. One who assents.
AsOsen6tient , a. Assenting.
AsOsent6ing (?), a. Giving or implying assent. P
AsOsent6ingOly, adv.
AsOsent6ive (?), a. Giving assent; of the nature of assent;
complying. P AsOsent6iveOness, n.
AsOsent6ment , n. Assent; agreement. [Obs.]
AsOsert6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asserted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Asserting.] [L. assertus, p. p. of asserere to join or
fasten to one's self, claim, maintain; ad + serere to join
or bind together. See Series.] 1. To affirm; to declare with
assurance, or plainly and strongly; to state positively; to
aver; to asseverate.
Nothing is more shameful... than to assert anything to be
done without a cause.
2. To maintain; to defend. [Obs. or Archaic]
That... I may assert Eternal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to men.
I will assert it from the scandal.
Jer. Taylor.
3. To maintain or defend, as a cause or a claim, by words or
measures; to vindicate a claim or title to; as, to assert
our rights and liberties.
To ~ one's self, to claim or vindicate one's rights or
position; to demand recognition.
Syn. - To affirm; aver; asseverate; maintain; protest;
pronounce; declare; vindicate. P To Assert, Affirm,
Maintain, Vindicate. To assert is to fasten to one's self,
and hence to claim. It is, therefore, adversative in its
nature. We assert our rights and privileges, or the cause of
tree institutions, as against opposition or denial. To
affirm is to declare as true. We assert boldly; we affirm
positively. To maintain is to uphold, and insist upon with
earnestness, whatever we have once asserted; as, to maintain
one's cause, to maintain an argument, to maintain the
ground we have taken. To vindicate is to use language and
measures of the strongest kind, in defense of ourselves and
those for whom we act. We maintain our assertions by
adducing proofs, facts, or arguments; we are ready to
vindicate our rights or interests by the utmost exertion of
our powers.
AsOsert6er (?), n. One who asserts; one who avers pr
maintains; an assertor.
The inflexible asserter of the rights of the church.
AsOser6tion (?), n. [L. assertio, fr. asserere.] 1. The act
of asserting, or that which is asserted; positive
declaration or averment; affirmation; statement asserted;
position advanced.
There is a difference between assertion and demonstration.
2. Maintenance; vindication; as, the assertion of one's
rights or prerogatives.
AsOsert6ive (?), a. Positive; affirming confidently;
affirmative; peremptory.
In a confident and assertive form.
P AsOsert6iveOly, adv. P AsOsert6iveOness, n.
AsOsert6or (?), n. [L., fr. asserere.] One who asserts or
avers; one who maintains or vindicates a claim or a right;
an affirmer, supporter, or vindicator; a defender; an
The assertors of liberty said not a word.
Faithful assertor of thy country's cause.
As7serOto6riOal (?), a. Asserting that a thing is; P opposed
to problematical and apodeictical.
AsOsert6oOry (?), a. [L. assertorius, fr. asserere.]
Affirming; maintaining.
Arguments... assertory, not probatory.
Jer. Taylor.
An assertory, not a promissory, declaration.
A proposition is assertory, when it enounces what is known
as actual.
Sir W. Hamilton.
AsOsess6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assessed (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Assessing.] [OF. assesser to regulate, settle, LL.
assessare to value for taxation, fr. L. assidere, supine as
if assessum, to sit by, esp. of judges in a court, in LL. to
assess, tax. Cf. Assize, v., Cess.] 1. To value; to make a
valuation or official estimate of for the purpose of
2. To apportion a sum to be paid by (a person, a community,
or an estate), in the nature of a tax, fine, etc.; to impose
a tax upon (a person, an estate, or an income) according to
a rate or apportionment.
3. To determine and impose a tax or fine upon (a person,
community, estate, or income); to tax; as, the club assessed
each member twentyPfive cents.
4. To fix or determine the rate or amount of.
This sum is assessed and raised upon individuals by
commissioners in the act.
AsOsess6aOble (?), a. Liable to be assessed or taxed; as,
assessable property.
As7sessOee6 (?), n. One who is assessed.
AsOses6sion (?), n. [L. assessio, fr. assid?re to sit by or
near; ad + sed?re to sit. See Sit.] A sitting beside or
AsOsess6ment (?), n. [LL. assessamentum.] 1. The act of
assessing; the act of determining an amount to be paid; as,
an assessment of damages, or of taxes; an assessment of the
members of a club.
2. A valuation of property or profits of business, for the
purpose of taxation; such valuation and an adjudging of the
proper sum to be levied on the property; as, an assessment
of property or an assessment on property.
5 An assessment is a valuation made by authorized persons
according to their discretion, as opposed to a sum certain
or determined by law. It is a valuation of the property of
those who are to pay the tax, for the purpose of fixing the
proportion which each man shall pay.
Blackstone. Burrill.
3. The specific sum levied or assessed.
4. An apportionment of a subscription for stock into
successive installments; also, one of these installments (in
England termed a =call8). [U. S.]
AsOsess6or , n. [L., one who sits beside, the assistant of a
judge, fr. assid?re. See Assession. LL., one who arranges of
determines the taxes, fr. assid?re. See Assess, v., and cf.
Cessor.] 1. One appointed or elected to assist a judge or
magistrate with his special knowledge of the subject to be
decided; as legal assessors, nautical assessors.
Mozley & W.
2. One who sits by another, as next in dignity, or as an
assistant and adviser; an associate in office.
Whence to his Son,
The assessor of his throne, he thus began.
With his ignorance, his inclinations, and his fancy, as his
assessors in judgment.
I. Taylor.
3. One appointed to assess persons or property for the
purpose of taxation.
As7sesOso6riOal (?), a. [Cf. F. assessorial, fr. L.
assessor.] Of or pertaining to an assessor, or to a court of
AsOsess6orOship (?), n. The office or function of an
As6set (?), n. Any article or separable part of one's
As6sets (?), n. pl. [OF. asez enough, F. assez, fr. L. ad +
satis, akin to Gr. ? enough, Goth. saps full. Cf. Assai,
Satisfy.] 1. (Law) (a) Property of a deceased person,
subject by law to the payment of his debts and legacies; P
called assets because sufficient to render the executor or
administrator liable to the creditors and legatees, so far
as such goods or estate may extend. Story. Blackstone. (b)
Effects of an insolvent debtor or bankrupt, applicable to
the payment of debts.
2. The entire property of all sorts, belonging to a person,
a corporation, or an estate; as, the assets of a merchant or
a trading association; P opposed to liabilities.
5 In balancing accounts the assets are put on the Cr. side
and the debts on the Dr. side.
AsOsev6er (?), v. t. [Cf. OF. asseverer, fr. L. asseverare.]
See Asseverate. [Archaic]
AsOsev6erOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asseverated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Asseverating (?).] [L. asseveratus, p. p. of
asseverare to assert seriously or earnestly; ad + severus.
See Severe.] To affirm or aver positively, or with
Syn. - To affirm; aver; protest; declare. See Affirm.
AsOsev7erOa6tion (?), n. [L. asseveratio.] The act of
asseverating, or that which is asseverated; positive
affirmation or assertion; solemn declaration.
Another abuse of the tongue I might add, P vehement
asseverations upon slight and trivial occasions.
AsOsev6erOaOtive , a. Characterized by asseveration;
asserting positively.
AsOsev6erOaOtoOry , a. Asseverative.
AsOsib6iOlate , v. t. [L. assibilatus, p. p. of assibilare
to hiss out; ad + sibilare to hiss.] To make sibilant; to
change to a sibilant. 
J. Peile.
AsOsib7iOla6tion , n. Change of a nonPsibilant letter to a
sibilant, as of Otion to Oshun, duke to ditch.
As7siOde6an , n. [Heb. kh>sad to be pious.] One of a body of
devoted Jews who opposed the Hellenistic Jews, and supported
the Asmoneans.
As6siOdent (?), a. [L. assidens, p. pr. of assid?re to sit
by: cf. F. assident. See Assession.] (Med.) Usually
attending a disease, but not always; as, assident signs, or
AsOsid6uOate (?), a. [L. assiduatus, p. p. of assiduare to
use assiduously.] Unremitting; assiduous. [Obs.] =Assiduate
As7siOdu6iOty (?), n.; pl. Assiduities (?). [L. assiduitas:
cf. F. assiduite. See Assiduous.] 1. Constant or close
application or attention, particularly to some business or
enterprise; diligence.
I have, with much pains and assiduity, qualified myself for
a nomenclator.
2. Studied and persevering attention to a person; P usually
in the plural.
AsOsid6uOous (?), a. [L. assiduus, fr. assid?re to sit near
or close; ad + sed?re to sit. See Sit.] 1. Constant in
application or attention; devoted; attentive; unremitting.
She grows more assiduous in her attendance.
2. Performed with constant diligence or attention;
unremitting; persistent; as, assiduous labor.
To weary him with my assiduous cries.
Syn. - Diligent; attentive; sedulous; unwearied;
unintermitted; persevering; laborious; indefatigable.
P AsOsid6uOousOly, adv. P AsOsid6uOousOness, n.
AsOsiege6 (?), v. t. [OE. asegen, OF. asegier, F. assi.ger,
fr. LL. assediare, assidiare, to besiege. See Siege.] [Obs.]
=Assieged castles.8
AsOsiege6, n. A siege. [Obs.]
As7siOen6tist , n. [Cf. F. assientiste, Sp. asentista.] A
shareholder of the Assiento company; one of the parties to
the Assiento contract.
X As7siOen6to (?), n. [Sp. asiento seat, contract or
agreement, fr. asentar to place on a chair, to adjust, to
make an agreement; a (L. ad) + sentar, a participial verb;
as if there were a L. sedentare to cause to sit, fr. sedens,
sedentis, p. pr. of sed?re to sit.] A contract or convention
between Spain and other powers for furnishing negro slaves
for the Spanish dominions in America, esp. the contract made
with Great Britain in 1713.
AsOsign6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assigned (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Assigning.] [OE. assignen, asignen, F. assigner, fr. L.
assignare; ad + signare to mark, mark out, designate, signum
mark, sign. See Sign.] 1. To appoint; to allot; to
apportion; to make over.
In the order I assign to them.
The man who could feel thus was worthy of a better station
than that in which his lot had been assigned.
He assigned to his men their several posts.
2. To fix, specify, select, or designate; to point out
authoritatively or exactly; as, to assign a limit; to assign
counsel for a prisoner; to assign a day for trial.
All as the dwarf the way to her assigned.
It is not easy to assign a period more eventful.
De Quincey.
3. (Law) To transfer, or make over to another, esp. to
transfer to, and vest in, certain persons, called assignees,
for the benefit of creditors.
To ~ dower, to set out by metes and bounds the widow's share
or portion in an estate.
AsOsign6, n. [From Assign, v.] A thing pertaining or
belonging to something else; an appurtenance. [Obs.]
Six French rapiers and poniards, with their assigns, as
girdles, hangers, and so.
AsOsign6, n. [See Assignee.] (Law) A person to whom property
or an interest is transferred; as, a deed to a man and his
heirs and assigns.
AsOsign7aObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being assignable.
AsOsign6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assigned, allotted,
specified, or designated; as, an assignable note or bill; an
assignable reason; an assignable quantity.
X As7si7gnat6 (?; 277), n. [F. assignat, fr. L. assignatus,
p. p. of assignare.] One of the notes, bills, or bonds,
issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France
(1790P1796), and based on the security of the lands of the
church and of nobles which had been appropriated by the
As7sigOna6tion (?), n. [L. assignatio, fr. assignare: cf. F.
assignation.] 1. The act of assigning or allotting;
This order being taken in the senate, as touching the
appointment and assignation of those provinces.
2. An appointment of time and place for meeting or
interview; P used chiefly of love interviews, and now
commonly in a bad sense.
While nymphs take treats, or assignations give.
3. A making over by transfer of title; assignment.
House of ~, a house in which appointments for sexual
intercourse are fulfilled.
As7signOee6 , n. [F. assign., p. p. of assigner. See Assign,
v., and cf. Assign an ~.] (Law) (a) A person to whom an
assignment is made; a person appointed or deputed by another
to do some act, perform some business, or enjoy some right,
privilege, or property; as, an assignee of a bankrupt. See
Assignment (c). An ~ may be by special appointment or deed,
or be created by jaw; as an executor. Cowell. Blount. (b)
pl. In England, the persons appointed, under a commission
of bankruptcy, to manage the estate of a bankrupt for the
benefit of his creditors.

<-- p. 92 -->

AsOsign6er (?), n. One who assigns, appoints, allots, or
AsOsign6ment (?), n. [LL. assignamentum: cf. OF.
assenement.] 1. An allotting or an appointment to a
particular person or use; or for a particular time, as of a
cause or causes in court.
2. (Law) (a) A transfer of title or interest by writing, as
of lease, bond, note, or bill of exchange; a transfer of the
whole of some particular estate or interest in lands. (b)
The writing by which an interest is transferred. (c) The
transfer of the property of a bankrupt to certain persons
called assignees, in whom it is vested for the benefit of
w of dower, the setting out by metes and bounds of the
widow's thirds or portion in the deceased husband's estate,
and allotting it to her.
5 Assignment is also used in law as convertible with
specification; assignment of error in proceedings for review
being specification of error; and assignment of perjury or
fraud in indictment being specifications of perjury or
As7signOor6 (?), n. [L. assignator. Cf. Assigner.] (Law) An
assigner; a person who assigns or transfers an interest; as,
the assignor of a debt or other chose in action.
AsOsim7iOlaObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being
assimilable. [R.]
AsOsim6iOlaOble (?), a. That may be assimilated; that may be
likened, or appropriated and incorporated.
AsOsim6iOlate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assimilated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Assimilating (?).] [L. assimilatus, p. p. of
assimilare; ad + similare to make like, similis like. See
Similar, Assemble, Assimilate.] 1. To bring to a likeness or
to conformity; to cause a resemblance between.
Sir M. Hale.
To assimilate our law to the law of Scotland.
John Bright.
Fast falls a fleecy; the downy flakes
Assimilate all objects.
2. To liken; to compa?e. [R.]
3. To appropriate and transform or incorporate into the
substance of the assimilating body; to absorb or
appropriate, as nourishment; as, food is assimilated and
converted into organic tissue.
Hence also animals and vegetables may assimilate their
Sir I. Newton.
His mind had no power to assimilate the lessons.
AsOsim6iOlate, v. i. 1. To become similar or like something
else. [R.]
2. To change and appropriate nourishment so as to make it a
part of the substance of the assimilating body.
Aliment easily assimilated or turned into blood.
3. To be converted into the substance of the assimilating
body; to become incorporated; as, some kinds of food
assimilate more readily than others. 
I am a foreign material, and cannot assimilate with the
church of England.
J. H. Newman.
AsOsim7iOla6tion (?), n. [L. assimilatio: cf. F.
assimilation.] 1. The act or process of assimilating or
bringing to a resemblance, likeness, or identity; also, the
state of being so assimilated; as, the assimilation of one
sound to another.
To aspire to an assimilation with God.
Dr. H. More.
The assimilation of gases and vapors.
Sir J. Herschel.
2. (Physiol.) The conversion of nutriment into the fluid or
solid substance of the body, by the processes of digestion
and absorption, whether in plants or animals.
Not conversing the body, not repairing it by assimilation,
but preserving it by ventilation.
Sir T. Browne.
5 The term assimilation has been limited by some to the
final process by which the nutritive matter of the blood is
converted into the substance of the tissues and organs.
AsOsim6iOlaOtive (?), a. [Cf. LL. assimilativus, F.
assimilatif.] Tending to, or characterized by, assimilation;
that assimilates or causes assimilation; as, an assimilative
process or substance.
AsOsim6iOlaOtoOry (?), a. Tending to assimilate, or produce
assimilation; as, assimilatory organs.
AsOsim6uOlate (?), v. t. [L. assimulatus, p. p. of
assimulare, equiv. to assimilare. See Assimilate, v. t.] 1.
To feign; to counterfeit; to simulate; to resemble. [Obs.]
2. To assimilate. [Obs.]
Sir M. Hale.
AsOsim7uOla6tion (?), n. [L. assimulatio, equiv. to
assimilatio.] Assimilation. [Obs.]
As7siOne6go (?), n. See Asinego.
Ass6ish (?), a. Resembling an ass; asinine; stupid or
Such... appear to be of the assich kind...
AsOsist6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assisted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Assisting.] [L. assistere; ad + sistere to cause to stand,
to stand, from stare to stand: cf. F. assister. See Stand.]
To give support to in some undertaking or effort, or in time
of distress; to help; to aid; to succor.
Assist me, knight. I am undone!
Syn. - To help; aid; second; back; support; relieve; succor;
befriend; sustain; favor. See Help.
AsOsist6, v. i. 1. To lend aid; to help.
With God not parted from him, as was feared,
But favoring and assisting to the end.
2. To be present as a spectator; as, to assist at a public
meeting. [A Gallicism]
Gibbon. Prescott.
AsOsist6ance (?), n. [Cf. F. assistance.] 1. The act of
assisting; help; aid; furtherance; succor; support.
Without the assistance of a mortal hand.
2. An assistant or helper; a body of helpers. [Obs.]
Wat Tyler [was] killed by valiant Walworth, the lord mayor
of London, and his assistance,... John Cavendish.
3. Persons present. [ Obs. or a Gallicism]
AsOsist6ant (?), a. [Cf. F. assistant, p. pr. of assister.]
1. Helping; lending aid or support; auxiliary.
Genius and learning... are mutually and greatly assistant to
each other.
2. (Mil.) Of the second grade in the staff of the army; as,
an assistant surgeon. [U.S.]
5 In the English army it designates the third grade in any
particular branch of the staff.
AsOsist6ant (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, assists; a
helper; an auxiliary; a means of help.
Four assistants who his labor share.
Rhymes merely as assistants to memory.
Mrs. Chapone.
2. An attendant; one who is present.
AsOsist6antOly, adv. In a manner to give aid. [R.]
AsOsist6er , n. An assistant; a helper.
AsOsist6ful (?), a. Helpful.
AsOsist6ive (?), a. Lending aid, helping.
AsOsist6less, a. Without aid or help. [R.]
AsOsist6or (?), n. (Law) A assister.
AsOsith6ment (?), n. See Assythment. [Obs.]
AsOsize6 (?), n. [OE. assise, asise, OF. assise, F. assises,
assembly of judges, the decree pronounced by them, tax,
impost, fr. assis, assise, p. p. of asseoir, fr. L. assid?re
to sit by; ad + sed?re to sit. See Sit, Size, and cf.
Excise, Assess.] 1. An assembly of knights and other
substantial men, with a bailiff or justice, in a certain
place and at a certain time, for public business. [Obs.]
2. (Law) (a) A special kind of jury or inquest. (b) A kind
of writ or real action. (c) A verdict or finding of a jury
upon such writ. (d) A statute or ordinance in general.
Specifically: (1) A statute regulating the weight, measure,
and proportions of ingredients and the price of articles
sold in the market; as, the assize of bread and other
provisions; (2) A statute fixing the standard of weights and
measures. (e) Anything fixed or reduced to a certainty in
point of time, number, quantity, quality, weight, measure,
etc.; as, rent of assize. Glanvill. Spelman. Cowell.
Blackstone. Tomlins. Burrill. [This term is not now used in
England in the sense of a writ or real action, and seldom of
a jury of any kind, but in Scotch practice it is still
technically applied to the jury in criminal cases. Stephen.
Burrill. Erskine.] (f) A court, the sitting or session of a
court, for the trial of processes, whether civil or
criminal, by a judge and jury. Blackstone. Wharton. Encyc.
Brit. (g) The periodical sessions of the judges of the
superior courts in every county of England for the purpose
of administering justice in the trial and determination of
civil and criminal cases; P usually in the plural. Brande.
Wharton. Craig. Burrill. (h) The time or place of holding
the court of ~; P generally in the plural, assizes.
3. Measure; dimension; size. [In this sense now corrupted
into size.]
An hundred cubits high by just assize.
[Formerly written, as in French, assise.]
AsOsize6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Assizing.] [From Assize, n.: cf. LL. assisare to decree in
~. Cf. Asses, v.] 1. To assess; to value; to rate. [Obs.]
2. To fix the weight, measure, or price of, by an ordinance
or regulation of authority. [Obs.]
AsOsiz6er (?), n. An officer who has the care or inspection
of weights and measures, etc.
AsOsiz6or (?), n. (Scots Law) A juror.
AsOso6ber (?), v. t. [Pref. adO + sober. Cf. Ensober.] To
make or keep sober. [Obs.]
AsOso7ciaObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being associable,
or capable of association; associableness. =The
associability of feelings.8
H. Spencer.
AsOso6ciaOble (?), a. [See Associate.] 1.Capable of being
associated or joined.
We know feelings to be associable only by the proved ability
of one to revive another.
H. Spencer.
2. Sociable; companionable. [Obs.]
3. (Med.) Liable to be affected by sympathy with other
parts; P said of organs, nerves, muscles, etc.
The stomach, the most associable of all the organs of the
animal body.
Med. Rep.
AsOso6ciaObleOness, n. Associability.
AsOso6ciOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Associated (?); p. pr.
& vb. n. Associating (?).] [L. associatus, p. p. of
associare; ad + sociare to join or unite, socius companion.
See Social.] 1. To join with one, as a friend, companion,
partner, or confederate; as, to associate others with ?s in
business, or in an enterprise.
2. To join or connect; to combine in acting; as, particles
of gold associated with other substances.
3. To connect or place together in thought.
He succeeded in associating his name inseparably with some
names which will last an long as our language.
4. To accompany; to keep company with. [Obs.]
Friends should associate friends in grief and woe.
AsOso6ciOate, v. i. 1. To unite in company; to keep company,
implying intimacy; as, congenial minds are disposed to
2. To unite in action, or to be affected by the action of a
different part of the body.
E. Darwin.
AsOso6ciOate (?), a. [L. associatus, p. p.] 1. Closely
connected or joined with some other, as in interest,
purpose, employment, or office; sharing responsibility or
authority; as, an associate judge.
While I descend... to my associate powers.
2. Admitted to some, but not to all, rights and privileges;
as, an associate member.
3. (Physiol.) Connected by habit or sympathy; as, associate
motions, such as occur sympathetically, in consequence of
preceding motions.
E. Darwin.
AsOso6ciOate, n. 1. A companion; one frequently in company
with another, implying intimacy or equality; a mate; a
2. A partner in interest, as in business; or a confederate
in a league.
3. One connected with an association or institution without
the full rights or privileges of a regular member; as, an
associate of the Royal Academy.
4. Anything closely or usually connected with another; an
The one [idea] no sooner comes into the understanding, than
its associate appears with it.
Syn. - Companion; mate; fellow; friend; ally; partner;
coadjutor; comrade; accomplice.
AsOso6ciOa7ted (?), a. Joined as a companion; brought into
association; accompanying; combined.
w movements (Physiol.), consensual movements which accompany
voluntary efforts without our consciousness.
AsOso6ciOateOship (?), n. The state of an associate, as in
Academy or an office.
AsOso7ciOa6tion (?; 277), n. [Cf. F. association, LL.
associatio, fr. L. associare.] 1. The act of associating, or
state of being associated; union; connection, whether of
persons of things. =Some... bond of association.8
SelfPdenial is a kind of holy association with God.
2. Mental connection, or that which is mentally linked or
associated with a thing. 
Words... must owe their powers association.
Why should... the holiest words, with all their venerable
associations, be profaned?
3. Union of persons in a company or society for some
particular purpose; as, the American Association for the
Advancement of Science; a benevolent association.
Specifically, as among the Congregationalists, a society,
consisting of a number of ministers, generally the pastors
of neighboring churches, united for promoting the interests
of religion and the harmony of the churches.
w of ideas (Physiol.), the combination or connection of
states of mind or their objects with one another, as the
result of which one is said to be revived or represented by
means of the other. The relations according to which they
are thus connected or revived are called the law of
association. Prominent among them are reckoned the relations
of time and place, and of cause and effect.
AsOso7ciOa6tionOal (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to
association, or to an association.
2. Pertaining to the theory held by the associationists.
AsOso7ciOa6tionOism (?), n. (Philos.) The doctrine or theory
held by associationists.
AsOso7ciOa6tionOist, n. (Philos.) One who explains the
higher functions and relations of the soul by the
association of ideas; e. g., Hartley, J. C. Mill.
AsOso6ciOaOtive (?), a.Having the quality of associating;
tending or leading to association; as, the associative
Hugh Miller.
AsOso6ciOa7tor (?), n. An associate; a confederate or
partner in any scheme.
How Pennsylvania's air agrees with Quakers,
And Carolina's with associators.
AsOsoil6 (?), v. t. [OF. assoiler, absoiler, assoldre, F.
absoudre, L. absolvere. See Absolve.] 1. To set free; to
release. [Archaic]
Till from her hands the spright assoiled is.
2. To solve; to clear up. [Obs.]
Any child might soon be able to assoil this riddle.
Bp. Jewel.
3. To set free from guilt; to absolve. [Archaic]
Acquitted and assoiled from the guilt.
Dr. H. More.
Many persons think themselves fairly assoiled, because they
are... not of scandalous lives.
Jer. Taylor.
4. To expiate; to atone for. [Archaic]
Let each act assoil a fault.
E. Arnold.
5. To remove; to put off. [Obs.]
She soundly slept, and careful thoughts did quite assoil.
AsOsoil6, v. t. [Pref. adO + soil.] To soil; to stain. [Obs.
or Poet.]
Beau. & Fl.
Ne'er assoil my cobwebbed shield.
AsOsoil6ment (?), n. Act of assoiling, or state of being
assoiled; absolution; acquittal.
AsOsoil6ment, n. A soiling; defilement.
AsOsoil6zie (?), AsOsoil6yie, v. t. [Old form assoi?e. See
Assoil.] (scots Law) To absolve; to acquit by sentence of
God assoilzie him for the sin of bloodshed.
Sir W. Scott.
As6soOnance (?), n. [Cf. F. assonance. See Assonant.] 1.
Resemblance of sound. =The disagreeable assonance of
?sheath' and ?sheated.'8
2. (Pros.) A peculiar species of rhyme, in which the last
accented vowel and those which follow it in one word
correspond in sound with the vowels of another word, while
the consonants of the two words are unlike in sound; as,
calamo and platano, baby and chary.
The assonance is peculiar to the Spaniard.
3. Incomplete correspondence.
Assonance between facts seemingly remote.
As6soOnant (?), a. [L. assonans, p. pr. of assonare to sound
to, to correspond to in sound; ad + sonare to sound, sonus
sound: cf. F. assonant. See Sound.] 1.Having a resemblance
of sounds.
2. (Pros.) Pertaining to the peculiar species of rhyme
called assonance; not consonant.
As7soOnan6tal (?), a. Assonant.
As6soOnate (?), v. i. [L. assonare, assonatum, to respond
to.] To correspond in sound. 
AsOsort6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assorted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Assorting.] [F. assortir; ? (L. ad) + sortir to cast or draw
lots, to obtain by lot, L. sortiri, fr. sors, sortis, lot.
See Sort.] 1. To separate and distribute into classes, as
things of a like kind, nature, or quality, or which are
suited to a like purpose; to classify; as, to assort goods.
[Rarely applied to persons.]
They appear... no ways assorted to those with whom they must
2. To furnish with, or make up of, various sorts or a
variety of goods; as, to assort a cargo.
AsOsort6, v. i. To agree; to be in accordance; to be
adapted; to suit; to fall into a class or place.

<-- p. 93 -->

AsOsort6ed (?), a. Selected; culled.
AsOsort6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. assortiment.] 1. Act of
assorting, or distributing into sorts, kinds, or classes.
2. A collection or quantity of things distributed into kinds
or sorts; a number of things assorted.
3. A collection containing a variety of sorts or kinds
adapted to various wants, demands, or purposes; as, an
assortment of goods.
AsOsot6 (?), v. t. [OF. asoter, F. assoter; ? (L. ad) + sot
stupid. See Sot.] To besot; to befool; to beguile; to
infatuate. [Obs.]
Some ecstasy assotted had his sense.
AsOsot6, a. Dazed; foolish; infatuated. [Obs.]
Willie, I ween thou be assot.
AsOsuage6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assuaged ; p. pr. & vb.
n. Assuaging (?).] [OE. asuagen, aswagen, OF. asoagier,
asuagier, fr. assouagier, fr. L. ad + suavis sweet. See
Sweet.] To soften, in a figurative sense; to allay,
mitigate, ease, or lessen, as heat, pain, or grief; to
appease or pacify, as passion or tumult; to satisfy, as
appetite or desire.
Refreshing winds the summer's heat assuage.
To assuage the sorrows of a desolate old man
The fount at which the panting mind assuages
Her thirst of knowledge.
Syn. - To alleviate; mitigate; appease; soothe; calm; 
tranquilize; relieve. See Alleviate.
AsOsuage6, v. i. To abate or subside. [Archaic] =The waters
Gen. vii. 1.
The plague being come to a crisis, its fury began to
De Foe.
AsOsuage6ment (?), n. [OF. assouagement, asuagement.]
Mitigation; abatement.
AsOsua6ger (?), n. One who, or that which, assuages.
AsOsua6sive (?), a. [From assuage, as if this were fr. a
supposed L. assuadere to persuade to; or from E. pref. ad +
Osuasive as in persuasive.] Mitigating; tranquilizing;
soothing. [R.]
Music her soft assuasive voice applies.
AsOsub6juOgate (?), v. t. [Pref. adO + subjugate.] To bring
into subjection. [Obs.] 
As7sueOfac6tion (?), n. [L. assuefacere to accustom to;
assuetus (p. p. of assuescere to accustom to) + facere to
make; cf. OF. assuefaction.] The act of accustoming, or the
state of being accustomed; habituation. [Obs.]
Custom and studies efform the soul like wax, and by
assuefaction introduce a nature.
Jer. Taylor.
As6sueOtude (?), n. [L. assuetudo, fr. assuetus accustomed.]
Accustomedness; habit; habitual use.
Assuetude of things hurtful doth make them lose their force
to hurt.
AsOsum6aOble (?), a. That may be assumed.
AsOsum6aObly, adv. By way of assumption.
AsOsume6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assumed (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Assuming.] [L. assumere; ad + sumere to take; sub + emere
to take, buy: cf. F. assumer. See Redeem.] 1. To take to or
upon one's self; to take formally and demonstratively;
sometimes, to appropriate or take unjustly.
Trembling they stand while Jove assumes the throne.
The god assumed his native form again.
2. To take for granted, or without proof; to suppose as a
fact; to suppose or take arbitrarily or tentatively.
The consequences of assumed principles.
3. To pretend to possess; to take in appearance.
Ambition assuming the mask of religion.
Assume a virtue, if you have it not.
4. To receive or adopt.
The sixth was a young knight of lesser renown and lower
rank, assumed into that honorable company.
Sir W. Scott.
Syn. - To arrogate; usurp; appropriate.
AsOsume6, v. i. 1. To be arrogant or pretentious; to claim
more than is due.
Bp. Burnet.
2. (Law) To undertake, as by a promise.
AsOsumed6 (?), a. 1. Supposed.
2. Pretended; hypocritical; makePbelieve; as, an assumed
AsOsum6edOly (?), adv. By assumption.
AsOsum6ent (?), n. [L. assumentum, fr. ad + suere to sew.] A
patch; an addition; a piece put on. [Obs.]
John Lewis (1731).
AsOsum6er (?), n. One who assumes, arrogates, pretends, or
W. D. Whitney.
AsOsum6ing, a. Pretentious; taking much upon one's self;
X AsOsump6sit (?; 215), n. [L., he undertook, pret. of L.
assumere. See Assume.] (Law) (a) A promise or undertaking,
founded on a consideration. This promise may be oral or in
writing not under seal. It may be express or implied. (b) An
action to recover damages for a breach or nonperformance of
a contract or promise, express or implied, oral or in
writing not under seal. Common or indebitatus assumpsit is
brought for the most part on an implied promise. Special
assumpsit is founded on an express promise or undertaking.
AsOsumpt6 (?; 215), v. t. [L. assumptus, p. p. of assumere.
See Assume.] To take up; to elevate; to assume. [Obs.]
AsOsumpt6, n. [L. assumptum, p. p. neut. of assumere.] That
which is assumed; an assumption. [Obs.]
The sun of all your assumpts is this.
AsOsump6tion (?; 215), n. [OE. assumpcioun a taking up into
heaven, L. assumptio a taking, fr. assumere: cf. F.
assomption. See Assume.] 1. The act of assuming, or taking
to or upon one's self; the act of taking up or adopting.
The assumption of authority.
2. The act of taking for granted, or supposing a thing
without proof; supposition; unwarrantable claim.
This gives no sanction to the unwarrantable assumption that
the soul sleeps from the period of death to the resurrection
of the body.
That calm assumption of the virtues.
W. Black.
3. The thing supposed; a postulate, or proposition assumed;
a supposition.
Hold! says the Stoic; your assumption's wrong.
4. (Logic) The minor or second proposition in a categorical
5. The taking of a person up into heaven. Hence: (Rom. Cath.
& Greek Churches) A festival in honor of the ascent of the
Virgin Mary into heaven.
AsOsump6tive (?), a. [L. assumptivus, fr. assumptus, fr.
assumere.] Assumed, or capable of being assumed;
characterized by assumption; making unwarranted claims. P
AsOsump6tiveOly, adv.
w arms (Her.), originally, arms which a person had a right
to assume, in consequence of an exploit; now, those assumed
without sanction of the Heralds' College.
Percy Smith.
AsOsur6ance (?), n. [OE. assuraunce, F. assurance, fr.
assurer. See Assure.] 1. The act of assuring; a declaration
tending to inspire full confidence; that which is designed
to give confidence.
Whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he
hath raised him from the dead.
Acts xvii. 31.
Assurances of support came pouring in daily.
2. The state of being assured; firm persuasion; full
confidence or trust; freedom from doubt; certainty.
Let us draw with a true heart in full assurance of faith,
having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience.
Heb. x. 22.
3. Firmness of mind; undoubting, steadiness; intrepidity;
courage; confidence; selfPreliance.
Brave men meet danger with assurance.
Conversation with the world will give them knowledge and
4. Excess of boldness; impudence; audacity; as, his
assurance is intolerable.
5. Betrothal; affiance. [Obs.]
Sir P. Sidney.
6. Insurance; a contract for the payment of a sum on
occasion of a certain event, as loss or death.
5 Recently, assurance has been used, in England, in relation
to life contingencies, and insurance in relation to other
contingencies. It is called temporary assurance, in the time
within which the contingent event must happen is limited.
See Insurance.
7. (Law) Any written or other legal evidence of the
conveyance of property; a conveyance; a deed.
5 In England, the legal evidences of the conveyance of
property are called the common assurances of the kingdom.
AsOsure (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assured (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Assuring.] [OF. ase.rer, F. assurer, LL. assecurare; L.
ad + securus secure, sure, certain. See Secure, Sure, and
cf. Insure.] 1. To make sure or certain; to render confident
by a promise, declaration, or other evidence.
His promise that thy seed shall bruise our foe...
Assures me that the bitterness of death
Is past, and we shall live.
2. To declare to, solemnly; to assert to (any one) with the
design of inspiring belief or confidence.
I dare assure thee that no enemy
Shall ever take alive the noble Brutus.
3. To confirm; to make certain or secure.
And it shall be assured to him.
Lev. xxvii. 19.
And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall
assure our hearts before him.
1 John iii. 19.
4. To affiance; to betroth. [Obs.]
5. (Law) To insure; to covenant to indemnify for loss, or to
pay a specified sum at death. See Insure.
Syn. - To declare; aver; avouch; vouch; assert; asseverate;
protest; persuade; convince.
AsOsured6 (?), a. Made sure; safe; insured; certain;
indubitable; not doubting; bold to excess.
AsOsured6, n. One whose life or property is insured.
AsOsur6edOly (?), adv. Certainly; indubitably. =The siege
assuredly I'll raise.8
AsOsur6edOness, n. The state of being assured; certainty;
full confidence.
AsOsur6er (?), n. 1. One who assures. Specifically: One who
insures against loss; an insurer or underwriter.
2. One who takes out a life assurance policy.
AsOsur6genOcy (?), n. Act of rising.
The... assurgency of the spirit through the body.
AsOsur6gent (?), a. [L. assurgens, p. pr. of assurgere; ad +
surgere to rise.] Ascending; (Bot.) rising obliquely;
curving upward.
AsOsur6ing (?), a. That assures; tending to assure; giving
confidence. P AsOsur6ingOly, adv.
AsOswage6 , v. See Assuage.
AsOsyr6iOan (?), a. [L. Assyrius.] Of or pertaining to
Assyria, or to its inhabitants. P n. A native or an
inhabitant of Assyria; the language of Assyria.
AsOsyr7iOoOlog6icOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to
Assyriology; as, Assyriological studies.
AsOsyr7iOol6oOgist (?), n. One versed in Assyriology; a
student of Assyrian arch.ology.
AsOsyr7iOol6oOgy (?), n. [Assyria + Ology.] The science or
study of the antiquities, language, etc., of ancient
AsOsyth6ment (?), n. [From OF. aset, asez, orig. meaning
enough. See Assets.] Indemnification for injury;
satisfaction. [Chiefly in Scots law]
X As6taOcus (?), n. [L. astacus a crab, Gr. ?.] (Zo.l.) A
genus of crustaceans, containing the crawfish of freshPwater
lobster of Europe, and allied species of western North
America. See Crawfish.
AOstar6board (?), adv. (Naut.) Over to the starboard side; P
said of the tiller. 
AOstart6 (?), v. t. & i. Same as Astert. [Obs.]
X AsOtar6te (?), n. [Gr. ? a Ph?nician goddess.] (Zo.l.) A
genus of bivalve mollusks, common on the coasts of America
and Europe.
AOstate6 (?), n. Estate; state. [Obs.]
AOstat6ic (?), a. [Pref. aO not + static.] (Magnetism)
Having little or no tendency to take a fixed or definite
position or direction: thus, a suspended magnetic needle,
when rendered astatic, loses its polarity, or tendency to
point in a given direction.
w pair (Magnetism), a pair of magnetic needles so mounted as
to be nearly or quite ~, as in some galvanometers.
AOstat6icOalOly (?), adv. In an astatic manner.
AOstat6iOcism (?), n. The state of being astatic.
AOstay6 (?), adv. (Naut.) An anchor is said to be astay, in
heaving it, an acute angle is formed between the cable and
the surface of the water.
As6teOism (?), n. [Gr. ? refined and witty talk, fr. ? of
the town, polite, witty, fr. ? city: cf. F. ast.isme.]
(Rhet.) Genteel irony; a polite and ingenious manner of
deriding another.
As6tel (?), n. [OE. astelle piece of wood, OF. astele
splinter, shaving, F. attelle, astelle: cf. L. astula, dim.
of assis board.] (Mining) An arch, or ceiling, of boards,
placed over the men's heads in a mine.
As6ter (?), n. [L. aster aster, star, Gr. ? star. See Star.]
1. (Bot.) A genus of herbs with compound white or bluish
flowers; starwort; Michaelmas daisy.
2. (Floriculture) A plant of the genus Callistephus. Many
varieties (called China asters, German asters, etc.) are
cultivated for their handsome compound flowers.
X AsOte6riOas (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? starred, fr. ? star.]
(Zo.l.) A genus of echinoderms.
5 Formerly the group of this name included nearly all
starfishes and ophiurans. Now it is restricted to a genus
including the commonest shore starfishes.
AsOte6riOa7ted (?), a. [See Asterias.] Radiated, with
diverging rays; as, asteriated sapphire.
As7terOid6iOan (?), a. (Zo.l.) Of or pertaining to the
Asterioidea. P n. A starfish; one of the Asterioidea.
X AsOte7riOoid6eOa (?), X As7terOid6eOa (?), } n. pl. [NL.,
fr. Gr. ? + Ooid. See Asterias.] (Zo.l.) A class of
Echinodermata including the true starfishes. The rays vary
in number and always have ambulacral grooves below. The body
is starshaped or pentagonal. 
X AsOte6riOon (?), n. [Gr. ? starry.] (Anat.) The point on
the side of the skull where the lambdoid, parietoPmastoid
and occipitoPmastoid sutures.
X As7terOis6cus (?), n. [L., an asterisk. See Asterisk.]
(Anat.) The smaller of the two otoliths found in the inner
ear of many fishes.
As6terOisk (?), n. [L. asteriscus, Gr. ?, dim. of ? star.
See Aster.] The figure of a star, thus, ?, used in printing
and writing as a reference to a passage or note in the
margin, to supply the omission of letters or words, or to
mark a word or phrase as having a special character.
As7terOism (?), n. [Gr. ?, fr. ? star; cf. F. ast.risme.] 1.
(Astron.) (a) A constellation. [Obs.] (b) A small cluster of
2. (Printing) (a) An asterisk, or mark of reference. [R.]
(b) Three asterisks placed in this manner, ???, to direct
attention to a particular passage.
3. (Crystallog.) An optical property of some crystals which
exhibit a starPshaped by reflected light, as star sapphire,
or by transmitted light, as some mica.
AOstern6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + stern.] (Naut.) 1. In or at
the hinder part of a ship; toward the hinder part, or stern;
backward; as, to go astern.
2. Behind a ship; in the rear. =A gale of wind right
astern.8 De Foe. =Left this strait astern.8 Drake.
To bake ~, to go stern foremost. P To be ~ of the reckoning,
to be behind the position given by the reckoning. P To drop
~, to fall or be left behind. P To go ~, to go backward, as
from the action of currents or winds.
AOster6nal (?), a. [Pref. aO not + sternal.] (Anat.) Not
sternal; P said of ribs which do not join the sternum.
As6terOoid (?), n. [Gr. ? starlike, starry; ? star + ? form:
cf. F. See Aster.] A starlike body; esp. one of
the numerous small planets whose orbits lie between those of
Mars and Jupiter; P called also planetoids and minor
As7terOoid6al (?), a. Of or pertaining to an asteroid, or to
the asteroids.
X As7teOrol6eOpis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? star + ? scale.]
(Paleon.) A genus of fishes, some of which were eighteen or
twenty feet long, found in a fossil state in the Old Red
Hugh Miller.

<-- p. 94 -->

As7terOoph6ylOlite (?), n. [Gr. ? star + ? leaf.] (Paleon.)
A fossil plant from the coal formations of Europe and
America, now regarded as the branchlets and foliage of
AOstert (?), v. t. [Pref. aO + start; OE. asterten,
asturten.] To start up; to befall; to escape; to shun.
AOstert6, v. i. To escape. [Obs.]
X As7theOni6a (?), As6theOny (?), } n. [NL. asthenia, Gr. ?;
? priv. + ? strength.] (Med.) Want or loss of strength;
debility; diminution of the vital forces.
AsOthen6ic (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? strength.] (Med.)
Characterized by, or pertaining to, debility; weak;
X As7theOno6piOa (?), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ? strength + ? eye.]
Weakness of sight. Quain. P As7theOnop6ic (?), a. 
Asth6ma (?; 277), n. [Gr. ? shortPdrawn breath, fr. ? to
blow, for ?: cf. Skr. v>, Goth. waian, to blow, E. wind.]
(Med.) A disease, characterized by difficulty of breathing
(due to a spasmodic contraction of the bronchi), recurring
at intervals, accompanied with a wheezing sound, a sense of
constriction in the chest, a cough, and expectoration.
AsthOmat6ic (?), AsthOmat6icOal (?), } a. [L. asthmaticus,
Gr. ?.] Of or pertaining to asthma; as, an asthmatic cough;
liable to, or suffering from, asthma; as, an asthmatic
patient. P AsthOmat6icOalOly, adv.
AsthOmat6ic, n. A person affected with asthma.
As7tigOmat6ic (?), a. (Med. & Opt.) Affected with, or
pertaining to, astigmatism; as, astigmatic eyes; also,
remedying astigmatism; as, astigmatic lenses.
AOstig6maOtism (?), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, a prick of a
pointed instrument, a spot, fr. ? to prick: cf. F.
astigmatisme.] (Med. & Opt.) A defect of the eye or of a
lens, in consequence of which the rays derived from one
point are not brought to a single focal point, thus causing
imperfect images or indistictness of vision.
5 The term is applied especially to the defect causing
images of lines having a certain direction to be indistinct,
or imperfectly seen, while those of lines transverse to the
former are distinct, or clearly seen.
AsOtip6uOlate (?), v. i. [L. astipulari; ad + stipulari to
stipulate.] To assent. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
AsOtip7uOla6tion (?), n. [L. astipulatio.] Stipulation;
agreement. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
AOstir6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + stir.] Stirring; in a
state of activity or motion; out of bed.
AOstom6aOtous (?), As6toOmous (?), } a. [Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?,
mouth.] Not possessing a mouth.
AsOton6 (?), AsOtone6 (?), } v. t. [imp. & p. p. Astoned,
Astond, or Astound.] [See Astonish.] To stun; to astonish;
to stupefy. [Obs.]
AsOton6ied (?), p. p. Stunned; astonished. See Astony.
And I astonied fell and could not pray.
Mrs. Browning.
AsOton6ish (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Astonished (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Astonishing.] [OE. astonien, astunian, astonen, OF.
estoner, F. .tonner, fr. L. ex out + tonare to thunder, but
perhaps influenced by E. stun. See Thunder, Astound,
Astony.] 1. To stun; to render senseless, as by a blow.
Enough, captain; you have astonished him. [Fluellen had
struck Pistol.]
The very crampPfish [i. e., torpedo]... being herself not
benumbed, is able to astonish others.
2. To strike with sudden fear, terror, or wonder; to amaze;
to surprise greatly, as with something unaccountable; to
confound with some sudden emotion or passion.
Musidorus... had his wits astonished with sorrow.
I, Daniel... was astonished at the vision.
Dan. viii. 27.
Syn. - To amaze; astound; overwhelm; surprise. P Astonished,
Surprised. We are surprised at what is unexpected. We are
astonished at what is above or beyond our comprehension. We
are taken by surprise. We are struck with astonishment. C.
J. Smith. See Amaze.
AsOton6ishOedOly (?), adv. In an astonished manner. [R.]
Bp. Hall.
AsOton6ishOing, a. Very wonderful; of a nature to excite
astonishment; as, an astonishing event.
Syn. - Amazing; surprising; wonderful; marvelous.
P AsOton6ishOingOly, adv. P AsOton6ishOingOness, n.
AsOton6ishOment (?), n. [Cf. OF. est?nnement, F.
.tonnement.] 1. The condition of one who is stunned. Hence:
Numbness; loss of sensation; stupor; loss of sense. [Obs.]
A coldness and astonishment in his loins, as folk say.
2. Dismay; consternation. [Archaic]
3. The overpowering emotion excited when something
unaccountable, wonderful, or dreadful is presented to the
mind; an intense degree of surprise; amazement.
Lest the place
And my quaint habits breed astonishment.
4. The object causing such an emotion.
Thou shalt become an astonishment.
Deut. xxviii. 37.
Syn. - Amazement; wonder; surprise.
AsOto6y (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Astonied (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Astonying. See Astone.] To stun; to bewilder; to
astonish; to dismay. [Archaic]
The captain of the Helots... strake Palladius upon the side
of his head, that he reeled astonied.
Sir P. Sidney.
This sodeyn cas this man astonied so,
That reed he wex, abayst, and al quaking.
AOstoop6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + stoop.] In a stooping or
inclined position.
AsOtound6 (?), a. [OE. astouned, astound, astoned, p. p. of
astone. See Astone.] Stunned; astounded; astonished.
Thus Ellen, dizzy and astound.
As sudden ruin yawned around.
Sir W. Scott.
AsOtound6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Astounded, Obs. Astound; p.
pr. & vb. n. Astounding.] [See Astound, a.] 1. To stun; to
No puissant stroke his senses once astound.
2. To astonish; to strike with amazement; to confound with
wonder, surprise, or fear.
These thoughts may startle well, but not astound
The virtuous mind.
AsOtound6ing, a. Of a nature to astound; astonishing;
amazing; as, an astounding force, statement, or fact. P
AsOfound6ingOly, adv.
AsOfound6ment (?), n. Amazement. 
As7traOchan6 (?), a. & n. See Astrakhan.
AOstrad6dle (?), adv. [Pref. aO + straddle.] In a straddling
position; astride; bestriding; as, to sit astraddle a horse.
AsOtr.6an (?), a. [Gr. ? starry.] (Zo.l.) Pertaining to the
genus Astr.a or the family P n. A coral of the
family; a star coral.
As6traOgal (?), n. [L. astragalus, Gr. ? the ankle bone, a
molding in the capital of the Ionic column.] 1. (Arch.) A
convex molding of rounded surface, generally from half to
three quarters of a circle.
2. (Gun.) A round molding encircling a cannon near the
AsOtrag6aOlar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the
AsOtrag6aOloid (?), a. [Astragalus + Ooid.] (Anat.)
Resembling the astragalus in form.
AsOtrag6aOloOman7cy (?), n. [Gr. ? ankle bone, die +
Omancy.] Divination by means of small bones or dice.
X AsOtrag6aOlus (?), n. [L. See Astragal.] 1. (Anat.) The
ankle bone, or hock bone; the bone of the tarsus which
articulates with the tibia at the ankle.
2. (Bot.) A genus of papilionaceous plants, of the tribe
Galege., containing numerous species, two of which are
called, in English, milk vetch and licorice vetch. Gum
tragacanth is obtained from different oriental species,
particularly the A. gummifer and A. verus.
3. (Arch.) See Astragal, 1.
As7traOkhan6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to w in Russia or its
products; made of an w skin. P n. The skin of stillborn or
young lambs of that region, the curled wool of which
resembles fur. 
As6tral (?), a. [L. astralis, fr. astrum star, Gr. ?: cf. F.
astral. See Star.] Pertaining to, coming from, or
resembling, the stars; starry; starlike.
Shines only with an astral luster.
I. Taylor.
Some astral forms I must invoke by prayer.
w lamp, an Argand lamp so constructed that no shadow is cast
upon the table by the flattened ringPshaped reservoir in
which the oil is contained. P w spirits, spirits formerly
supposed to live in the heavenly bodies or the a rial
regions, and represented in the Middle Ages as fallen
angels, spirits of the dead, or spirits originating in fire.
AOstrand6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + strand.] Stranded.
Sir W. Scott.
AOstray6 (?), adv. & a. [See Estray, Stray.] Out of the
right, either in a literal or in a figurative sense;
wandering; as, to lead one astray.
Ye were as sheep going astray.
1 Pet. ii. 25.
AsOtrict6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Astricted;p. pr. & vb.
n. Astricting.] [L. astrictus, p. p. of astringere. See
Astringe.] 1. To bind up; to confine; to constrict; to
The solid parts were to be relaxed or astricted.
2. To bind; to constrain; to restrict; to limit. [R.]
The mind is astricted to certain necessary modes or forms of
Sir W. Hamilton.
3. (Scots Law) To restrict the tenure of; as, to astrict
lands. See Astriction, 4.
AsOtrict6, a. Concise; contracted. [Obs.]
AsOtric6tion (?), n. [L. astrictio.] 1. The act of binding;
restriction; also, obligation.
2. (Med.) (a) A contraction of parts by applications; the
action of an astringent substance on the animal economy.
Dunglison. (b) Constipation.
3. Astringency. [Obs.]
4. (Scots Law) An obligation to have the grain growing on
certain lands ground at a certain mill, the owner paying a
5 The lands were said to be astricted to the mill.
AsOtric6tive (?), a. Binding; astringent. P n. An
astringent. P AsOtric6tiveOly, adv.
AsOtric6toOry (?), a. Astrictive. [R.]
AOstride6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + stride.] With one leg on
each side, as a man when on horseback; with the legs
stretched wide apart; astraddle.
Placed astride upon the bars of the palisade.
Sir W. Scott.
Glasses with horn bows sat astride on his nose.
AsOtrif6erOous (?), a. [L. astrifer; astrum star + ferre to
bear.] Bearing stars. [R.]
AsOtringe6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Astringed (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Astringing (?).] [L. astringere; ad + stringere to
draw tight. Cf. Astrict, and see Strain, v. t.] 1. To bind
fast; to constrict; to contract; to cause parts to draw
together; to compress.
Which contraction... astringeth the moistu?? ? br?? and
thereby sendeth tears into the eyes.
2. To bind by moral or legal obligation.
AsOtrin6genOcy (?), n. The quality of being astringent; the
power of contracting the parts of the body; that quality in
medicines or other substances which causes contraction of
the organic textures; as, the astringency of tannin.
AsOtrin6gent (?), a. [L. astringens, p. pr. of astringere:
cf. F. astringent. See Astringe.] 1. Drawing together the
tissues; binding; contracting; P opposed to laxative; as,
astringent medicines; a butter and astringent taste;
astringent fruit.
2. Stern; austere; as, an astringent type of virtue.
AsOtrin6gent, n. A medicine or other substance that produces
contraction in the soft organic textures, and checks
discharges of blood, mucus, etc.
External astringents are called styptics.
AsOtrin6gentOly, adv. In an astringent manner.
AsOtrin6ger (?),n. [OE. ostreger, OF. ostrucier, F.
autoursier, fr. OF. austour, ostor, hawk, F. autour; cf. L.
acceptor, for accipiter, hawk.] A falconer who keeps a
goschawk. [Obs.] Shak. Cowell. [Written also austringer.]
As6troO (?). The combining form of the Greek word ?, meaning
As6troOfel, As6troOfell } (?), n. A bitter herb, probably
the same as aster, or starwort.
AsOtrog6eOny (?), n. [AstroO + Gr. ? birth.] The creation or
evolution of the stars or the heavens.
H. Spencer.
AsOtrog6noOsy (?), n. [AstroO + Gr. ? knowledge.] The
science or knowledge of the stars, esp. the fixed stars.
AsOtrog6oOny (?), n. Same as Astrogeny. P As7OtroOgon6ic
(?), a.
AsOtrog6raOphy (?), n. [AstroO + Ography.] The art of
describing or delineating the stars; a description or
mapping of the heavens.
As6troOite (?), n. [L. astroites: cf. F. astroite.] A
radiated stone or fossil; starPstone. [Obs.] [Written also
astrite and astrion.]
As6troOlabe (?), n. [OE. astrolabie, astrilabe, OF.
astrelabe, F. astrolabe, LL. astrolabium, fr. Gr. ?; ? star
+ ?, ?, to take.] 1. (Astron.) An instrument for observing
or showing the positions of the stars. It is now disused.
5 Among the ancients, it was essentially the armillary
sphere. A graduated circle with sights, for taking altitudes
at sea, was called an astrolabe in the 18th century. It is
now superseded by the quadrant and sextant.
2. A stereographic projection of the sphere on the plane of
a great circle, as the equator, or a meridian; a
AsOtrol6aOter (?), n. A worshiper of the stars.
AsOtrol6aOtry (?), n. [AstroO + Gr. ? service, worship: cf.
F. astrol.trie.] The worship of the stars.
As7troOliOthol6oOgy (?), n. [AstroO + lithology.] The
science of a rolites.
AsOtrol6oOger (?), n. [See Astrology.] 1. One who studies
the stars; an astronomer. [Obs.]
2. One who practices astrology; one who professes to
foretell events by the aspects and situation of the stars.
As7troOlo6giOan (?), n. [OF. astrologien.] An astrologer.
As7troOlog6ic (?), As7troOlog6icOal (?), } a. [Gr. ?.] Of or
pertaining to astrology; professing or practicing astrology.
=Astrologi? learning.8 Hudibras. =Astrological
prognostication.8 Cudworth. P As7troOlog6icOalOly, adv. 
AsOtrol6oOgize (?), v. t. & i. To apply astrology to; to
study or practice astrology.
AsOtrol6oOgy (?), n. [F. astrologie, L. astrologia, fr. Gr.
?, fr. ? astronomer, astrologer; ? star + ? discourse, ? to
speak. See Star.] In its etymological signification, the
science of the stars; among the ancients, synonymous with
astronomy; subsequently, the art of judging of the
influences of the stars upon human affairs, and of
foretelling events by their position and aspects.
5 Astrology was much in vogue during the Middle Ages, and
became the parent of modern astronomy, as alchemy did of
chemistry. It was divided into two kinds: judicial
astrology, which assumed to foretell the fate and acts of
nations and individuals, and natural astrology, which
undertook to predict events of inanimate nature, such as
changes of the weather, etc.
As7troOman6tic (?), a. [Gr. ? astrology.] Of or pertaining
to divination by means of the stars; astrologic. [R.]
Dr. H. More.
As7troOme7teOorOol6oOgy (?), n. [AstroO + meteorology.] The
investigation of the relation between the sun, moon, and
stars, and the weather. P As7OtroOme7teOor7oOlog6icOal (?),
a. P As7troOme7teOorOol6oOgist (?), n.
AsOtrom6eOter (?), n. [AstroO + Ometer.] An instrument for
comparing the relative amount of the light of stars.
AsOtrom6eOtry (?), n. [AstroO + Ometry.] The art of making
measurements among the stars, or of determining their
relative magnitudes.
AsOtron6oOmer (?), n. [See Astronomy.] 1. An astrologer.
2. One who is versed in astronomy; one who has a knowledge
of the laws of the heavenly orbs, or the principles by which
their motions are regulated, with their various phenomena.
An undevout astronomer is mad.
As7troOno6miOan (?), n. [OE. & OF. astronomien. See
Astronomy.] An astrologer. [Obs.]
As7troOnom6ic (?), a. Astronomical.

<-- p. 95 -->

As7troOnom6icOal (?), a. [L. astronomicus, Gr. ?: cf. F.
astronomique.] Of or pertaining to astronomy; in accordance
with the methods or principles of astronomy. P
As7troOnom6icOalOly, adv.
w clock. See under Clock. P w day. See under Clock. P w day.
See under Day. P w fractions, w numbers. See under
AsOtron6oOmize , v. i. [Gr. ?.] To study or to talk
astronomy. [R.]
They astronomized in caves.
Sir T. Browne.
AsOtron6oOmy (?), n. [OE. astronomie, F. astronomie, L.
astronomia, fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? astronomer; ? star + ? to
distribute, regulate. See Star, and Nomad.] 1. Astrology.
Not from the stars do I my judgment pluck;
And yet methinks I have astronomy.
2. The science which treats of the celestial bodies, of
their magnitudes, motions, distances, periods of revolution,
eclipses, constitution, physical condition, and of the
causes of their various phenomena.
3. A treatise on, or textPbook of, the science. 
Physical ~. See under Physical.
As6troOphel (?), n. See Astrofel.[Obs.]
As7troOphoOtog6raOphy (?), n. [AstroO + photography.] The
application of photography to the delineation of the sun,
moon, and stars.
As7troOphys6icOal (?), a. Pertaining to the physics of
astronomical science.
X AsOtroph6yOton (?), n. [AstroO + Gr. ? a plant.] (Zo.l.) A
genus of ophiurans having the arms much branched.
As6troOscope (?), n. [AstroO + scope.] An old astronomical
instrument, formed of two cones, on whose surface the
constellations were delineated.
AsOtros6coOpy (?), n. Observation of the stars. [Obs.]
As7troOtheOol6OoOgy (?), n. [AstroO + theology.] Theology
founded on observation or knowledge of the celestial bodies.
AOstruc6tive (?), a. [L. astructus, p. p. of astruere to
build up; ad + struere to build.] Building up; constructive;
P opposed to destructive.[Obs.]
AOstrut6 (?), a. & adv. 1. Sticking out, or puffed out;
swelling; in a swelling manner. [Archaic]
Inflated and astrut with selfPconceit.
2. In a strutting manner; with a strutting gait.
AsOtu6cious (?), a. [F. astucieux. See Astute.] Subtle;
cunning; astute. [R.] Sir W. Scott. P AsOtu6ciousOly, adv.
AsOtu6ciOty (?), n. [See Astucious.] Craftiness; astuteness.
AOstun6 (?), v. t. [See Astony, Stun.] To stun. [Obs.]
=Breathless and astunned.8
AsOtu6riOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Asturias in Spain. P
n. A native of Asturias.
AsOtute6 (?), a. [L. astutus, fr. astus craft, cunning;
perh. cognate with E. acute.] Critically discerning;
sagacious; shrewd; subtle; crafty.
Syn. - Keen; eaglePeyed; penetrating; skilled;
discriminating; cunning; sagacious; subtle; wily; crafty. 
P AsOtute6ly, adv. P AsOtute6ness, n.
AOsty6lar (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ? pillar.] (arch.) Without
columns pr pilasters.
AOstyl6len (?), n. (Mining) A small dam to prevent free
passage of water in an adit or level.
AOsun6der (?), adv. [Pref. aO + sunder.] Apart; separate
from each other; into parts; in two; separately; into or in
different pieces or places.
I took my staff, even Beauty, and cut it asunder.
Zech. xi. 10.
As wide asunder as pole and pole.
X AOsu6ra (?), n. (Hind. Myth.) An enemy of the gods, esp.
one of a race of demons and giants.
X As6wail (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo.l.) The sloth bear
(Melursus labiatus) of India.
AOswewe6 (?), v. t. [AS. aswebban; a + swebban. See Sweven.]
To stupefy. [Obs.]
AOswing6 (?), adv. In a state of swinging. 
AOswoon6 (?), adv. In a swoon.
AOswooned6 (?), adv. In a swoon.
AOsy6lum (?), n.; pl. E. Asylums (?), L. Asyla (?). [L.
asylum, Gr. ?, fr. ? exempt from spoliation, inviolable; ?
priv. + ? right of seizure.] 1. A sanctuary or place of
refuge and protection, where criminals and debtors found
shelter, and from which they could not be forcibly taken
without sacrilege.
So sacred was the church to some, that it had the right of
an asylum or sanctuary.
5 The name was anciently given to temples, altars, statues
of the gods, and the like. In later times Christian churches
were regarded as asylums in the same sense.
2. Any place of retreat and security.
Earth has no other asylum for them than its own cold bosom.
3. An institution for the protection or relief of some class
of destitute, unfortunate, or afflicted persons; as, an
asylum for the aged, for the blind, or for the insane; a
lunatic asylum; an orphan asylum.
AOsym6meOtral (?), a. Incommensurable; also, unsymmetrical.
D. H. More.
As7ymOmet6ric (?), As7ymOmet6riOcal (?), } a. [See
Asymmetrous.] 1. Incommensurable. [Obs.]
2. Not symmetrical; wanting proportion; esp., not
bilaterally symmetrical.
AOsym6meOtrous (?), a. [Gr. ?.] Asymmetrical. [Obs.]
AOsym6meOtry (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? symmetry.] 1. Want
of symmetry, or proportion between the parts of a thing,
esp. want of bilateral symmetry.
2. (Math.) Incommensurability. [Obs.]
As6ympOtote (?; 215), n. [Gr. ? not falling together; ?
priv. + ? to fall together; ? with + ? to fall. Cf.
Symptom.] (Math.) A line which approaches nearer to some
curve than assignable distance, but, though infinitely
extended, would never meet it. Asymptotes may be straight
lines or curves. A rectilinear asymptote may be conceived as
a tangent to the curve at an infinite distance.
As7ympOtot6ic (?), As7ympOtot6icOal (?), } a. Pertaining to,
or partaking of the nature of, an asymptote; as,
asymptotical lines, surfaces, or planes. P As7ympOtot6icOly,
AOsyn6arOtete7 (?), a. [Gr. ? not united, disconnected; ?
priv. + ? with + ? to fasten to.] Disconnected; not fitted
or adjusted. P AOsyn6arOtet6ic (?), a.
w verse (Pros.), a verse of two members, having different
rhythms; as when the first consists of iambuses and the
second of trochees.
As7ynOdet6ic (?), a. [See Asyndeton.] Characterized by the
use of asyndeton; not connected by conjunctions. P
As7ynOdet6icOalOly, adv.
AOsyn6deOton (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? unconnected; ?
priv. + ? bound together, fr. ?; ? with + ? to bind.]
(Rhet.) A figure which omits the connective; as, I came, I
saw, I conquered. It stands opposed to polysyndeton.
AOsys6toOle (?)(?), n. [Pref. aO not + systole.] (Physiol.)
A weakening or cessation of the contractile power of the
AOsys6toOlism (?), n. The state or symptoms characteristic
of asystole.
At (?), prep. [AS. .t; akin to OHG. az, Goth., OS., & Icel.
at, Sw. .t, Dan. & L. ad.] Primarily, this word expresses
the relations of presence, nearness in place or time, or
direction toward; as, at the ninth hour; at the house; to
aim at a mark. It is less definite than in or on; at the
house may be in or near the house. From this original import
are derived all the various uses of at. It expresses: P
1. A relation of proximity to, or of presence in or on,
something; as, at the door; at your shop; at home; at
school; at hand; at sea and on land.
2. The relation of some state or condition; as, at war; at
peace; at ease; at your service; at fault; at liberty; at
risk; at disadvantage.
3. The relation of some employment or action; occupied with;
as, at engraving; at husbandry; at play; at work; at meat
(eating); except at puns.
4. The relation of a point or position in a series, or of
degree, rate, or value; as, with the thermometer at 800;
goods sold at a cheap price; a country estimated at 10,000
square miles; life is short at the longest.
5. The relations of time, age, or order; as, at ten o'clock;
at twentyPone; at once; at first.
6. The relations of source, occasion, reason, consequence,
or effect; as, at the sight; at this news; merry at
anything; at this declaration; at his command; to demand,
require, receive, deserve, endure at your hands.
7. Relation of direction toward an object or end; as, look
at it; to point at one; to aim at a mark; to throw, strike,
shoot, wink, mock, laugh at any one.
At all, At home, At large, At last, At length, At once, etc.
See under All, Home, Large, Last (phrase and syn.), Length,
Once, etc. P At it, busily or actively engaged. P At least.
See Least and However. P At one. See At one, in the
Syn. - In, At. When reference to the interior of any place
is made prominent in is used. It is used before the names of
countries and cities (esp. large cities); as, we live in
America, in New York, in the South. At is commonly employed
before names of houses, institutions, villages, and small
places; as, Milton was educated at Christ's College; money
taken in at the Customhouse; I saw him at the jeweler's; we
live at Beachville. At may be used before the name of a city
when it is regarded as a mere point of locality. =An English
king was crowned at Paris.8 Macaulay. =Jean Jacques
Rousseau was born at Geneva, June, 28, 1712.8 J. Morley. In
regard to time, we say at the hour, on the day, in the year;
as, at 9 o'clock, on the morning of July 5th, in the year
At6aObal (?), n. [Sp. atabal, fr. Ar. atPtabl the drum,
tabala to beat the drum. Cf. Tymbal.] A kettledrum; a kind
of tabor, used by the Moors. Croly.
AOtac6aOmite (?), n. [From the desert of Atacama, where
found.] (Min.) An oxychloride of copper, usually in
emeraldPgreen prismatic crystals.
At7aft6er (?), prep. After. [Obs.]
At6aOghan (?), n. See Yataghan.
AOtake6 (?), v. t. To overtake. [Obs.]
At6aOman (?), n. [Russ. ataman': cf. Pol. hetman, G.
hauptmann headman, chieftain. Cf. Hetman.] A hetman, or
chief of the Cossacks.
X At7aOrax6iOa (?), At6aOrax7y (?), } n. [NL. ataraxia, Gr.
?; ? priv. + ? disturbed, ? to disturb.] Perfect peace of
mind, or calmness.
AOtaunt6 (?), AOtaunt6o (?), } adv. [F. autant as much (as
possible).] (Naut.) Fully rigged, as a vessel; with all
sails set; set on end or set right.
AOtav6ic (?), a. [Cf. F. atavique.] Pertaining to a remote
ancestor, or to atavism.
At6aOvism (?), n. [L. atavus an ancestor, fr. avus a
grandfather.] (a) The recurrence, or a tendency to a
recurrence, of the original type of a species in the progeny
of its varieties; resemblance to remote rather than to near
ancestors; reversion to the original form. (b) (Biol.) The
recurrence of any peculiarity or disease of an ancestor in a
subsequent generation, after an intermission for a
generation or two.
Now and then there occur cases of what physiologists call
atavism, or reversion to an ancestral type of character.
J. Fiske.
X AOtax6iOa (?), At6axOy (?), } n. [NL. ataxia, Gr. ?, fr. ?
out of order; ? priv. + ? ordered, arranged, ? to put in
order: cf. F. ataxie.] 1. Disorder; irregularity. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
2. (Med.) (a) Irregularity in disease, or in the functions.
(b) The state of disorder that characterizes nervous fevers
and the nervous condition.
Locomotor ataxia. See Locomotor.
AOtax6ic (?), a. [Cf. F. ataxique. See Ataxia.] (Med.)
Characterized by ataxy, that is, (a) by great irregularity
of functions or symptoms, or (b) by a want of coordinating
power in movements.
w fever, malignant typhus fever.
At7aOzir6 (?), n. [OF., fr. Ar. alPtasFr influence.]
(Astron.) The influence of a star upon other stars or upon
men. [Obs.]
Ate (?; 277), the preterit of Eat.
A6te (?), n. [Gr. ?.] (Greek. Myth.) The goddess of
mischievous folly; also, in later poets, the goddess of
Oate (?). [From the L. suffix Oatus, the past participle
ending of verbs of the 1st conj.] 1. As an ending of
participles or participial adjectives it is equivalent to
Oed; as, situate or situated; animate or animated.
2. As the ending of a verb, it means to make, to cause, to
act, etc.; as, to propitiate (to make propitious); to
animate (to give life to).
3. As a noun suffix, it marks the agent; as, curate,
delegate. It also sometimes marks the office or dignity; as,
4. In chemistry it is used to denote the salts formed from
those acids whose names end Oic (excepting binary or halogen
acids); as, sulphate from sulphuric acid, nitrate from
nitric acid, etc. It is also used in the case of certain
basic salts.
AOtech6nic (?), a. [Pref. aO not + technic.] Without
technical or artistic knowledge.
Difficult to convey to the atechnic reader.
Etching & Engr.
X At6eOles (?), n. [Gr. ? incomplete; ? priv. + ?
completion.] (Zo.l.) A genus of American monkeys with
prehensile tails, and having the thumb wanting or
rudimentary. See Spider monkey, and Coaita.
X A7teOlier6 (?)(?) n. [F.] A workshop; a studio.
AOtel6lan (?), a. [L. Atellanus, fr. Atella, an ancient town
of the Osci, in Campania.] Of or pertaining to Atella, in
ancient Italy; as, Atellan plays; farcical; ribald. P n. A
farcical drama performed at Atella.
AOthal6aOmous (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ? nuptial bed.] (Bot.)
Not furnished with shields or beds for the spores, as the
thallus of certain lichens.
Ath6aOmaunt (?), n. Adamant. [Obs.]
Written in the table of athamaunt.
Ath7aOna6sian (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to Athanasius,
bishop of Alexandria in the 4th century.
w creed, a formulary, confession, or exposition of faith,
formerly supposed to have been drawn up by Athanasius; but
this opinion is now rejected, and the composition is
ascribed by some to Hilary, bishop of Arles (5th century).
It is a summary of what was called the orthodox faith.
Ath6aOnor (?), n. [F., fr. Ar. atOtann?r, fr. Heb. tann?r an
oven or furnace.] A digesting furnace, formerly used by
alchemists. It was so constructed as to maintain uniform and
durable heat.
X Ath7eOca6ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? chest,
box.] (Zo.l.) A division of Hydroidea in which the zooids
are naked, or not inclosed in a capsule. See Tubularian.
At6theOism (?), n. [Cf. F. ath.isme. See Atheist.] 1. The
disbelief or denial of the existence of a God, or supreme
intelligent Being.
Atheism is a ferocious system, that leaves nothing above us
to excite awe, nor around us to awaken tenderness.
R. Hall.
Atheism and pantheism are often wrongly confounded.
2. Godlessness.
A6theOist, n. [Gr. ? without god; ? priv. + ? god: cf. F.
ath.iste.] 1. One who disbelieves or denies the existence of
a God, or supreme intelligent Being.
2. A godless person. [Obs.]
Syn. - Infidel; unbeliever.
See Infidel.
A7theOis6tic (?), A7theOis6ticOal (?), } a. 1. Pertaining
to, implying, or containing, atheism; P applied to things;
as, atheistic doctrines, opinions, or books.
Atheistical explications of natural effects.
2. Disbelieving the existence of a God; impious; godless; P
applied to persons; as, an atheistic writer. P
A7theOis6ticOalOly, adv. P A7theOis6ticOalOness, n.
A6theOize (?), v. t. To render atheistic or godless. [R.]
They endeavored to atheize one another.
A6theOize, v. i. To discourse, argue, or act as an atheist.
[R.] P A6theOi7zer (?), n.

<-- p. 96 -->

Ath6elOing (?), n. [AS. .?eling noble, fr. .?ele noble, akin
to G. adel nobility, edel noble. The word .?el, E. ethel, is
in many AS. proper names, as Ethelwolf, noble wolf;
Ethelbald, noble bold; Ethelbert, noble bright.] An
AngloPSaxon prince or nobleman; esp., the heir apparent or a
prince of the royal family. [Written also Adeling and
Ath7eOne6um, Ath7eOn.6um } (?), n. pl. E. Atheneums (?), L.
Athen.a (?). [L. Athenaemum, Gr. ? a temple of Minerva at
Athens, fr. ?, contr. fr. ?, ?, in Homer ?, ?, Athene
(called Minerva by the Romans), the tutelary goddess of
Athens.] 1. (Gr. Antiq.) A temple of Athene, at Athens, in
which scholars and poets were accustomed to read their works
and instruct students.
2. A school founded at Rome by Hadrian.
3. A literary or scientific association or club.
4. A building or an apartment where a library, periodicals,
and newspaper? are kept for use.
AOthe6niOan (?), a. [Cf. F. Ath.nien.] Of or pertaining to
Athens, the metropolis of Greece. P n. A native or citizen
of Athens.
A7theOoOlog6icOal (?), a. Opposed to theology; atheistic.
Bp. Montagu.
A7theOol6oOgy (?), n. [Pref. aO not + theology.] Antagonism
to theology.
A6theOous (?), a. [Gr. ? without God. See Atheist.] 1.
Atheistic; impious. [Obs.]
2. Without God, neither accepting nor denying him.
I should say science was atheous, and therefore could not be
Bp. of Carlisle.
Ath6erOine (?), n. [NL. atherina, fr. Gr. ? a kind of
smelt.] (Zo.l.) A small marine fish of the family
Atherinid.,having a silvery stripe along the sides. The
European species (Atherina presbyter) is used as food. The
American species (Menidia notata) is called silversides and
sand smelt. See Silversides.
AOther6manOcy (?), n. [See Athermanous.] Inability to
transmit radiant; impermeability to heat.
AOther6maOnous (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ? to heat, ? heat: cf.
F. athermane.] (Chem.) Not transmitting heat; P opposed to
AOther6mous (?), a. (Chem.) Athermanous.
Ath6erOoid (?), a. [Gr. ?, ?, a beard, or an ear, of grain +
Ooid.] Shaped like an ear of grain.
X Ath7eOro6ma (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, ?, fr. ? gr?ats,
meal.] (Med.) (a) An encysted tumor containing curdy matter.
(b) A disease characterized by thickening and fatty
degeneration of the inner coat of the arteries.
Ath7eOrom6aOtous (?), a. (Med.) Of, pertaining to, or having
the nature of, atheroma.
X Ath7eOto6sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? not fixed; ? priv. +
? to set.] (Med.) A variety of chorea, marked by peculiar
tremors of the fingers and toes.
AOthink6 (?), v. t. To repent; to displease; to disgust.
AOthirst6 (?), a. [OE. ofthurst, AS. ofpyrsted, p. p. of
ofpyrstan; pref. ofO, intensive + pyrstan to thirst. See
Thirst.] 1. Wanting drink; thirsty.
2.Having a keen appetite or desire; eager; longing.
=Athirst for battle.8
Ath6lete (?), n. [L. athleta, Gr. ? prizefighter, fr. ? to
contend for a prize, ?, Hom. ?, contest, ? prize; fr. the
same root as E. wed: cf. F. athl
te.] 1. (Antiq.) One who
contended for a prize in the public games of ancient Greece
or Rome.
2. Any one trained to contend in exercises requiring great
physical agility and strength; one who has great activity
and strength; a champion.
3. One fitted for, or skilled in, intellectual contests; as,
athletes of debate.
Ath7let6ic (?), a. [L. athleticus, Gr. ?. See Athlete.] 1.
Of or pertaining to athletes or to the exercises practiced
by them; as, athletic games or sports.
2. Befitting an athlete; strong; muscular; robust; vigorous;
as, athletic Celts. =Athletic soundness.8 South. P
AthOlet6icOalOly (?), adv.
AthOlet6iOcism (?), n. The practice of engaging in athletic
games; athletism.
AthOlet6ics (?), n. The art of training by athletic
exercises; the games and sports of athletes.
Ath6leOtism (?), n. The state or practice of an athlete; the
characteristics of an athlete.
AOthwart6 (?), prep. [Pref. aO + thwart.] 1. Across; from
side to side of.
Athwart the thicket lone.
2. (Naut.) Across the direction or course of; as, a fleet
standing athwart our course.
w hawse, across the stem of another vessel, whether in
contact or at a small distance. P w ships, across the ship
from side to side, or in that direction; P opposed to fore
and aft.
AOthwart6, adv. 1. Across, especially in an oblique
direction; sidewise; obliquely.
Sometimes athwart, sometimes he strook him straight.
2. Across the course; so as to thwart; perversely.
All athwart there came
A post from Wales loaden with heavy news.
AOtilt6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + tilt.] 1. In the manner of a
tilter; in the position, or with the action, of one making a
thrust. =To run atilt at men.8 Hudibras.
2. In the position of a cask tilted, or with one end raised.
[In this sense sometimes used as an adjective.]
Abroach, atilt, and run
Even to the lees of honor.
Beau. & Fl.
At6iOmy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? honor.] (Gr. Antiq.)
Public disgrace or stigma; infamy; loss of civil rights.
Oa6tion (?). [L. Oationem. See Otion.] A suffix forming
nouns of action, and often equivalent to the verbal
substantive in Oing. It sometimes has the further meanings
of state, and that which results from the action. Many of
these nouns have verbs in Oate; as, alliterate Oation,
narrate Oation; many are derived through the French; as,
alteration, visitation; and many are formed on verbs ending
in the Greek formative Oize (Fr. Oise); as, civilization,
APtip6toe (?), adv. One tiptoe; eagerly expecting.
We all feel aOtiptoe with hope and confidence.
F. Harrison.
X AtOlan6ta (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?.] (Zo.l.) A genus of
small glassy heteropod mollusks found swimming at the
surface in mid ocean. See Heteropod.
AtOlan6tal (?), a. (Anat.) (a) Relating to the atlas. (b)
Anterior; cephalic.
At7lanOte6an (?), a. [L. Atlant?us.] 1. Of or pertaining to
the isle Atlantis, which the ancients allege was sunk, and
overwhelmed by the ocean.
2. Pertaining to, or resembling, Atlas; strong.
With Atlantean shoulders, fit to bear
The weight of mightiest monarchies.
X AtOlan6tes (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. ?, pl. of ?. See
Atlas.] (Arch.) Figures or half figures of men, used as
columns to support an entablature; P called also telamones.
See Caryatides. 
Oxf. Gloss.
AtOlan6tic (?), a. [L. Atlanticus, fr. Atlas. See Atlas and
Atlantes.] 1. Of or pertaining to Mt. Atlas in Libya, and
hence applied to the ocean which lies between Europe and
Africa on the east and America on the west; as, the Atlantic
Ocean (called also the Atlantic); the Atlantic basin; the
Atlantic telegraph.
2. Of or pertaining to the isle of Atlantis.
3. Descended from Atlas.
The seven Atlantic sisters.
X AtOlan6tiOdes (?), n. pl. [L. See Atlantes.] The Pleiades
or seven stars, fabled to have been the daughters of Atlas.
At6las (?), n.; pl. Atlases (?). [L. Atlas, Oantis, Gr. ?,
?, one of the older family of gods, who bears up the pillars
of heaven; also Mt. Atlas, in W. Africa, regarded as the
pillar of heaven. It is from the root of ? to bear. See
Tolerate.] 1. One who sustains a great burden.
2.(Anat.) The first vertebra of the neck, articulating
immediately with the skull, thus sustaining the globe of the
head, whence the name.
3. A collection of maps in a volume; P supposed to be so
called from a picture of w supporting the world, prefixed to
some collections. This name is said to have been first used
by Mercator, the celebrated geographer, in the 16th century.
4. A volume of plates illustrating any subject.
5. A work in which subjects are exhibited in a tabular from
or arrangement; as, an historical atlas.
6. A large, square folio, resembling a volume of maps; P
called also atlas folio.
7. A drawing paper of large size. See under Paper, n.
w powder, a nitroglycerin blasting compound of pasty
consistency and great explosive power.
At6las, n. [Ar., smooth.] A rich kind of satin manufactured
in India.
Brande & C.
At7miOdom6eOter (?), n. [Gr. ?, ?, smoke, vapor + Ometer;
cf. F. atmidom
tre.] An instrument for measuring the
evaporation from water, ice, or snow.
Brande & C.
At6mo (?), n. [Contr. fr. atmosphere.] (Physics) The
standard atmospheric pressure used in certain physical
measurements calculations; conventionally, that pressure
under which the barometer stands at 760 millimeters, at a
temperature of 00 Centigrade, at the level of the sea, and
in the latitude of Paris.
Sir W. Thomson.
At7moOlog6ic (?), At7moOlog6icOal (?), } a. Of or pertaining
to atmology. =Atmological laws of heat.8
AtOmol6oOgist (?), n. One who is versed in atmology.
AtOmol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? vapor + Ology.] (Physics) That
branch of science which treats of the laws and phenomena of
aqueous vapor.
AtOmol6yOsis (?), n. [Gr. ? vapor + ? a loosing, ? to
loose.] (Chem.) The act or process of separating mingled
gases of unequal diffusibility by transmission through
porous substances.
At7molOyOza6tion , n. (Chem.) Separation by atmolysis.
At6moOlyze (?), v. t. (Chem.) To subject to atmolysis; to
separate by atmolysis.
At6moOly7zer (?), n. (Chem.) An apparatus for effecting
AtOmom6eOter (?), n. [Gr. ? smoke, vapor + Ometer: cf. F.
tre.] An instrument for measuring the rate of
evaporation from a moist surface; an evaporometer.
At6mosOphere (?), n. [Gr. ? vapor (akin to Skr. >tman
breath, soul, G. athem breath) + ? sphere: cf. F.
re. See Sphere.] 1. (Physics) (a) The whole mass of
a riform fluid surrounding the earth; P applied also to the
gaseous envelope of any celestial orb, or other body; as,
the atmosphere of Mars. (b) Any gaseous envelope or medium.
An atmosphere of cold oxygen.
2. A supposed medium around various bodies; as, electrical
atmosphere, a medium formerly supposed to surround
electrical bodies.
3. The pressure or weight of the air at the sea level, on a
unit of surface, or about 14.7 Ibs. to the sq. inch.
Hydrogen was liquefied under a pressure of 650 atmospheres.
4. Any surrounding or pervading influence or condition.
The chillest of social atmospheres.
5. The portion of air in any locality, or affected by a
special physical or sanitary condition; as, the atmosphere
of the room; a moist or noxious atmosphere.
At7mosOpher6ic (?), At7mosOpher6icOal (?), } a. [Cf. F.
atmosph.rique.] 1. Of or pertaining to the atmosphere; of
the nature of, or resembling, the atmosphere; as,
atmospheric air; the atmospheric envelope of the earth.
2. Existing in the atmosphere.
The lower atmospheric current.
3. Caused, or operated on, by the atmosphere; as, an
atmospheric effect; an atmospheric engine.
4. Dependent on the atmosphere. [R.]
In am so atmospherical a creature.
Atmospheric engine, a steam engine whose piston descends by
the pressure of the atmosphere, when the steam which raised
it is condensed within the cylinder. Tomlinson. P
Atmospheric line (Steam Engin.), the equilibrium line of an
indicator card. Steam is expanded =down to the atmosphere8
when its pressure is equal to that of the atmosphere. (See
Indicator card.) P Atmospheric pressure, the pressure
exerted by the atmosphere, not merely downwards, but in
every direction. In amounts to about 14.7 Ibs. on each
square inch. P Atmospheric railway, one in which pneumatic
power, obtained from compressed air or the creation of a
vacuum, is the propelling force. P Atmospheric tides. See
under Tide.
At7mosOpher6icOalOly (?), adv. In relation to the
At7mosOpheOrol6oOgy (?), n. [Atmosphere + Ology.] The
science or a treatise on the atmosphere.
At6oOkous (?), a. [Gr. ? barren; ? priv. + ? offspring.]
(Zo.l.) Producing only asexual individuals, as the eggs of
certain annelids.
AOtoll6 (?), n. [The native name in the Indian Ocean.] A
coral island or islands, consisting of a belt of coral reef,
partly submerged, surrounding a central lagoon or
depression; a lagoon island.
At6om (?), n. [L. atomus, Gr. ?, uncut, indivisible; ? priv.
+ ?, verbal adj. of ? to cut: cf. F. atome. See Tome.] 1.
(Physics) (a) An ultimate indivisible particle of matter.
(b) An ultimate particle of matter not necessarily
indivisible; a molecule. (c) A constituent particle of
matter, or a molecule supposed to be made up of subordinate
5 These three definitions correspond to different views of
the nature of the ultimate particles of matter. In the case
of the last two, the particles are more correctly called
2.(Chem.) The smallest particle of matter that can enter
into combination; one of the elementary constituents of a
3. Anything extremely small; a particle; a whit.
There was not an atom of water.
Sir J. Ross.
At6om, v. t. To reduce to atoms. [Obs.]
AOtom6ic (?), AOtom6icOal (?), } a. [Cf. F. atomique.] 1. Of
or pertaining to atoms.
2. Extremely minute; tiny.
Atomic philosophy, or Doctrine of atoms, a system which
assuming that atoms are endued with gravity and motion
accounted thus for the origin and formation of all things.
This philosophy was first broached by Leucippus, was
developed by Democritus, and afterward improved by Epicurus,
and hence is sometimes denominated the Epicurean philosophy.
P Atomic theory, or the Doctrine of definite proportions
(Chem.), teaches that chemical combinations take place
between the supposed ultimate particles or atoms of bodies,
in some simple ratio, as of one to one, two to three, or
some other, always expressible in whole numbers. P Atomic
weight (Chem.), the weight of the atom of an element as
compared with the weight of the atom of hydrogen, taken as a
AOtom6icOalOly, adv. In an atomic manner; in accordance
with the atomic philosophy.
At7oOmi6cian (?), n. An atomist. [R.]
AOtom6iOcism (?), n. Atomism. [Obs.]
At7oOmic6iOty (?), n. [Cf. F. atomicit..] (Chem.) Degree of
atomic attraction; equivalence; valence; also (a later use)
the number of atoms in an elementary molecule. See Valence. 
At6omOism (?), n. [Cf. F. atomisme.] The doctrine of atoms.
See Atomic philosophy, under Atomic.
At6omOist, n. [Cf. F. atomiste.] One who holds to the atomic
philosophy or theory.
At7omOis6tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to atoms; relating to
atomism. [R.]
It is the object of the mechanical atomistic philosophy to
confound synthesis with synartesis.
At7omOiOza6tion , n. 1. The act of reducing to atoms, or
very minute particles; or the state of being so reduced.
2. (Med.) The reduction of fluids into fine spray.
At6omOize , v. t. To reduce to atoms, or to fine spray.
The liquids in the form of spray are said to be pulverized,
nebulized, or atomized.

<-- p. 97 -->

At6omOi7zer , n. One who, or that which, atomizes; esp., an
instrument for reducing a liquid to spray for disinfecting,
cooling, or perfuming.
At7omOol6oOgy (?), n. [Atom + Ology.] The doctrine of atoms.
At6omOy (?), n. An atom; a mite; a pigmy.
At6oOmy (?), n. [For anatomy, taken as an atomy.] A
skeleton. [Ludicrous]
AOton6aOble (?), a. Admitting an atonement; capable of being
atoned for; expiable.
At one6 (?). [OE. at on, atone, atoon, attone.] 1. In
concord or friendship; in agreement (with each other); as,
to be, bring, make, or set, at one, i. e., to be or bring in
or to a state of agreement or reconciliation.
If gentil men, or othere of hir contree
Were wrothe, she wolde bringen hem atoon.
2. Of the same opinion; agreed; as, on these points we are
at one.
3. Together. [Obs.]
AOtone6 (?), v. t. [ imp. & p. p. Atoned (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Atoning.] [From at one, i. e., to be, or cause to be, at
one. See At one.] 1. To agree; to be in accordance; to
accord. [Obs.]
He and Aufidius can no more atone
Than violentest contrariety.
2. To stand as an equivalent; to make reparation,
compensation, or amends, for an offense or a crime.
The murderer fell, and blood atoned for blood.
The ministry not atoning for their former conduct by any
wise or popular measure.
AOtone6, v. t. 1. To set at one; to reduce to concord; to
reconcile, as parties at variance; to appease. [Obs.]
I would do much
To atone them, for the love I bear to Cassio.
2. To unite in making. [Obs. & R.]
The four elements... have atoned
A noble league.
3. To make satisfaction for; to expiate.
Or each atone his guilty love with life.
AOtone6ment (?), n. 1. (Literally, a setting at one.)
Reconciliation; restoration of friendly relations;
agreement; concord. [Archaic]
By whom we have now received the atonement.
Rom. v. 11.
He desires to make atonement
Betwixt the Duke of Gloucester and your brothers.
2. Satisfaction or reparation made by giving an equivalent
for an injury, or by doing of suffering that which will be
received in satisfaction for an offense or injury;
expiation; amends; P with for. Specifically, in theology:
The expiation of sin made by the obedience, personal
suffering, and death of Christ.
When a man has been guilty of any vice, the best atonement
be can make for it is, to warn others.
The Phocians behaved with, so much gallantry, that they were
thought to have made a sufficient atonement for their former
AOton6er (?), n. One who makes atonement.
AtOones (?), adv. [See At one.] [Obs.]
Down he fell atones as a stone.
AOton6ic (?), a. [Cf. F. atonique. See Atony.] 1. (Med.)
Characterized by atony, or want of vital energy; as, an
atonic disease.
2. (Gram.) Unaccented; as, an atonic syllable.
3. Destitute of tone vocality; surd.
AOton6ic, n. 1. (Gram.) A word that has no accent.
2. An element of speech entirely destitute of vocality, or
produced by the breath alone' a nonvocal or surd consonant;
a breathing.
3. (Med.) A remedy capable of allaying organic excitement or
At6oOny (?), n. [Gr. ? slackness; ? priv. + ? tone,
strength, ? to stretch: cf. F. atonie.] (Med.) Want of tone;
weakness of the system, or of any organ, especially of such
as are contractile.
AOtop6 (?), adv. On or at the top.
At7raObiOla6riOan (?), At7raObiOla6riOous (?), } a. [LL.
atrabilarius, fr. L. atra bilis black bile: cf. F.
atrabilaire, fr. atrabile.] Affected with melancholy;
At7raObiOla6riOan, n. A person much given to melancholy; a
I. Disraeli.
At7raObil6iar (?), a. Melancholy; atrabilious.
At7raObil6iaOry (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to atra bilis or
black bile, a fluid formerly supposed to be produced by the
2. Melancholic or hypohondriac; atrabilious; P from the
supposed predominance of black bile, to the influence of
which the ancients attributed hypochondria, melancholy, and
w arteries, capsules, and veins (Anat.), those pertaining
to the kidney; P called also renal arteries, capsules, and
At7raObil6ious (?), a. Melancholic or hypochondriac;
A hardPfaced, atrabilious, earnestPeyed race.
He was constitutionally atrabilious and scornful.
At7raOmenOta6ceous (?), a. [L. atramentum ink, fr. ater
black.] Black, like ink; inky; atramental. [Obs.]
At7raOmen6tal (?), At7raOmen6tous (?), } a. Of or pertaining
to ink; inky; black, like ink; as, atramental galls;
atramentous spots.
At7raOmenOta6riOous (?), a. [Cf. F. atramentaire. See
Atramentaceous.] Like ink; suitable for making ink. Sulphate
of iron (copperas, green vitriol) is called atramentarious,
as being used in making ink.
AtOrede (?), v. t. [OE. at (AS. .t) out + rede.] To surpass
in council. [Obs.]
Men may the olde atrenne, but hat atrede.
AtOrenne6 (?), v. t. [OE. at + renne to run.] To outrun.
X AOtre6siOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? not perforated.] (Med.)
Absence or closure of a natural passage or channel of the
body; imperforation.
A6triOal , a. Of or pertaining to an atrium.
AOtrip6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + trip.] (Naut.) (a) Just hove
clear of the ground; Psaid of the anchor. (b) Sheeted home,
hoisted taut up and ready for trimming; P said of sails. (c)
Hoisted up and ready to be swayed across; P said of yards.
X A6triOum (?), n.; pl. Atria (?). [L., the fore court of a
Roman house.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A square hall lighted from
above, into which rooms open at one or more levels. (b) An
open court with a porch or gallery around three or more
sides; especially at the entrance of a basilica or other
church. The name was extended in the Middle Ages to the open
churchyard or cemetery.
2.(Anat.) The main part of either auricle of the heart as
distinct from the auricular appendix. Also, the whole
articular portion of the heart.
3.(Zo.l.) A cavity in ascidians into which the intestine
and generative ducts open, and which also receives the water
from the gills. See Ascidioidea.
X At7roOcha (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? a circle.]
(Zo.l.) A kind of ch.topod larva in which no circles of
cilia are developed.
AOtro6cious (?), a. [L. atrox, atrocis, cruel, fierce: cf.
F. atroce.] 1. Extremely heinous; full of enormous
wickedness; as, atrocious quilt or deeds.
2. Characterized by, or expressing, great atrocity, great
Revelations... so atrocious that nothing in history
approaches them. 
De Quincey.
3. Very grievous or violent; terrible; as, atrocious
distempers. [Obs.]
Syn. - Atrocious, Flagitious, Flagrant. Flagitious points to
an act as grossly wicked and vile; as, a flagitious
proposal. Flagrant marks the vivid impression made upon the
mind by something strikingly wrong or erroneous; as, a
flagrant misrepresentation; a flagrant violation of duty.
Atrocious represents the act as springing from a violent and
savage spirit. If Lord Chatham, instead of saying =the
atrocious crime of being a young man,8 had used either of
the other two words, his irony would have lost all its
point, in his celebrated reply to Sir Robert Walpole, as
reported by Dr. Johnson.
P AOtro6ciousOly, adv. P AOtro6ciousOness, n.
AOtroc6iOty (?), n.; pl. Atrocities (?). [F. atrocit., L.
atrocitas, fr. atrox, atrocis, cruel.] 1. Enormous
wickedness; extreme heinousness or cruelty.
2. An atrocious or extremely cruel deed.
The atrocities which attend a victory.
AOtroph6ic , a. Relating to atrophy.
At6roOphied (?), p. a. Affected with atrophy, as a tissue or
organ; arrested in development at a very early stage;
At6roOphy (?), n. [L. atrophia, Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to
nourish: cf. F. atrophie.] A wasting away from of
nourishment; diminution in bull or slow emaciation of the
body or of any part.
At6roOphy, v. t. [p. p. Atrophied (?).] To cause to waste
away or become abortive; to starve or weaken.
At6roOphy, v. i. To waste away; to dwindle.
AOtro6piOa (?), n. Same as Atropine.
At6roOpine (?), n. [Gr. ? inflexible; hence ? ?, one of the
three Parc.; ? priv. + ? to turn.] (Chem.) A poisonous,
white, crystallizable alkaloid, extracted from the Atropa
belladonna, or deadly nightshade, and the Datura Stramonium,
or thorn apple. It is remarkable for its power in dilating
the pupil of the eye. Called also daturine.
At6roOpism (?), n. (Med.) A condition of the system produced
by long use of belladonna.
At6roOpous (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to turn.] (Bot.) Not
inverted; orthotropous.
A6trous (?), a. [L. ater.] CoalPblack; very black.
X AOtry6pa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? a hole.]
(Paleon.) A extinct genus of Branchiopoda, very common in
Silurian limestones.
At6taObal (?), n. See Atabal.
X AtOtac6ca (?). [It., fr. attaccare to tie, bind. See
Attach.] (Mus.) Attack at once; P a direction at the end of
a movement to show that the next is to follow immediately,
without any pause.
AtOtach6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Attached (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Attaching.] [OF. atachier, F. attacher, to tie or
fasten: cf. Celt. tac, tach, nail, E. tack a small nail,
tack to fasten. Cf. Attack, and see Tack.] 1. To bind,
fasten, tie, or connect; to make fast or join; as, to attach
one thing to another by a string, by glue, or the like.
The shoulder blade is... attached only to the muscles.
A huge stone to which the cable was attached.
2. To connect; to place so as to belong; to assign by
authority; to appoint; as, an officer is attached to a
certain regiment, company, or ship.
3. To win the heart of; to connect by ties of love or
selfPinterest; to attract; to fasten or bind by moral
influence; P with to; as, attached to a friend; attaching
others to us by wealth or flattery.
Incapable of attaching a sensible man.
Miss Austen.
God... by various ties attaches man to man.
4. To connect, in a figurative sense; to ascribe or
attribute; to affix; P with to; as, to attach great
importance to a particular circumstance.
Top this treasure a curse is attached.
Bayard Taylor.
5. To take, seize, or lay hold of. [Obs.]
6. To take by legal authority: (a) To arrest by writ, and
bring before a court, as to answer for a debt, or a
contempt; P applied to a taking of the person by a civil
process; being now rarely used for the arrest of a criminal.
(b) To seize or take (goods or real estate) by virtue of a
writ or precept to hold the same to satisfy a judgment which
may be rendered in the suit. See Attachment, 4.
The earl marshal attached Gloucester for high treason.
Miss Yonge.
Attached column (Arch.), a column engaged in a wall, so that
only a part of its circumference projects from it.
Syn. - To affix; bind; tie; fasten; connect; conjoin;
subjoin; annex; append; win; gain over; conciliate.
AtOtach6 (?), v. i. 1. To adhere; to be attached.
The great interest which attaches to the mere knowledge of
these facts cannot be doubted.
2. To come into legal operation in connection with anything;
to vest; as, dower will attach.
AtOtach6, n. An attachment. [Obs.]
AtOtach6aOble (?), a. Capable of being attached; esp.,
liable to be taken by writ or precept.
X At7taOch.6 (?), n. [F., p. p. of attacher. See Attach, v.
t.] One attached to another person or thing, as a part of a
suite or staff. Specifically: One attached to an embassy.
AtOtach6ment (?), n. [F. attachment.] 1. The act attaching,
or state of being attached; close adherence or affection;
fidelity; regard; an? passion of affection that binds a
person; as, an attachment to a friend, or to a party.
2. That by which one thing is attached to another;
connection; as, to cut the attachments of a muscle.
The human mind... has exhausted its forces in the endeavor
to rend the supernatural from its attachment to this
I. Taylor.
3 Something attached; some adjunct attached to an
instrument, machine, or other object; as, a sewing machine
attachment (i. e., a device attached to a sewing machine to
enable it to do special work, as tucking, etc.).
4. (Giv. Law) (a) A seizure or taking into custody by virtue
of a legal process. (b) The writ or percept commanding such
seizure or taking.
5 The term is applied to a seizure or taking either of
persons or property. In the serving of process in a civil
suit, it is most generally applied to the taking of
property, whether at common law, as a species of distress,
to compel defendant's appearance, or under local statutes,
to satisfy the judgment the plaintiff may recover in the
action. The terms attachment and arrest are both applied to
the taking or apprehension of a defendant to compel an
appearance in a civil action. Attachment are issued at
common law and is chancery, against persons for contempt of
court. In England, attachment is employed in some cases
where capias is with us, as against a witness who fails to
appear on summons. In some of the New England States a writ
of attachment is a species of mesne process upon which the
property of a defendant may be saized at the commencement of
a suit and before summons to him, and may be held to satisfy
the judgment the plaintiff may recover. In other States this
writ can issue only against absconding debtors and those who
conceal themselves. See Foreign, Garnishment, Truster
Bouvier. Burrill. Blackstone. 
Syn. - Attachment, Affection. The leading idea of affection
is that of warmth and tenderness; the leading idea of
attachment is that of being bound to some object by strong
and lasting ties. There is more of sentiment (and sometimes
of romance) in affection, and more of principle in
preserving attachment. We speak of the ardor of the one, and
the fidelity of the other. There is another distinction in
the use and application of these words. The term attachment
is applied to a wider range of objects than affection. A man
may have a strong attachment to his country, to his
profession, to his principles, and even to favorite places;
in respect to none of these could we use the word affection.
AtOtack6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Attacked (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Attacking.] [F. attaquer, orig. another form of attacher
to ~: cf. It. attacare to fasten, ~. See Attach, Tack a
small nail.] 1. To fall upon with force; to assail, as with
force and arms; to assault. =Attack their lines.8
2. To assail with unfriendly speech or writing; to begin a
controversy with; to attempt to overthrow or bring into
disrepute, by criticism or satire; to censure; as, to attack
a man, or his opinions, in a pamphlet.
3. To set to work upon, as upon a task or problem, or some
object of labor or investigation.
4. To begin to affect; to begin to act upon, injuriously or
destructively; to begin to decompose or waste.
On the fourth of March he was attacked by fever.
Hydrofluoric acid... attacks the glass.
B. Stewart.
Syn. - To Attack, Assail, Assault, Invade. These words all
denote a violent onset; attack being the generic term, and
the others specific forms of attack. To attack is to
commence the onset; to assail is to make a sudden and
violent ~, or to make repeated attacks; to assault
(literally, to leap upon) is to ~ physically by a
hadPtoPhand approach or by unlawful and insulting violence;
to invade is to enter by force on what belongs to another.
Thus, a person may attack by offering violence of any kind;
he may assail by means of missile weapons; he may assault by
direct personal violence; a king may invade by marching an
army into a country. Figuratively, we may say, men attack
with argument or satire; they assail with abuse or
reproaches; they may be assaulted by severe temptations; the
rights of the people may be invaded by the encroachments of
the crown.
AtOtack6, v. i. To make an onset or ~.
AtOtack6, n. [Cf. F. attaque.] 1. The act of attacking, or
falling on with force or violence; an onset; an assault; P
opposed to defense.
2. An assault upon one's feelings or reputation with
unfriendly or bitter words.
3. A setting to work upon some task, etc.
4. An access of disease; a fit of sickness.
5. The beginning of corrosive, decomposing, or destructive
action, by a chemical agent.
AtOtack6aOble (?), a. Capable of being attacked.
AtOtack6er (?), n. One who attacks.
At6taOgas (?), At6taOgen (?), } n. [L. attagen a kind of
bird, Gr. ?, ?.] (Zo.l.) A species of sand grouse
(Syrrghaptes Pallasii) found in Asia and rarely in southern

<-- p. 98 -->

At6taOghan (?), n. See Yataghan.
AtOtain6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Attained (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Attaining.] [Of. atteinen, atteignen, ?tainen, OF.
ateindre, ataindre, F. atteindre, fr. L. attingere; ad +
tangere to touch, reach. See Tangent, and cf. Attinge,
Attaint.] 1. To achieve or accomplish, that is, to reach by
efforts; to gain; to compass; as, to attain rest.
Is he wise who hopes to attain the end without the means?
Abp. Tillotson.
2. To gain or obtain possession of; to acquire. [Obs. with a
material object.]
3. To get at the knowledge of; to ascertain. [Obs.]
Not well attaining his meaning.
4. To reach or come to, by progression or motion; to arrive
at. =Canaan he now attains.8
5. To overtake. [Obs.]
6. To reach in excellence or degree; to equal.
Syn. - To Attain, Obtain, Procure. Attain always implies an
effort toward an object. Hence it is not synonymous with
obtain and procure, which do not necessarily imply such
effort or motion. We procure or obtain a thing by purchase
or loan, and we obtain by inheritance, but we do not attain
it by such means.
AtOtain6, v. i. 1. To come or arrive, by motion, growth,
bodily exertion, or efforts toward a place, object, state,
etc.; to reach.
If by any means they might attain to Phenice.
Acts xxvii. 12.
Nor nearer might the dogs attain.
Sir W. Scott.
To see your trees attain to the dignity of timber.
Few boroughs had as yet attained to power such as this.
J. R. Green.
2. To come or arrive, by an effort of mind.
Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I can
not attain unto it.
Ps. cxxxix. 6.
AtOtain6, n. Attainment. [Obs.]
AtOtain7aObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being attainable;
AtOtain6aOble (?), a. 1. Capable of being attained or
reached by efforts of the mind or body; capable of being
compassed or accomplished by efforts directed to the object.
The highest pitch of perfection attainable in this life.
2. Obtainable. [Obs.]
General Howe would not permit the purchase of those articles
[clothes and blankets] in Philadelphia, and they were not
attainable in the country.
AtOtain6aObleOness, n. The quality of being attainable;
AtOtain6der (?), n. [OF. ataindre, ateindre, to accuse,
convict. Attainder is often erroneously referred to F.
teindre tie stain. See Attaint, Attain.] 1. The act of
attainting, or the state of being attainted; the extinction
of the civil rights and capacities of a person, consequent
upon sentence of death or outlawry; as, an act of attainder.
5 Formerly attainder was the inseparable consequence of a
judicial or legislative sentence for treason or felony, and
involved the forfeiture of all the real and personal
property of the condemned person, and such =corruption of
blood8 that he could neither receive nor transmit by
inheritance, nor could he sue or testify in any court, or
claim any legal protection or rights. In England attainders
are now abolished, and in the United States the Constitution
provides that no bill of attainder shall be passed; and no
attainder of treason (in consequence of a judicial sentence)
shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture, except during
the life of the person attainted.
2. A stain or staining; state of being in dishonor or
condemnation. [Obs.]
He lived from all attainder of suspect.
Bill of ~, a bill brought into, or passed by, a legislative
body, condemning a person to death or outlawry, and ~,
without judicial sentence.
AtOtain6ment (?), n. 1. The act of attaining; the act of
arriving at or reaching; hence, the act of obtaining by
The attainment of every desired object.
Sir W. Jones.
2. That which is attained to, or obtained by exertion;
acquirement; acquisition; (pl.), mental acquirements;
knowledge; as, literary and scientific attainments. 
AtOtaint6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Attainted; p. pr. & vb.
n. Attainting.] [OE. atteynten to convict, fr. atteynt, OF.
ateint, p. p. of ateindre, ataindre. The meanings 3, 4, 5,
and 6 were influenced by a supposed connection with taint.
See Attain, Attainder.] 1. To attain; to get act; to hit.
2. (Old Law) To find guilty; to convict; P said esp. of a
jury on trial for giving a false verdict. [Obs.]
Upon sufficient proof attainted of some open act by men of
his own condition.
3. (Law) To subject (a person) to the legal condition
formerly resulting from a sentence of death or outlawry,
pronounced in respect of treason or felony; to affect by
No person shall be attainted of high treason where
corruption of blood is incurred, but by the oath of two
Stat. 7 & 8 Wm. III.
4. To accuse; to charge with a crime or a dishonorable act.
5. To affect or infect, as with physical or mental disease
or with moral contagion; to taint or corrupt.
My tender youth was never yet attaint
With any passion of inflaming love.
6. To stain; to obscure; to sully; to disgrace; to cloud
with infamy.
For so exceeding shone his glistring ray,
That Ph?bus' golden face it did attaint.
Lest she with blame her honor should attaint.
AtOtaint6, p. p. Attainted; corrupted. [Obs.]
AtOtaint6, n. [OF. attainte. See Attaint, v.] 1. A touch or
Sir W. Scott.
2. (Far.) A blow or wound on the leg of a horse, made by
3. (Law) A writ which lies after judgment, to inquire
whether a jury has given a false verdict in any court of
record; also, the convicting of the jury so tried.
4. A stain or taint; disgrace. See Taint.
5. An infecting influence. [R.]
AtOtain6ment (?), n. Attainder; attainture; conviction.
AtOtain6ture (?), n. Attainder; disgrace.
At6tal (?), n. Same as Attle.
AtOtame6 (?), v. t.