(con't 1)

meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
partners: 
US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands
Imports: 
$16 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
agricultural products
partners: 
US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt: 
$73 billion (April 1994)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 10% (1992 est.); accounts for 31% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
17,911,000 kW
production: 
51.305 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,559 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture: 
accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces abundant food for
both domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five
exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum,
soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs: 
increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the
US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million 
Currency: 
1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
pesos per US$1 - 0.99850 (January 1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064
(1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990), 0.04233 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Argentina, Communications

Railroads: 
34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter
narrow gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways: 
total: 
208,350 km 
paved: 
57,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 39,500 km; improved/unimproved earth 111,850 km 
Inland waterways: 
11,000 km navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km 
Ports: 
Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, La Plata, Rosario,
Santa Fe
Merchant marine: 
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 656,289 GRT/1,008,792 DWT, bulk
3, cargo 29, container 4, oil tanker 14, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
1,649 
usable: 
1,394 
with permanent-surface runways: 
139 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
31 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
332 
Telecommunications: 
extensive modern system but many families do not have telephones;
2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones); telephone density 78
per 1000 persons; microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM,
no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations;
domestic satellite network has 40 earth stations

@Argentina, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
National Aeronautical Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 8,417,880; fit for military service 6,825,795; reach
military age (20) annually 292,725 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Armenia, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Asia, between Turkey and Azerbaijan
Map references: 
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States,
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
29,800 sq km 
land area: 
28,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km,
Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically
Armenian exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; traditional demands on former
Armenian lands in Turkey have greatly subsided
Climate: 
highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrain: 
high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources: 
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina 
Land use: 
arable land: 
17% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
60% 
Irrigated land: 
3,050 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the
result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as
citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras
Rivers; the draining of Lake Sevan, a result of its use as a source
for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; air pollution in
Yerevan
natural hazards: 
occasionally severe earthquakes (25,000 people killed in major quake
in 1988); subject to drought
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
landlocked

@Armenia, People

Population: 
3,521,517 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.08% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.07 years 
male: 
68.65 years 
female: 
75.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.19 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Armenian(s) 
adjective: 
Armenian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other 2% 
Religions: 
Armenian Orthodox 94% 
Languages: 
Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2% 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
1.578 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 34%, agriculture and forestry 31%, other 35%
(1992)

@Armenia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Armenia 
conventional short form: 
Armenia 
local long form: 
Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun 
local short form: 
Hayastan 
former: 
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic 
Digraph: 
AM
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Yerevan 
Administrative divisions: 
none (all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence: 
28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991 (from Soviet
Union)
National holiday: 
Referendum Day, 21 September 
Constitution: 
adopted NA April 1978; post-Soviet constitution not yet adopted
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991); election last held
16 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Levon Akopovich
TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon
Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme
Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
head of government: 
Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February 1993); First Deputy
Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme Soviet: 
elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total) non-aligned 125, ANM
52, DPA 23, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 17, NDU 9, Christian
Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1, UNSD 1, Republican
Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Armenian National Movement (ANM), Ter-Husik LAZARYAN, chairman;
National Democratic Union (NDU), David VARTANYAN, chairman; Armenian
Revolutionary Federation (ARF, Dashnaktsutyun), Arutyun ALISTAKESYAN,
chairman; Democratic Party of Armenia (DPA; Communist Party), Aram
SARKISYAN, chairman; Christian Democratic Party, Azat ARSHAKYAN,
chairman; Greens Party, Hakob SANASARIAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal
Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman; Republican Party, Ashot
NAVARSARDYAN, chairman; Union for Self-Determination (UNSD), Paruir
AIRIKYAN, chairman
Member of: 
BSEC, CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Rouben Robert SHUGARIAN 
chancery: 
Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 628-5766 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE 
embassy: 
18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
7-8852-151-144 or 8852-524-661 
FAX: 
7-8852-151-138 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

@Armenia, Economy

Overview: 
Under the old central planning system, Armenia had built up a
developed industrial sector, supplying machine building equipment,
textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange
for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large food
importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The
economic decline in the past three years (1991-93) has been
particularly severe due to the ongoing conflict over the Armenian
enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have
blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of
the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with only sporadic
deliveries of natural gas through unstable Georgia, while other fuel
and raw materials are in critical short supply. Inflation, roughly 14%
per month in the first nine months of 1993, surged even higher in the
fourth quarter. In late 1993, most industrial enterprises were either
shut down or operating at drastically reduced levels. Only small
quantities of food were available (mostly humanitarian aid), heat was
nonexistent, and electricity strictly rationed. An economic recovery
cannot be expected until the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is settled and
until transportation through Georgia improves.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.1 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Armenian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-9.9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,040 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
14% per month average (first 9 months, 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of
underemployed (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$31 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, light industrial products,
processed food items, alcoholic products (1991)
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$87 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
grain, other foods, fuel, other energy (1991)
partners: 
Russia, US, EC
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -11% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,875,000 kW
production: 
9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,585 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output of former
USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines
(1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%),
hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing machines
(2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics
(1990); currently, much of industry is shut down
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 45% of GDP; only 17% of land area is arable;
employs 20%-30% of labor force as residents increasingly turn to
subsistence agriculture; fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable
farming, minor livestock sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for
brandy and other liqueurs
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used
as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
considerable humanitarian aid, mostly food and energy products, from
US and EC; Russia has granted 60 billion rubles in technical credits
Currency: 
1 dram = 100 luma; introduced separate currency in November 1993
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Armenia, Communications

Railroads: 
840 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
11,300 km 
paved: 
10,500 km 
unpaved: 
earth 800 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
NA km
Pipelines: 
natural gas 900 km (1991)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
12 
usable: 
10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of
facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains in the
negotiation phase for joint venture agreement; Armenia has about
650,000 telephones; average telephone density is 17.7 per 100 persons;
international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by
landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by
leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch;
broadcast stations - 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian
TV programs; satellite earth station - INTELSAT

@Armenia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 862,921; fit for military service 690,113; reach
military age (18) annually 28,458 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@Aruba

Header
Affiliation: 
(part of the Dutch realm) 

@Aruba, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the southern Caribbean Sea, 28 km north of Venezuela and
125 km east of Colombia
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
193 sq km 
land area: 
193 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
68.5 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
12 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources: 
negligible; white sandy beaches 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
international agreements: 
NA 

@Aruba, People

Population: 
65,545 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.65% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.43 years 
male: 
72.77 years 
female: 
80.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Aruban(s) 
adjective: 
Aruban 
Ethnic divisions: 
mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish 
Languages: 
Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)

@Aruba, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Aruba 
Digraph: 
AA
Type: 
part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in
1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital: 
Oranjestad 
Administrative divisions: 
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence: 
none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested and received
from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically
give independence to the island in 1996)
National holiday: 
Flag Day, 18 March 
Constitution: 
1 January 1986
Legal system: 
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
influence
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since 6 February 1989) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval of the
legislature
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislature (Staten): 
elections last held 8 January 1993 (next to be held by NA January
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP
9, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPA 1, OLA 1, other 1
Judicial branch: 
Joint High Court of Justice 
Political parties and leaders: 
Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party
(AVP), Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro
KELLY; New Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic
Party (PPA), Benny NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo
BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86 (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization
for Aruban Liberty (OLA), Glenbert CROES
note: 
governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
Member of: 
ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO
(associate) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Flag: 
blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower
portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
hoist-side corner

@Aruba, Economy

Overview: 
Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and
oil refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded
rapidly between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone.
Unemployment has steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3%
in 1991 and to less than 1% in 1992. The reopening of the local oil
refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign exchange
earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$17,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
0.6% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$145 million 
expenditures: 
$185 million, including capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports: 
$1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
mostly petroleum products
partners: 
US 64%, EC
Imports: 
$1.6 billion including oil for processing and re-export (f.o.b., 1993
est.)
commodities: 
food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products
partners: 
US 8%, EC
External debt: 
$81 million (1987)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
90,000 kW
production: 
375 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,000 kWh (1990 est.)
Industries: 
tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture: 
poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Illicit drugs: 
drug money laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for
the US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $220 million 
Currency: 
1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Aruba, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
note: 
government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic
flights
Telecommunications: 
more than adequate; telephone density - 1,100 telephones per 1,000
persons; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links; 72,168
telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 submarine cable
to Saint Maarten

@Aruba, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands


@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Australia) 

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 320 km off the northwest coast
of Australia, between Australia and Indonesia
Map references: 
Oceania, Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
5 sq km 
land area: 
5 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier
Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
74.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploration
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
low with sand and coral
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (all grass and sand)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
surrounded by shoals and reefs
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands 
conventional short form: 
Ashmore and Cartier Islands 
Digraph: 
AT
Type: 
territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry for the
Environment, Sport, and Territories
Capital: 
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
none (territory of Australia)
Legal system: 
relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force


@Atlantic Ocean, Geography

Location: 
body of water between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa
Map references: 
Africa, Antarctic Region, Arctic Region, Central America and the
Caribbean, Europe, North America, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
82.217 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of
the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than
Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)
note: 
includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark
Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea,
Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water
bodies
Coastline: 
111,866 km 
International disputes: 
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate: 
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
November
Terrain: 
surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait,
and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad,
circular system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise
warm water gyre in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire
Atlantic basin; maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico
Trench
Natural resources: 
oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious
stones 
Environment: 
current issues: 
endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
turtles, and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea;
industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North
Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
natural hazards: 
icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern
Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far
south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica
occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from
October to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October;
persistent fog can be a hazard to shipping from May to September;
major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
(Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping lanes subject
to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the Atlantic
Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean, Government

Digraph: 
ZH

@Atlantic Ocean, Economy

Overview: 
The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The
Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea,
Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean, Communications

Ports: 
Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
(Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
(Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
(France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New
Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Piraeus
(Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint
Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)
Telecommunications: 
numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the
UK, North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous
direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network
Note: 
Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways


@Australia, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Oceania, between Indonesia and New Zealand
Map references: 
Southeast Asia, Oceania, Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
7,686,850 sq km 
land area: 
7,617,930 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than the US
note: 
includes Macquarie Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
25,760 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate: 
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in
north
Terrain: 
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources: 
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel,
tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
58% 
forest and woodland: 
14% 
other: 
22% 
Irrigated land: 
18,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization,
and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of
poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural
purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant
species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest
coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its
popularity as a tourist site; limited freshwater availability
natural hazards: 
cyclones along the coast; subject to severe droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along
the west coast in the summer

@Australia, People

Population: 
18,077,419 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.38% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.29 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
6.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.57 years 
male: 
74.45 years 
female: 
80.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Australian(s) 
adjective: 
Australian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1% 
Religions: 
Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3% 
Languages: 
English, native languages 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
8.63 million (September 1991)
by occupation: 
finance and services 33.8%, public and community services 22.3%,
wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry 16.2%,
agriculture 6.1% (1987)

@Australia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Commonwealth of Australia 
conventional short form: 
Australia 
Digraph: 
AS
Type: 
federal parliamentary state 
Capital: 
Canberra 
Administrative divisions: 
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South
Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania,
Victoria, Western Australia
Dependent areas: 
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk
Island 
Independence: 
1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
National holiday: 
Australia Day, 26 January (1788) 
Constitution: 
9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Legal system: 
based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy
Prime Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; prime minister selects his cabinet from members of the House
and Senate
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Federal Parliament
Senate: 
elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total)
Liberal-National 36, Labor 30, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2,
independents 1
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (147 total) Labor 80,
Liberal-National 65, independent 2
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
government: 
Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
opposition: 
Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER;
Australian Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups: 
Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament
Party splinter group)
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
COCOM, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM,
UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Donald RUSSELL 
chancery: 
1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 797-3000 
FAX: 
(202) 797-3168 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American
Samoa), and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward PERKINS 
embassy: 
Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 
mailing address: 
APO AP 96549 
telephone: 
[61] (6) 270-5000 
FAX: 
[61] (6) 270-5970 
consulate(s) general: 
Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney 
consulate(s): 
Brisbane 
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the
remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation
in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger,
seven-pointed stars

@Australia, Economy

Overview: 
Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a
per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European
countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of
agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Primary
products account for more than 60% of the value of total exports, so
that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a
big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased
exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international
markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low
growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the
early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly from the
prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor being weak
world demand for Australia's exports. Unemployment has hovered around
10% and probably will remain at that level in 1994 as productivity
gains rather than more jobs account for growth.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $339.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$19,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.1% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
10% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$71.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$83.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports: 
$44.1 billion (1992)
commodities: 
coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport
equipment
partners: 
Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan, Singapore,
Hong Kong (1992)
Imports: 
$43.6 billion (1992)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
crude oil and petroleum products
partners: 
US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)
External debt: 
$141.1 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.9% (FY93); accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
40,000,000 kW
production: 
150 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,475 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
chemicals, steel
Agriculture: 
accounts for 5% of GDP and over 30% of export revenues; world's
largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and
among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane,
fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry
Illicit drugs: 
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion 
Currency: 
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Australia, Communications

Railroads: 
40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130
km electrified; government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers
of privately owned track) (1985)
Highways: 
total: 
837,872 km 
paved: 
243,750 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 228,396 km; unimproved earth
365,726 km 
Inland waterways: 
8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km 
Ports: 
Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong,
Hobart, Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine: 
83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,517,538 GRT/3,711,549 DWT,
bulk 30, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2, container 7,
liquefied gas 5, oil tanker 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea
passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1 
Airports: 
total: 
481 
usable: 
440 
with permanent-surface runways: 
241 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
20 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
268 
Telecommunications: 
good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New
Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service;
satellite stations - 4 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

@Australia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,885,574; fit for military service 4,239,459; reach
military age (17) annually 133,337 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92/93)


@Austria, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between Germany and Hungary
Map references: 
Africa, Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
83,850 sq km 
land area: 
82,730 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries: 
total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km,
Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 262 km,
Switzerland 164 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in
lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain: 
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and
northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Natural resources: 
iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
copper, hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
17% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
24% 
forest and woodland: 
39% 
other: 
19% 
Irrigated land: 
40 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil
pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air
pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations
and industrial plants
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea
Note: 
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is
the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of
steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

@Austria, People

Population: 
7,954,974 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.38 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.65 years 
male: 
73.44 years 
female: 
80.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.48 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Austrian(s) 
adjective: 
Austrian 
Ethnic divisions: 
German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9% 
Languages: 
German 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
3.47 million (1989)
by occupation: 
services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry
8.1%
note: 
an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of
labor force (1988)

@Austria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Austria 
conventional short form: 
Austria 
local long form: 
Republik Oesterreich 
local short form: 
Oesterreich 
Digraph: 
AU
Type: 
federal republic 
Capital: 
Vienna 
Administrative divisions: 
9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol,
Vorarlberg, Wien
Independence: 
12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
National holiday: 
National Day, 26 October (1955) 
Constitution: 
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Legal system: 
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative
acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and
civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
19 years of age, universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992); election last held 24
May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot - Thomas
KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
head of government: 
Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor
Erhard BUSEK (since 2 July 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; chosen by the president on the advice of the
chancellor
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
Federal Council (Bundesrat): 
consists of 63 members representing each of the provinces on the basis
of population, but with each province having at least 3
representatives
National Council (Nationalrat): 
elections last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
results - SPOE 43%, OEVP 32.1%, FPOE 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPOE 0.7%, other
3.1%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 80, OEVP 60, FPOE 33, GAL 10
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal
cases, Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic
cases, Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for
constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders: 
Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
Austrian People's Party (OEVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party
of Austria (FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE),
Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Peter
PILZ, chairman; Liberal Forum (LF), Heidi SCHMIDT
Other political or pressure groups: 
Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union
Federation (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the
Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing business, labor, and
farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists; Roman
Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN,
COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNTAC, UNTSO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Helmut TUERK 
chancery: 
3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 
telephone: 
(202) 895-6700 
FAX: 
(202) 895-6750 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT 
chancery: 
Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna 
mailing address: 
Unit 27937, Vienna 
telephone: 
[43] (1) 313-39 
FAX: 
[43] (1) 513-43-51 
consulate(s) general: 
Salzburg 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

@Austria, Economy

Overview: 
Austria boasts a prosperous and stable socialist market economy with a
sizable but falling proportion of nationalized industry and extensive
welfare benefits. Thanks to its raw material endowment, a technically
skilled labor force, and strong links to German industrial firms,
Austria occupies specialized niches in European industry and services
(tourism, banking) and produces almost enough food to feed itself with
only 8% of the labor force in agriculture. Increased export sales
resulting from German unification, boosted Austria's economy through
1991, but Austria's GDP growth slowed to 2% in 1992 and -0.5% in 1993
due to the weak international economy, particularly in Germany - its
largest trading partner. GDP growth will resume slowly in 1994, with
estimates ranging from a 0.5% to a 1% increase. Unemployment has risen
to 7% as a result of the slowdown and will continue to rise in 1994.
Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level of
subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
capabilities. Austria's government has taken measures to make the
economy more liberal and open by introducing a major tax reform,
privatizing state-owned firms, and liberalizing cross-border capital
movements. Although it will face increased competition, Austria should
benefit from the continued opening of eastern European markets, as
well as the 1 January 1994 start of the European Economic Area which
extends the European Union rules on the free movement of people,
capital, and goods and services to four members (including Austria) of
the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Austria has concluded
membership negotiations with the European Union and is expected to
join in early 1995, thus broadening European economic unity. The
government, however, plans to hold a national referendum on the matter
on 12 June 1994; support for and opposition to membership appears
about equal.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $134.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$17,000 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
7% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$52.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$60.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$39.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper
products, chemicals
partners: 
EC 63.5% (Germany 38.9%), EFTA 9.0%, Eastern Europe/FSU 12.3%, Japan
1.5%, US 3.35% (1993)
Imports: 
$48.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners: 
EC 66.8% (Germany 41.3%), EFTA 6.7%, Eastern Europe/FSU 7.5%, Japan
4.4%, US 4.4% (1993)
External debt: 
$16.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -4.5% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
17,600,000 kW
production: 
49.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,300 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical,
paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles
Agriculture: 
accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and
animals - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle,
pigs, poultry; 80%-90% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
route and Eastern Europe
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion 
Currency: 
1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen
Exchange rates: 
Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 12.255 (January 1994), 11.632
(1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991), 11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Austria, Communications

Railroads: 
5,749 km total; 5,652 km government owned and 97 km privately owned
(0.760-, 1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,394 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge of which 3,154 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked;
339 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge of which 84 km is electrified
Highways: 
total: 
95,412 km 
paved: 
21,812 km (including 1,012 km of autobahn)
unpaved: 
mostly gravel and earth 73,600 km 
Inland waterways: 
446 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas 2,611 km 
Ports: 
Vienna, Linz (Danube river ports)
Merchant marine: 
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 158,724 GRT/259,594 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 23, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2 
Airports: 
total: 
55 
usable: 
55 
with permanent-surface runways: 
20 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 6 AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV;
satellite ground stations for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

@Austria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (including Flying Division) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,018,954; fit for military service 1,693,341; reach
military age (19) annually 48,710 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1993)


@Azerbaijan, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Asia, between Armenia and Turkmenistan, bordering the
Caspian Sea
Map references: 
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian
States, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle
East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
86,600 sq km 
land area: 
86,100 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maine
note: 
includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh
regions; regions' autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet
on 26 November 1991
Land boundaries: 
total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km,
Georgia 322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia
284 km, Turkey 9 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
note: 
Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Maritime claims: 
NA
note: 
Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10-nm fishing zone provided
for in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet Union
and Iran
International disputes: 
violent and longstanding dispute with ethnic Armenians of
Nagorno-Karabakh over its status, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan;
some Azerbaijanis desire absorption of and/or unification with the
ethnic Azeri portion of Iran
Climate: 
dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain: 
large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great
Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland in west;
Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina 
Land use: 
arable land: 
18% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
25% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
53% 
Irrigated land: 
14,010 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula (including
Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most
devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil
pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide
and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
natural hazards: 
subject to drought; some coastal areas threatened by rising levels of
the Caspian Sea
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
landlocked

@Azerbaijan, People

Population: 
7,684,456 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.41% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
23.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.58 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
34.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.85 years 
male: 
67.08 years 
female: 
74.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.7 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Azerbaijani(s) 
adjective: 
Azerbaijani 
Ethnic divisions: 
Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Dagestani 3.2%, other 2.9%
(1989)
note: 
Armenian share is now approximately 0.3% because most Armenians have
fled the ethnic violence since 1989 census; Russian percentage is
probably half what it was for the same reason
Religions: 
Muslim 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8% 
Languages: 
Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6% 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
2.789 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42%
(1990)

@Azerbaijan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Azerbaijani Republic 
conventional short form: 
Azerbaijan 
local long form: 
Azarbaycan Respublikasi 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
AJ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Baku (Baky) 
Administrative divisions: 
1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika); Nakhichevan
(administrative center at Nakhichevan)
note: 
all rayons except for the exclave of Nakhichevan are under direct
republic jurisdiction
Independence: 
30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Novruz Bayram, 21-22 March 
Constitution: 
adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution mid-1993
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993 after President ELCIBEY
left Baku for Nakhichevan); election last held 3 October 1993 (next to
be held NA); results - Heydar ALIYEV won 97% of vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Surat HUSEYNOV (since 30 June 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and confirmed by the
Mejlas
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Milli Mejlis): 
elections last held 30 September and 14 October 1990 for the Supreme
Soviet (next expected to be held NA 1994 for the National Assembly);
seats for Supreme Soviet - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc
45 (grouping of opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19
May 1992 the Supreme Soviet was prorogued in favor of a Popular
Front-dominated National Council; seats - (50 total) Popular Front 25,
opposition elements 25
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF), Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat
Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman; National Independence Party, Etibar
MAMEDOV, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Araz ALIZADE,
chairman; Communist Party, Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman; People's Freedom
Party, Yunus OGUZ, chairman; Independent Social Democratic Party, Arif
YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen; New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar
ALIYEV, chairman; Boz Gurd Party, Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman;
Azerbaijan Democratic Party, Sardar MAMEDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan
Democratic Independence Party, Qabil HUSELNLI, chairman; Islamic Party
of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh
independence movement
Member of: 
BSEC, CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal Ogly PASHAYEV 
chancery: 
Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 842-0001 
FAX: 
(202) 842-0004 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard KAZLAURICH 
embassy: 
Hotel Intourist, Baku 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
7-8922-92-63-06 through 09, extension 441, 442, 446, 447, 448, 450 
FAX: 
Telex 142110 AMEMB SU 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent
and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

@Azerbaijan, Economy

Overview: 
Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or
Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central
Asian states in its majority Muslim population, high structural
unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's most prominent
products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and
gas field has been in decline for several years. With foreign
assistance, the oil industry might generate the funds needed to spur
industrial development. However, civil unrest, marked by armed
conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim Azeris and
Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
accounted for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former
Soviet Union. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the
ex-Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a
market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
prospects somewhat. Old economic ties and structures have yet to be
replaced. A particularly galling constraint on economic revival is the
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, said to consume 25% of Azerbaijan's
economic resources.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.5 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Azerbaijani statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-13.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,040 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
20% per month (average 1993); above 50% per month (February 1994)
Unemployment rate: 
0.7% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$355 million to outside the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
partners: 
mostly CIS and European countries
Imports: 
$240 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
partners: 
European countries
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -7% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,025,000 kW
production: 
22,300 kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,990 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
iculture: 
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle,
pigs, sheep and goats
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment
point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
wheat from Turkey
Currency: 
1 manat = 100 gopik
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Azerbaijan, Communications

Railroads: 
2,090 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
36,700 km 
paved or graveled: 
31,800 km 
unpaved: 
earth 4,900 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km 
Ports: 
inland - Baku (Baky)
Airports: 
total: 
65 
usable: 
33 
with permanent-surface runways: 
26 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
23 
Telecommunications: 
domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; 710,000
domestic telephone lines [density - 9 lines per 100 persons (1991)],
202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991);
connections to other former USSR republics by cable and microwave and
to other countries via the Moscow international gateway switch;
INTELSAT earth station installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish
financial assistance with access to 200 countries through Turkey;
since August 1993 an earth station near Baku has provided direct
communications with New York through Russia's Stationar-11 satellite;
a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system (Bakcel) in
the Baku area is supposed to become operational in 1994; domestic and
Russian TV programs are received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is
received from an INTELSAT satellite through a receive-only earth
station

@Azerbaijan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, Navy, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard, Security
Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,884,458; fit for military service 1,525,123; reach
military age (18) annually 68,192 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
2,848 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@The Bahamas, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida
and northwest of Cuba
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
13,940 sq km 
land area: 
10,070 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
3,542 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain: 
long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources: 
salt, aragonite, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
32% 
other: 
67% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive
flood and wind damage
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
Note: 
strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

@The Bahamas, People

Population: 
273,055 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.57% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
18.86 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
33.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.52 years 
male: 
67.66 years 
female: 
75.49 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bahamian(s) 
adjective: 
Bahamian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 85%, white 15% 
Religions: 
Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of
God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2% 
Languages: 
English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over but definition of literacy not available (1963 est.)
total population: 
90% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
89% 
Labor force: 
127,400 
by occupation: 
government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services 10%,
agriculture 5% (1989)

@The Bahamas, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Commonwealth of The Bahamas 
conventional short form: 
The Bahamas 
Digraph: 
BF
Type: 
commonwealth 
Capital: 
Nassau 
Administrative divisions: 
21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma,
Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour
Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour,
Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged
Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Independence: 
10 July 1973 (from UK)
National holiday: 
National Day, 10 July (1973) 
Constitution: 
10 July 1973
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Orville A. TURNQUEST (since 19 August 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor on the prime minister's
recommendation
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
a 16-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held by August 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) FNM 32, PLP
17
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM; 
Member of: 
ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON 
chancery: 
2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 319-2660 
FAX: 
(202) 319-2668 
consulate(s) general: 
Miami and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lino GUTIERREZ 
embassy: 
Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau 
telephone: 
(809) 322-1181 or 328-2206 
FAX: 
(809) 328-7838 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine
with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

@The Bahamas, Economy

Overview: 
The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation whose economy is based
primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
about 40% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000
people or 40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in
recent years, as the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed.
Nonetheless, per capita GDP is one of the highest in the region.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$16,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
5.7% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$628.5 million 
expenditures: 
$574 million, including capital expenditures of $100 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$310 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish
partners: 
US 51%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (f.o.b,,1992)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels, crude oil
partners: 
US 32%, Japan 17%, Nigeria 12%, Denmark 7%, Norway 6%
External debt: 
$1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
424,000 kW
production: 
929 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,599 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt
production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
Agriculture: 
accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers; principal
products - citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of
food
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe;
also money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345
million 
Currency: 
1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@The Bahamas, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,400 km 
paved: 
1,350 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 1,050 km 
Ports: 
Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine: 
879 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,424,439 GRT/33,330,160 DWT,
bulk 167, cargo 148, chemical tanker 43, combination bulk 8,
combination ore/oil 20, container 48, liquefied gas 18, oil tanker
177, passenger 54, refrigerated cargo 132, roll-on/roll-off cargo 41,
short-sea passenger 16, vehicle carrier 7 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
60 
usable: 
55 
with permanent-surface runways: 
31 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
26 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@The Bahamas, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police
Force 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)


@Bahrain, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, in the central Persian Gulf, between Saudi Arabia and
Qatar
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
620 sq km 
land area: 
620 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
161 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime
boundary with Qatar
Climate: 
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain: 
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources: 
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
90% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land,
periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to
coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills
and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and
distribution stations; no surface water resources; groundwater and sea
water are the only sources for all water needs
natural hazards: 
periods of drought, dust storms
international agreements: 
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location
in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must
transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain, People

Population: 
585,683 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.96% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
26.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
3.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
6.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.51 years 
male: 
71.1 years 
female: 
76.05 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.96 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bahraini(s) 
adjective: 
Bahraini 
Ethnic divisions: 
Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6% 
Religions: 
Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30% 
Languages: 
Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
77% 
male: 
82% 
female: 
69% 
Labor force: 
140,000 
by occupation: 
industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3%
(1982)
note: 
42% of labor force is Bahraini

@Bahrain, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
State of Bahrain 
conventional short form: 
Bahrain 
local long form: 
Dawlat al Bahrayn 
local short form: 
Al Bahrayn 
Digraph: 
BA
Type: 
traditional monarchy 
Capital: 
Manama 
Administrative divisions: 
12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash
Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd
Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence: 
15 August 1971 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 16 December (1961) 
Constitution: 
26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent
HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January
1950) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and
legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory
Council established 16 December 1992 
Judicial branch: 
High Civil Appeals Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and
Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Member of: 
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mohammad ABD al-GHAFFAR 
chancery: 
3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 342-0741 or 342-0742 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires David S. ROBINS 
embassy: 
Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama 
mailing address: 
FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama 
telephone: 
[973] 273-300 
FAX: 
(973) 272-594 
Flag: 
red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

@Bahrain, Economy

Overview: 
Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic
conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since
1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91.
Bahrain with its highly developed communication and transport
facilities is home to numerous multinational firms with business in
the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made
from imported crude. Prospects for 1994 are good, with private
enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and construction.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$12,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
8%-10% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
partners: 
Japan 13%, UAE 12%, India 10%, Pakistan 8%, Singapore 6% (1991)
Imports: 
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
partners: 
Saudi Arabia 42%, US 14%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Germany 4% (1991)
External debt: 
$2.6 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,600,000 kW
production: 
4.7 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,500 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore
banking, ship repairing
Agriculture: 
including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not
self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces
fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion 
Currency: 
1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates: 
Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Bahrain, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
bituminous 200 km 
unpaved: 
NA 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km 
Ports: 
Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine: 
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 101,844 GRT/143,997 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 4, container 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern system; good domestic services; 98,000 telephones (1 for every
6 persons); excellent international connections; tropospheric scatter
to Qatar, UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable
to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast stations
- 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV

@Bahrain, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 198,414; fit for military service 109,431; reach
military age (15) annually 5,093 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $245 million, 6% of GDP (1993)


@Baker Island

Header

Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Baker Island, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, just north of the
Equator, 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii
and Australia
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
1.4 sq km 
land area: 
1.4 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
4.8 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
mate: 
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
rain: 
low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
ural resources: 
guano (deposits worked until 1891) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
lacks fresh water
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife

@Baker Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after
Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US
military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located
near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Baker Island 
Digraph: 
FQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Baker Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Baker Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle
of the west coast
Airports: 
1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Note: 
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
Coast Guard


@Bangladesh, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, almost completely
surrounded by India
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
144,000 sq km 
land area: 
133,910 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries: 
total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km 
Coastline: 
580 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
18 nm
continental shelf: 
up to outer limits of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water-sharing
problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate: 
tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer
(March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: 
mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources: 
natural gas, arable land, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
67% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
16% 
other: 
11% 
Irrigated land: 
27,380 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne
diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas
results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water
shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central
parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe
overpopulation
natural hazards: 
vulnerable to droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
flooded during the summer monsoon season
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh, People

Population: 
125,149,469 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
35.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
106.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
55.08 years 
male: 
55.35 years 
female: 
54.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bangladeshi(s) 
adjective: 
Bangladesh 
Ethnic divisions: 
Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million
Religions: 
Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other 
Languages: 
Bangla (official), English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
35% 
male: 
47% 
female: 
22% 
Labor force: 
50.1 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining 14% (1989)
note: 
extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

@Bangladesh, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
People's Republic of Bangladesh 
conventional short form: 
Bangladesh 
former: 
East Pakistan 
Digraph: 
BG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Dhaka 
Administrative divisions: 
64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban,
Barguna, Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai
Nawabganj, Chattagram, Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka,
Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha, Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj,
Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati, Jhenaidah, Khagrachari,
Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur, Lalmonirhat,
Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar, Munshiganj,
Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator, Netrakona,
Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira,
Shariyatpur, Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail,
Thakurgaon
Independence: 
16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 26 March (1971) 
Constitution: 
4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup
of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991); election last
held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN (since 20 March 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad): 
elections last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300
elected and 30 seats reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20,
BCP 5, National Awami Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1,
Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League
(AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD
(in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party
(BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers
Party, leader NA; Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN;
Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National
Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR;
Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; Democratic League,
Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Member of: 
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Abul AHSAN 
chancery: 
2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 342-8372 through 8376 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador David MERRILL 
embassy: 
Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 
mailing address: 
G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212 
telephone: 
[880] (2) 884700-22 
FAX: 
[880] (2) 883-744 
Flag: 
green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
green is the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh, Economy

Overview: 
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and
least developed nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural,
with the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the
economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and
floods, government interference with the economy, a rapidly growing
labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, a low level of
industrialization, failure to fully exploit energy resources (natural
gas), and inefficient and inadequate power supplies. Excellent rice
crops and expansion of the export garment industry helped growth in
FY92 and FY93. Policy reforms intended to reduce government regulation
of private industry and promote public-sector efficiency have been
announced but are being implemented only slowly.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $122 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.3% (FY93)
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.4% (FY93)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports: 
$2.1 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
partners: 
US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY92 est.)
Imports: 
$3.5 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
partners: 
Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1% (FY92 est.)
External debt: 
$13.5 billion (June 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.9% (FY93 est.); accounts for 9.4% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,400,000 kW
production: 
9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
75 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel,
fertilizer
Agriculture: 
accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth of exports;
world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products - jute, rice,
wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages
include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton
Illicit drugs: 
transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
$11.65 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion 
Currency: 
1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska
Exchange rates: 
taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.064 (January 1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951
(1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990), 32.270 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh, Communications

Railroads: 
2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter
broad gauge
Highways: 
total: 
7,240 km 
paved: 
3,840 km 
unpaved: 
3,400 km (1985)
Inland waterways: 
5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
routes)
Pipelines: 
natural gas 1,220 km 
Ports: 
Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine: 
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 312,172 GRT/458,131 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 33, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3 
Airports: 
total: 
16 
usable: 
12 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate international radio communications and landline service; poor
domestic telephone service; 241.250 telephones - only one telephone
for each 522 persons; fair broadcast service; broadcast stations - 9
AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth stations

@Bangladesh, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force 
paramilitary forces: 
Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Defense
Parties, National Cadet Corps 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 31,955,948; fit for military service 18,967,602 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $355 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92/93)


@Barbados, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the extreme eastern Caribbean Sea, about 375 km
northeast of Venezuela
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
430 sq km 
land area: 
430 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
97 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain: 
relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources: 
petroleum, fishing, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
77% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
9% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
14% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil
erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of
aquifers
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes (especially June to October); periodic
landslides
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note: 
easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados, People

Population: 
255,827 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.21% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.83 years 
male: 
71.11 years 
female: 
76.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Barbadian(s) 
adjective: 
Barbadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 80%, European 4%, other 16% 
Religions: 
Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
120,900 (1991)
by occupation: 
services and government 37%, commerce 22%, manufacturing and
construction 22%, transportation, storage, communications, and
financial institutions 9%, agriculture 8%, utilities 2% (1985 est.)

@Barbados, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Barbados 
Digraph: 
BB
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Bridgetown 
Administrative divisions: 
11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James,
Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: 
the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Independence: 
30 November 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 30 November (1966) 
Constitution: 
30 November 1966
Legal system: 
English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987); Deputy
Prime Minister Philip Marlowe GREAVES (since 2 June 1987) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly: 
election last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996);
results - DLP 49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Judicature 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party
(BLP), Owen ARTHUR; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Other political or pressure groups: 
Barbados Workers Union, Leroy TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement,
Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement
Payne Labor Union, David COMMISSIONG
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dr. Rudi Valentine WEBSTER 
chancery: 
2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-9200 through 9202 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
consulate(s): 
Los Angeles 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE 
embassy: 
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055 
telephone: 
(809) 436-4950 
FAX: 
(809) 429-5246 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with
the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident
head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial
coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados, Economy

Overview: 
A per capita income of $8,700 gives Barbados one of the highest
standards of living of all the small island states of the eastern
Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of
sugar cane and related activities. In recent years, however, the
economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist
industry is now a major employer of the labor force and a primary
source of foreign exchange. The economy slowed in 1990-92 as
Bridgetown's difficulty in financing its deficits caused it to exert
control over domestic demands
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-3% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$8,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
23% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$547 million 
expenditures: 
$620 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (FY92-93)
Exports: 
$158 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
electrical components, clothing
partners: 
US 13%, UK 13%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 7.8%
Imports: 
$465 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel,
electrical components
partners: 
US 33%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 5%
External debt: 
$652 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1.3% (1991); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
152,100 kW
production: 
540 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,118 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export,
petroleum
Agriculture: 
accounts for 6% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171
million 
Currency: 
1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Barbados, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,570 km 
paved: 
1,475 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 95 km 
Ports: 
Bridgetown
Merchant marine: 
2 oil tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,466 GRT/76,219 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
island wide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones;
tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2 (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

@Barbados, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Barbados Defense Force, including the Ground Forces and Coast
Guard, Royal Barbados Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 70,751; fit for military service 49,330 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)


@Bassas da India

Header
Affiliation: 
(possession of France) 

@Bassas da India, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
NA km2
land area: 
NA km2
comparative area: 
NA
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
35.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (all rock)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide

@Bassas da India, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Bassas da India, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Bassas da India 
Digraph: 
BS
Type: 
French possession administered by a Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital: 
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
none (possession of France)

@Bassas da India, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Bassas da India, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas da India, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Belarus, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Europe, between Poland and Russia
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
207,600 sq km 
land area: 
207,600 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries: 
total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia
959 km, Ukraine 891 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental
and maritime
Terrain: 
generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources: 
forest land, peat deposits 
Land use: 
arable land: 
29% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
15% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
55% 
Irrigated land: 
1,490 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of Belarus
contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
Chornobyl'
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate
Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked

@Belarus, People

Population: 
10,404,862 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.16 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
18.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.88 years 
male: 
66.2 years 
female: 
75.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Belarusian(s) 
adjective: 
Belarusian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, other
1.9% 
Religions: 
Eastern Orthodox, other 
Languages: 
Byelorussian, Russian, other 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1979)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
4.887 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry 21%, other 39%
(1992)

@Belarus, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Belarus 
conventional short form: 
Belarus 
local long form: 
Respublika Byelarus' 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
BO
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Minsk 
Administrative divisions: 
6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,
singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad
Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya,
Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note: 
the administrative centers of the voblastsi are included in
parentheses
Independence: 
25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 July (1990) 
Constitution: 
adopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of April 1978
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President-elect Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (elected 10 July 1994, but not
yet inaugurated) election held June 24 and 10 July 1994 (next to be
held NA); Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 80%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 14%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990; offered his
resignation on the election of LUCHASHENKO), First Deputy Prime
Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since NA 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
note: 
first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme Soviet: 
elections last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held NA); results -
Communists 87%; seats - (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note
- 50 seats are for public bodies; the Communist Party obtained an
overwhelming majority
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon PAZNYAK, chairman; United
Democratic Party of Belarus (UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman;
Social Democratic Party of Belarus (SDBP), Mikhail TKACHEV, chairman;
Belarus Workers Union, Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman; Belarus Peasants
Party; Party of People's Unity, Gennadiy KARPENKO; Movement for
Democracy, Social Progress, and Justice (DSPS; includes the Communist
Party), Viktor CHIKIN, chairman
Member of: 
CBSS (observer), CE (guest), CEI (participating), CIS, CSCE, ECE,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV 
chancery: 
1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 986-1604 
FAX: 
(202) 986-1805) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires George KROL 
embassy: 
Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
7-0172-34-65-37 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

@Belarus, Economy
Overview: 
Belarus ranks among the most developed of the former Soviet states,
with a relatively modern - by Soviet standards - and diverse machine
building sector and a robust agriculture sector. It also serves as a
transport link for Russian oil exports to the Baltic states and
Eastern and Western Europe. The breakup of the Soviet Union and its
command economy has resulted in a sharp economic contraction as
traditional trade ties have collapsed. At the same time, the
Belarusian Government has lagged behind most other former Soviet
states in economic reform; privatization has barely begun; the
agriculture sector remains highly subsidized; the state retains
control over many prices; and the system of state orders and
distribution persists. Meanwhile, the national bank continues to pour
credits into inefficient enterprises, fueling inflation and weakening
incentives to improve performance. The government is pinning its hopes
on reintegration with the Russian economy, but such a path would only
partially restore traditional trade ties. Until economic reform is
embraced, Belarus will continue in its economic morass.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $61 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Belarusian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,890 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
30% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
1.4% officially registered unemployed (December 1993); large numbers
of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$710 million to outside of the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: 
Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria
Imports: 
$743 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
fuel, industrial raw materials, textiles, sugar
partners: 
Russia, Ukraine, Poland
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -11% (1993); accounts for about 40% of GDP (1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
8,025,000 kW
production: 
37.6 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,626 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
employ about 40% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
including (in percent share of total output of former Soviet Union):
tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools (11%); off-highway dump
trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity (100%); wheel-type
earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-wheel-drive,
high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use in
tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool
fabric (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture: 
accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total agricultural output
of former Soviet Union; employs 21% of the labor force; in 1988
produced the following (in percent of total Soviet production): grain
(3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%);
net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour, potatoes
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for the
domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
Belarusian rubel
note: 
the government signed a framework agreement with Russia for a monetary
union in January 1994, but a schedule and mechanism for merging the
two monetary systems and replacing Belarusian rubels with Russian
rubles have not been worked out
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Belarus, Communications

Railroads: 
5,570 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
98,200 km 
paved: 
66,100 km 
unpaved: 
earth 32,100 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
NA km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km
(1992)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Merchant marine: 
claims 5% of former Soviet fleet
Airports: 
total: 
124 
usable: 
55 
with permanent-surface runways: 
31 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
28 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
20 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
telephone service in Belarus is inadequate for the purposes of either
business or the population; total number of telephones 1,849,000 (31
December 1991); telephone density - 18 for each 100 persons; about 70%
of the telephones are in homes; over 750,000 applications from
households for telephones remain unsatisfied (1992); new investment
centers on international connections and business needs; the new
BelCel NMT 450 cellular system (a joint venture) is now operating in
Minsk but progress has been slower in establishing an INTELSAT earth
station; international traffic still relies on the Moscow
international gateway switch; broadcast receivers - television
3,538,000, radio 3,140,000, radio receivers with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion 5,615,000

@Belarus, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Security Forces (internal and
border troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,520,487; fit for military service 1,981,749; reach
military age (18) annually 71,922 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@Belgium, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, bordering on the North Sea, between France and the
Netherlands
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
30,510 sq km 
land area: 
30,230 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km 
Coastline: 
64 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
equidistant line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone: 
equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain: 
flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources: 
coal, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
24% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
21% 
other: 
34% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
Meuse River, a major source of drinking water, polluted from steel
production wastes; other rivers polluted by animal wastes and
fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to acid rain in
neighboring countries
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EC

@Belgium, People

Population: 
10,062,836 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.2% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.96 years 
male: 
73.67 years 
female: 
80.44 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.62 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Belgian(s) 
adjective: 
Belgian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25% 
Languages: 
Dutch 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11% divided along
ethnic lines
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
4.126 million 
by occupation: 
services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3%
(1988)

@Belgium, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Belgium 
conventional short form: 
Belgium 
local long form: 
Royaume de Belgique 
local short form: 
Belgique 
Digraph: 
BE
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Brussels 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Flemish:
provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege,
Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence: 
4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday: 
National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in
1831) 
Constitution: 
7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a
constitutional package creating a federal state
Legal system: 
civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King ALBERT II (since NA August 1993) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; the king appoints the ministers who are chosen by the
legislature
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
(Flemish - Senaat, French - Senat); elections last held 24 November
1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly elected) CVP
20, SP 14, PVV (now VLD) 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS 18,
PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO 6, FDF 1
Chamber of Representatives: 
(Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
Representants); elections last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held
by November 1996); results - CVP 16.7%, PS 13.6%, SP 12.0%, PVV (now
VLD) 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%, VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%, AGALEV
4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats - (212 total) CVP 39, PS
35, SP 28, PVV (now VLD) 26, PRL 20, PSC 18, FB 12, VU 10, ECOLO 10,
AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3, FN 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
Cassation)
Political parties and leaders: 
Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Johan van HECKE, president;
Francophone Social Christian (PSC), Melchior WATHELET, president;
Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president; Francophone
Socialist (PS), Philippe BUSQUIN; Flemish Liberals and Democrats
(VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Francophone Liberal (PRL), Jean
GOL, president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT,
president; Volksunie (VU), Bert ANCIAUX, president; Communist Party
(PCB), Louis VAN GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN,
chairman; ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Werner
van STEEN; AGALEV (Flemish Greens), no president; ECOLO (Francophone
Ecologists), no president; other minor parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian
Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers,
manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical
professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of
Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action
Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi
Member of: 
AG (observer), ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australian Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC,
CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTAC, UNTSO,
UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Juan CASSIERS 
chancery: 
3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 333-6900 
FAX: 
(202) 333-3079 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN 
embassy: 
27 Boulevard du Regent, Brussels 
mailing address: 
B-1000 Brussels, APO AE 09724 
telephone: 
[32] (2) 513-3830 
FAX: 
[32] (2) 511-2725 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium, Economy

Overview: 
This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the
government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region of
Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import substantial
quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures,
making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.
Three fourths of its trade is with other EC countries. The economy
grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90, but economic
growth slowed to a 1% pace in 1991-92 and dropped by 1.5% in 1993.
Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the government is
trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line
with other industrialized countries.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $177.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-1.5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$17,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
13.5% (March 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$97.8 billion 
enditures: 
$109.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports: 
7 billion (f.o.b., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities: 
iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds,
petroleum products
partners: 
EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)
Imports: 
$120 billion (c.i.f., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities: 
fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: 
EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former
Communist countries 1.8% (1991)
External debt: 
$31.3 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -0.1% (1993 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
17,500,000 kW
production: 
68 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,790 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food
and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum,
coal
Agriculture: 
accounts for 2.0% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef,
veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables,
fruits, grain, tobacco; net importer of farm products
Illicit drugs: 
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
important gateway country for cocaine entering the European market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion 
Currency: 
1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 36.242 (January 1994), 34.597 (1993),
32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Belgium, Communications

Railroads: 
Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,568 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 2,207 km
electrified
Highways: 
total: 
137,876 km 
paved: 
129,603 km (including 1,631 km of limited access divided highway)
unpaved: 
8,273 km (1989)
Inland waterways: 
2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas 3,300 km 
Ports: 
Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine: 
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,200 GRT/52,039 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 9, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 5 
Airports: 
total: 
42 
usable: 
42 
with permanent-surface runways: 
24 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
15 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities;
extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network;
4,720,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5
submarine cables; 2 satellite earth stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile phone system

@Belgium, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,558,109; fit for military service 2,130,172; reach
military age (19) annually 61,710 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 1.8% of GDP (1993)


@Belize, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Guatemala and
Mexico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
22,960 sq km 
land area: 
22,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries: 
total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km 
Coastline: 
386 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south
note: 
from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
territorial sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
with Guatemala
International disputes: 
maritime border with Guatemala in dispute; desultory negotiations to
resolve the dispute have begun
Climate: 
tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain: 
flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources: 
arable land potential, timber, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
2% 
forest and woodland: 
44% 
other: 
52% 
Irrigated land: 
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
agricultural runoff
natural hazards: 
frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal
flooding (especially in south)
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Climate Change
Note: 
national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan
because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize, People

Population: 
208,949 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.42% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
34.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-4.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
35.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.08 years 
male: 
66.14 years 
female: 
70.12 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Belizean(s) 
adjective: 
Belizean 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other 8% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%,
Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)
Languages: 
English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
91% 
male: 
91% 
female: 
91% 
Labor force: 
51,500 
by occupation: 
agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
manufacturing 10.3%
note: 
shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)

@Belize, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Belize 
former: 
British Honduras 
Digraph: 
BH
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Belmopan 
Administrative divisions: 
6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence: 
21 September 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 21 September (1981) 
Constitution: 
21 September 1981
Legal system: 
English law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November 1993) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Dean BARROW (since NA 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice from the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly
Senate: 
consists of an 8-member body, 5 are appointed on the advice of the
prime minister, 2 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1
after consultation with the Belize Advisory Council
National Assembly: 
elections last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held June 1998); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 13 UDP 15
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean
BARROW; National Alliance for Belizean Rights, Philip GOLDSON
Other political or pressure groups: 
Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad
SHOMAN; United Workers Front, leader NA
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dean LINDO 
chancery: 
2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-9636 
FAX: 
(202) 332-6888 
consulate(s) general: 
Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA 
embassy: 
Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 286, Belize City 
telephone: 
[501] (2) 77161 through 77163 
FAX: 
[501] (2) 30802 
Flag: 
blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade)
on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry,
and merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing
importance. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75%
of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner,
is assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an
agricultural diversification program.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $550 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5.3% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$2,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
15% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$126.8 million 
expenditures: 
$123.1 million, including capital expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91
est.)
Exports: 
$116 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
sugar, citrus, clothing, fish products, bananas, molasses, wood
partners: 
US 51%, UK, other EC (1992)
Imports: 
$273 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods,
fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: 
US 57%, UK 8%, other EC 7%, Mexico (1992)
External debt: 
$143.7 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
34,532 kW
production: 
90 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
393 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum,
beverages, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial
crops include sugar cane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding
output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine; an illicit producer of cannabis for
the international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to about 50 metric tons in
1991
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215
million 
Currency: 
1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Belize, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,710 km 
paved: 
500 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 1,600 km; improved earth 300 km; unimproved earth 310 km 
Inland waterways: 
825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports: 
Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include
Corozol, Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine: 
25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,509 GRT/80,345 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 11, container 2, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 
Airports: 
total: 
47 
usable: 
38 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,229-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
8,650 telephones; above-average system based on microwave radio relay;
broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Belize, Defense Forces

Branches: 
British Forces Belize withdrawn by the end of 1993 except for a small
training detachment, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 48,789; fit for military service 29,040; reach
military age (18) annually 2,175 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (1992)


@Benin, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Nigeria and
Togo
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
112,620 sq km 
land area: 
110,620 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644
km 
Coastline: 
121 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: 
mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources: 
small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
12% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
35% 
other: 
45% 
Irrigated land: 
60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
limited supply of safe drinking water; illegal hunting threatens
wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north;
no natural harbors

@Benin, People

Population: 
5,341,710 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
47.67 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
14.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
110.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
51.77 years 
male: 
49.92 years 
female: 
53.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Beninese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Beninese 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15% 
Languages: 
French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south),
tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
23% 
male: 
32% 
female: 
16% 
Labor force: 
1.9 million (1987)
by occupation: 
agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services 38%,
industry less than 2%
note: 
49% of population of working age (1985)

@Benin, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Benin 
conventional short form: 
Benin 
local long form: 
Republique Populaire du Benin 
local short form: 
Benin 
former: 
Dahomey 
Digraph: 
BN
Type: 
republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped Marxism-Leninism
December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to
multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Capital: 
Porto-Novo 
Administrative divisions: 
6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence: 
1 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
National Day, 1 August (1990) 
Constitution: 
2 December 1990
Legal system: 
based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991); election last held 10
and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%
cabinet: 
Executive Council; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8,
NCC 7, RND 7, MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2,
UNDP 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP),
Timothee ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS),
Jean-Roger AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin
DEGBE; Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development
(PNDD) and the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO;
Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union
for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause
(NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph
KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy and Development
(MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union, and Progress
(MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National Reconstruction
(UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and National Solidarity
(UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National
Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the Alliance for
Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy
(BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and
Progress (ADP), Akindes ADEKPEDJOU; Democratic Union for Social
Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and
Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy,
Thiophile NATA; African Rally for Progress and Solidarity (RAPS),
Florentin MITO-BABA; The Benin Renaissance Party , Desire VIEYRA and
Rosine SOGLO; The Patriotic Union for the Republic (UPR), Jean-Marie
ZAHOUN; Union for the Conservation of Democracy, Bernard HOUEGNON
note: 
as of May 1994, Benin had about 60 political parties
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU 
chancery: 
2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 232-6656 
FAX: 
(202) 265-1996 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS 
embassy: 
Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou 
mailing address: 
B. P. 2012, Cotonou 
telephone: 
[229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92 
FAX: 
[229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical
green band on the hoist side

@Benin, Economy

Overview: 
Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure.
Agriculture accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the
labor force, and generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings.
The industrial sector contributes only about 10% to GDP and employs 2%
of the work force. Low prices in recent years have kept down hard
currency earnings from Benin's major exports of agricultural products,
primarily cotton. A World Bank supported structural adjustment program
begun in 1989 has helped strengthen the economy through such measures
as trimming the government payroll, reforming the tax system, and
encouraging private investment, both domestic and foreign. Benin has
experienced 3 consecutive years of moderate growth as a result.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$218 million 
expenditures: 
$355 million, including capital expenditures of $100 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$328.8 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
partners: 
FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports: 
$482.3 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate
goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners: 
France 20%, Thailand 8%, Netherlands 7%, US 5%
External debt: 
$1 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
30,000 kW
production: 
25 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food
production, petroleum
Agriculture: 
accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of agricultural
output; production is dominated by food crops - corn, sorghum,
cassava, beans, rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, peanuts;
poultry and livestock output has not kept up with consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $101 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Benin, Communications

Railroads: 
578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
8,435 km 
paved: 
1,038 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone 2,600 km; improved earth 1,530 km; unimproved earth
3,267 km 
Inland waterways: 
navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports: 
Cotonou
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay microwave;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Benin, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,209,226; females age 15-49 1,120,105; males fit for
military service 611,257; females fit for military service 573,775;
males reach military age (18) annually 58,293 (1994 est.);
femalesreach military age (18) annually 56,735 (1994 est.); both sexes
are liable for miltary service
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)


@Bermuda

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Bermuda, Geography

Location: 
Northern North America, in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 1,050 km
east of North Carolina
Map references: 
North America 
Area: 
total area: 
50 sq km 
land area: 
50 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
103 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain: 
low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources: 
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
20% 
other: 
80% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes (June to November)
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
some reclaimed land leased by US Government; consists of about 360
small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater
lakes

@Bermuda, People

Population: 
61,158 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.77% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.03 years 
male: 
73.36 years 
female: 
76.97 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bermudian(s) 
adjective: 
Bermudian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 61%, white and other 39% 
Religions: 
Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion)
10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28% 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
32,000 
by occupation: 
clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical
13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and
fishing 2% (1984)

@Bermuda, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Bermuda 
Digraph: 
BD
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Hamilton 
Administrative divisions: 
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths,
Southampton, Warwick
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Bermuda Day, 22 May 
Constitution: 
8 June 1968
Legal system: 
English law
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Lord David WADDINGTON (since 25 August 1992) 
head of government: 
Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982); Deputy
Premier J. Irving PEARMAN (since 5 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
consists of an 11-member body appointed by the governor
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP
22, PLP 18
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party
(PLP), Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Other political or pressure groups: 
Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), Ottiwell SIMMONS
Member of: 
CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
consulate general: 
Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002 
telephone: 
(809) 295-1342 
FAX: 
(809) 295-1592 
Flag: 
red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding
a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off
Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda, Economy

Overview: 
Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist
facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more
than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is
small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
About 80% of food needs are imported.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.63 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate: 
-1.5% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$27,100 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
6% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$327.5 million 
expenditures: 
$308.9 million, including capital expenditures of $35.4 million (FY91
est.)
Exports: 
$60 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of
pharmaceuticals
partners: 
US 55%, UK 32%, Canada 11%, other 2%
Imports: 
$468 million (f.o.b.,1991)
commodities: 
fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: 
US 60%, UK 8%, Venezuela 7%, Canada 5%, Japan 5%, other 15%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
154,000 kW
production: 
504 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,370 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints,
pharmaceuticals, ship repairing
Agriculture: 
accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $277
million 
Currency: 
1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
210 km 
paved: 
210 km 
note: 
in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that are
privately owned
Ports: 
Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine: 
67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,407,518 GRT/5,775,281 DWT,
bulk 15, cargo 4, container 3, liquefied gas 14, oil tanker 20,
refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern, fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

@Bermuda, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Bhutan, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
47,000 sq km 
land area: 
47,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries: 
total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in
central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain: 
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources: 
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
70% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion; limited access to safe drinking water
natural hazards: 
violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the
country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
international agreements: 
party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan, People

Population: 
716,380 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
other estimates range as high as 1.7 million (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate: 
2.34% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
39.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
15.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
121 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
50.6 years 
male: 
51.15 years 
female: 
50.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.42 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bhutanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Bhutanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15% 
Religions: 
Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25% 
Languages: 
Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects; Nepalese
speak various Nepalese dialects
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: 
massive lack of skilled labor

@Bhutan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Bhutan 
conventional short form: 
Bhutan 
Digraph: 
BT
Type: 
monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital: 
Thimphu 
Administrative divisions: 
18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence: 
8 August 1949 (from India)
National holiday: 
National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first
hereditary king) 
Constitution: 
no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system: 
based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
each family has one vote in village-level elections
Executive branch: 
Chief of State and Head of Government: 
King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) 
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde): 
nominated by the king
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog); appointed by the king
Legislative branch: 
unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu); no national elections
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
no legal parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese
organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign
Member of: 
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC,
ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
no formal diplomatic relations; the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New
York has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is
maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India)
Flag: 
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the
dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
hoist side

@Bhutan, Economy

Overview: 
The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on
agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of
the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains
dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned
with that of India through strong trade and monetary links. The
industrial sector is small and technologically backward, with most
production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects,
such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most
important natural resources; however, the government limits the number
of tourists to 4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence. Much of
the impetus for growth has come from large public-sector companies.
Nevertheless, in recent years, Bhutan has shifted toward decentralized
development planning and greater private initiative. The government
privatized several large public-sector firms, is revamping its trade
regime and liberalizing administerial procedures over industrial
licensing. The government's industrial contribution to GDP decreased
from 13% in 1988 to about 10% in 1992.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita: 
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11% (October 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$100 million 
expenditures: 
$112 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (FY92
est.)
note: 
the government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget
expenditures
Exports: 
$66 million (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to
India), precious stones, spices
partners: 
India 82%, Bangladesh, Singapore
Imports: 
$125 million (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
partners: 
India 60%, Japan, Germany, US, UK
External debt: 
$141 million (June 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for 8% of GDP; primarily cottage industry
and home based handicrafts
Electricity: 
capacity: 
336,000 kW
production: 
1.5422 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,203 kWh (25.8% is exported to India leaving 1,633 kWh per capita;
1990-91)
Industries: 
cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
carbide
Agriculture: 
accounts for 45% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal
husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other
production - rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products,
eggs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million 
Currency: 
1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is also legal
tender
Exchange rates: 
ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 31.370 (January 1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918
(1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989); note - the
Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,165 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
gravel 1,703 km 
undifferentiated: 
462 km 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in
use; international telephone and telegraph service is by land line
through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990); broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)

@Bhutan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 424,558; fit for military service 226,851; reach
military age (18) annually 17,310 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Bolivia, Geography

Location: 
Central South America, between Brazil and Chile
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,098,580 sq km 
land area: 
1,084,390 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries: 
total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the
Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio
Lauca water rights
Climate: 
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain: 
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Natural resources: 
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron
ore, lead, gold, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
25% 
forest and woodland: 
52% 
other: 
20% 
Irrigated land: 
1,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification; industrial pollution of water supplies used
for drinking and irrigation
natural hazards: 
flooding in the northeast (March to April)
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Tropical Timber
Note: 
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable
lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru; cold, thin air of high plateau is
obstacle to efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity
by those unaccustomed to it from birth

@Bolivia, People

Population: 
7,719,445 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.28% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.37 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
73.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
63.31 years 
male: 
60.86 years 
female: 
65.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.21 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bolivian(s) 
adjective: 
Bolivian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European and Indian ancestry)
25%-30%, European 5%-15%
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Languages: 
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
78% 
male: 
85% 
female: 
71% 
Labor force: 
3.54 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture NA, services and utilities 20%, manufacturing, mining and
construction 7% (1993)

@Bolivia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Bolivia 
conventional short form: 
Bolivia 
local long form: 
Republica de Bolivia 
local short form: 
Bolivia 
Digraph: 
BL
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
judiciary)
Administrative divisions: 
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence: 
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 6 August (1825) 
Constitution: 
2 February 1967
Legal system: 
based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age,
universal and compulsory (single)
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993);
Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993);
election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR
alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles (CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ
Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no candidate
received a majority of the popular vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won
a congressional runoff election on 4 August 1993 after forming a
coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio ARANIBAR
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from panel proposed by the Senate
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN
17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PDC 1
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): 
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4,
CONDEPA 1, UCS 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora;
Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Jorge LANDIVAR; Nationalist
Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA; Civic
Solidarity Union (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the
Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles; Free Bolivia Movement
(MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation
Movement (MRTK-L), Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde; Christian Democrat
Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDA
Member of: 
AG, ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Andres PETRICEVIC 
chancery: 
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-4410 through 4412 
FAX: 
(202) 328-3712 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS 
embassy: 
Banco Popular del Peru Building, corner of Calle Mercado and Calle
Colon, La Paz 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO AA 34032 
telephone: 
[591] (2) 350251 or 350120 
FAX: 
[591] (2) 359875 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the
coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
yellow band

@Bolivia, Economy

Overview: 
With its long history of semifeudal social controls, dependence on
volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation,
Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin
American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced generally
improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro administration
(1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which reduced inflation
from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed
as President by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who continued the
free-market policies of his predecessor, despite opposition from his
own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor movement. By
maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce inflation to
9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of 3.25% during his
tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has
vowed to advance government market-oriented economic reforms he helped
launch as PAZ Estenssoro's Planning Minister. A major privatization
bill was passed by the Bolivian legislature in late March 1994.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2.2% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$2,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.3% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
5.8% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$3.19 billion 
expenditures: 
$3.19 billion, including capital expenditures of $552.4 million (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$752 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
metals 35%, natural gas 26%, other 39% (coffee, soybeans, sugar,
cotton, timber)
partners: 
US 16% , Argentina (1992 est.)
Imports: 
$1.17 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: 
US 23.3% (1992)
External debt: 
$3.8 billion (January 1994)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7% (1992); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
865,000 kW
production: 
1.834 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
250 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15% of its
revenues
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries);
principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
45,500 hectares under cultivation in 1992; voluntary and forced
eradication program unable to prevent production from rising to 80,300
metric tons in 1992 from 78,200 tons in 1989; government considers all
but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and cocaine
exported to or through Colombia and Brazil to the US and other
international drug markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$2.025 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million 
Currency: 
1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.5 (March 1994), 4.4604 (November 1993),
3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502
(1988)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Bolivia, Communications

Railroads: 
3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways: 
total: 
42,815 km 
paved: 
1,865 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 12,000 km; improved/unimproved earth 28,950 km 
Inland waterways: 
10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km 
Ports: 
none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani
and Ilo in Peru
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
1,395 
usable: 
1,188 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
165 
Telecommunications: 
very poor telephone service for the general population; 144,300
telephones - 18.7 telephones per 1,000 persons; microwave radio relay
system being expanded; improved international services; broadcast
stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Bolivia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy includes Marines (La Fuerza Naval
Boliviana), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force
( Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,835,661; fit for military service 1,194,077; reach
military age (19) annually 79,580 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $130.48 million; NA% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Header
Note: 
Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife
which began in March 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and
Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs -
supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance
aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining
Serb-held areas to a "greater Serbia." Since the onset of the
conflict, which has driven approximately half of the pre-war
population of 4.4 million from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and
the Bosnian Croats have asserted control of more than three-quarters
of the territory formerly under the control of the Government of
Bosnia and Herzegovina. The UN and the EU are continuing to try to
mediate a plan for peace. In March 1994 Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian
Croats signed an agreement in Washington, DC, creating a Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is to include territories in which
Muslims or Croats predominated, according to the 1991 census. Bosnian
Serbs refused to become a part of this Federation.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, between
Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro
Map references: 
Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
51,233 sq km 
land area: 
51,233 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)
Coastline: 
20 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth
exclusive economic zone: 
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 
12 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
as of May 1994, members of the Bosnian Serb armed factions, desirous
of establishing a separate state linked with neighboring Serbia,
occupied 70% of Bosnia after having killed or driven out non-Serb
inhabitants; the Bosnian Croats, occupied and declared an independent
state in an additional 10% of Bosnia in 1993, but in March 1994, this
faction and the Bosnian Government settled their dispute and entered
into a bicommunal Federation; a Bosnian Government army commander who
opposes the leadership of Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC is leading an
insurrection in the government-held enclave of Bihac
Climate: 
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain: 
mountains and valleys
Natural resources: 
coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
25% 
forest and woodland: 
36% 
other: 
17% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for
disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties and
destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
natural hazards: 
subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, People

Population: 
4,651,485 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error
because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing
Population growth rate: 
0.69% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.33 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.13 years 
male: 
72.43 years 
female: 
78.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.61 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s) 
adjective: 
Bosnian, Herzegovinian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Muslim 44%, Serb 31%, Croat 17%, other 8% 
Religions: 
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10% 
Languages: 
Serbo-Croatian 99% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1,026,254 
by occupation: 
agriculture 2%, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Note: 
The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new government being formed
by the Muslims and Croats. On 31 May 1994 a Croat president, Kresimir
ZUBAK, and a Muslim vice president, Ejup GANIC, were elected. Haris
SILAJDZIC, who is prime minister of the Republic, is also the prime
minister of the Federation.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
conventional short form: 
Bosnia and Herzegovina 
local long form: 
Republika Bosna i Hercegovina 
local short form: 
Bosna i Hercegovina 
Digraph: 
BK
Type: 
emerging democracy 
Capital: 
Sarajevo 
Administrative divisions: 
109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka,
Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska
Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski
Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca,
Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji
Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica,
Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija,
Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo,
Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski,
Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo,
Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik,
Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici,
Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo,
Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca,
Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac,
Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje,
Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez,
Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
note: 
currently under negotiation with the assistance of international
mediators
Independence: 
NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: 
NA
Constitution: 
promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and
1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution in 1991, before
conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts of
Republic) ratified April 1994
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990), other members of
the collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz
DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October
1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA
June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992)
head of government: 
Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Edib BUKVIC (since NA October 1993) 
cabinet: 
executive body of ministers; members of, and responsible to, the
National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly
Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): 
elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA);
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38,
HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): 
elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA);
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34,
HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, MBO 2, DSS 1,
DSZ 1, LS 1
note: 
legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are
slated for late 1994
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian
Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH), KresimirZUBAK;
Serbian Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDS BiH), Radovan
KARADZIC, president; Muslim-Bosnian Organization (MBO), Adil
ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic Party of Socialists (DSS), Nijaz
DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic Changes, leader NA; Serbian
Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC; Alliance of Reform Forces
of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr. Nenad
KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen
PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
CEI, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Seven
ALKALAJ 
chancery: 
Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 10036 
telephone: 
(202) 833-3612, 3613, and 3615 
FAX: 
(202) 833-2061 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH 
embassy: 
address NA 
mailing address: 
NA 
telephone: 
NA 
FAX: 
NA 
Flag: 
white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman
crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner
to the lower fly side

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Overview: 
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.
Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have
been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a
net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one
reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and
management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1994, Bosnia and Herzegovina
was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that
has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar,
and human misery to multiply. No reliable economic statistics for
1992-93 are available, although output clearly has fallen
substantially below the levels of earlier years.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; production is sharply down because of interethnic and
interrepublic warfare (1991-93)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
NA kW
production: 
NA kWh
consumption per capita: 
NA kWh
Industries: 
steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining (1991)
Agriculture: 
accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of
food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards,
vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy
precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the
mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very
productive (1991)
Illicit drugs: 
NA
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area, presumably
to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian dinars used
in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting local
currencies in areas held by Bosnian government
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Communications

Railroads: 
NA km
Highways: 
total: 
21,168 km 
paved: 
11,436 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 8,146 km; earth 1,586 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
NA km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now
disrupted
Ports: 
coastal - none; inland - Bosanski Brod on the Sava River
Airports: 
total: 
28 
usable: 
24 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3659: 
with runways 2440-3659 m: 
with runways 1220-2439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and
expansion, many urban areas being below average compared with services
in other former Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 9 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; satellite
ground stations - none

@Bosnia and Herzegovina, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,298,102; fit for military service 1,054,068; reach
military age (19) annually 38,283 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Botswana, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
600,370 sq km 
land area: 
585,370 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813
km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with
Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; recent dispute with
Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe)
River
Climate: 
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain: 
predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
southwest
Natural resources: 
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
75% 
forest and woodland: 
2% 
other: 
21% 
Irrigated land: 
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
overgrazing; desertification; water scarcity
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity
Note: 
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

@Botswana, People

Population: 
1,359,352 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.19 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
39.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
63.05 years 
male: 
60.03 years 
female: 
66.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.06 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) 
adjective: 
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) 
Ethnic divisions: 
Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1% 
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50% 
Languages: 
English (official), Setswana 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over able to read and write simple sentences (1990 est.)
total population: 
23% 
male: 
32% 
female: 
16% 
Labor force: 
428,000 (1992)
by occupation: 
220,000 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle
raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.); 14,300 are employed
in various mines in South Africa (March 1992)

@Botswana, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Botswana 
conventional short form: 
Botswana 
former: 
Bechuanaland 
Digraph: 
BC
Type: 
parliamentary republic 
Capital: 
Gaborone 
Administrative divisions: 
10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4
town councils - Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Phikwe
Independence: 
30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 30 September (1966) 
Constitution: 
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system: 
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President
Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); election last held 7 October 1989
(next to be held October 1994); results - President Sir Ketumile
MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
House of Chiefs: 
is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of chiefs of the 8
principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members selected by the
other 12
National Assembly: 
elections last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total of which 34
are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 31, BNF 3, unfilled seats pending
new elections 4
Judicial branch: 
High Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana
National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana People's Party (BPP),
Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ,
UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE 
chancery: 
Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 244-4990 or 4991 
FAX: 
(202) 244-4164 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Howard JETER 
embassy: 
address NA, Gaborone 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 90, Gaborone 
telephone: 
[267] 353-982 
FAX: 
[267] 356-947 
Flag: 
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

@Botswana, Economy

Overview: 
The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the
population, but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving
force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been
the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds,
has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to 50% in 1991. No other
sector has experienced such growth, especially not agriculture, which
is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate
remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond production was down
slightly in 1992, substantial gains in coal output and manufacturing
helped boost the economy. Recovery in sluggish diamond markets in
second half 1993 helped Botswana achieve moderate growth of 3% for the
year.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
14% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
25% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.7 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652 million (FY94)
Exports: 
$1.7 billion (f.o.b. 1992)
commodities: 
diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5%
partners: 
Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports: 
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum
products
partners: 
Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt: 
$344 million (December 1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.8% (FY91); accounts for about 53% of GDP, including
mining
Electricity: 
capacity: 
220,000 kW
production: 
901 million kWh (in addition 228,000,000 kWh were imported)
consumption per capita: 
874 kWh (1992 est.)
Industries: 
mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
raising supports 50% of the population; must import up to of 80% of
food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US aid (1992), $13 million; Norway (1992), $16 million; Sweden (1992),
$15.5 million; Germany (1992), $3.6 million; EC/Lome-IV (1992), $3-6
million in grants; $28.7 million in long-term projects (1992)
Currency: 
1 pula (P) = 100 thebe
Exchange rates: 
pula (P) per US$1 - 3.1309 (January 1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327
(1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990), 2.0125 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Botswana, Communications

Railroads: 
712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
11,514 km 
paved: 
1,600 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel 1,700 km; improved earth 5,177 km; unimproved
earth 3,037 km 
Airports: 
total: 
101 
usable: 
90 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
30 
Telecommunications: 
the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, microwave radio
relay links, and a few radio-communications stations; 26,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Botswana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana
National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 294,603; fit for military service 154,997; reach
military age (18) annually 15,156 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $196 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Bouvet Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Norway) 

@Bouvet Island, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,575 km south-southwest
of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)
Map references: 
Antarctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
58 sq km 
land area: 
58 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
29.6 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
4 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
antarctic
Terrain: 
volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
inaccessible
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (all ice)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Bouvet Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Bouvet Island 
Digraph: 
BV
Type: 
territory of Norway 
Capital: 
none; administered from Oslo, Norway
Independence: 
none (territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Bouvet Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications: 
automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Norway


@Brazil, Geography

Location: 
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
8,511,965 sq km 
land area: 
8,456,510 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than the US
note: 
includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da
Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Land boundaries: 
total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km 
Coastline: 
7,491 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of the boundary with Paraguay, just west of Salto das
Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, is in dispute; two short
sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada
(Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the
islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River
Climate: 
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain: 
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Natural resources: 
iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin,
hydropower, gold, platinum, petroleum, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
19% 
forest and woodland: 
67% 
other: 
6% 
Irrigated land: 
27,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation in Amazon Basin; air and water pollution in Rio de
Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation
and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
natural hazards: 
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Tropical Timber
Note: 
largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every
South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil, People

Population: 
158,739,257 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.28% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
21.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
59.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
62.25 years 
male: 
57.41 years 
female: 
67.32 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Brazilian(s) 
adjective: 
Brazilian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, Amerindian, black 6%, white
55%, mixed 38%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic (nominal) 70% 
Languages: 
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
81% 
male: 
82% 
female: 
80% 
Labor force: 
57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation: 
services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

@Brazil, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Federative Republic of Brazil 
conventional short form: 
Brazil 
local long form: 
Republica Federativa do Brasil 
local short form: 
Brasil 
Digraph: 
BR
Type: 
federal republic 
Capital: 
Brasilia 
Administrative divisions: 
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
(distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato
Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui,
Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia,
Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence: 
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 7 September (1822) 
Constitution: 
5 October 1988
Legal system: 
based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over
18 and under 70 years of age
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Itamar FRANCO (since 29 December 1992); election last held
15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
October 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio
LULA da Silva 47%; note - first free, direct presidential election
since 1960; Fernando COLLOR de Mello was impeached in December 1992
and succeeded by former Vice President Itamar FRANCO
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional)
Federal Senate (Senado Federal): 
election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
results - percent of vote by party PMBD 33%, PFL 16%, PSDB 12%, PDS
4%, PDT 6%, PT 1%, other 28%; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991)
PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16
Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados): 
election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994);
results - PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%,
other 23.1%; seats - (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL
87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Federal Tribunal 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president;
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Luiz HENRIQUE da Silveira,
president; Liberal Front Party (PFL), Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president;
Workers' Party (PT), Luis Inacio LULA da Silva, president; Brazilian
Workers' Party (PTB), Rodrigues PALMA, president; Democratic Workers'
Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president; Progressive Renewal Party
(PPR), Paulo MALUF, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party
(PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president; Popular Socialist Party (PPS),
Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao
AMAZONAS, secretary general; Liberal Party (PL), Flavio ROCHA,
president
Other political or pressure groups: 
left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist
Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic
policies
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR,
UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA 
chancery: 
3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 745-2700 
FAX: 
(202) 745-2827 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Hong Kong (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands),
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
consulate(s): 
Houston and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY 
embassy: 
Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal 
mailing address: 
APO AA 34030 
telephone: 
[55] (61) 321-7272 
FAX: 
[55] (61) 225-9136 
consulate(s) general: 
Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo 
consulate(s): 
Porto Alegre, Recife 
Flag: 
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
and district) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over
Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E
PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil, Economy

Overview: 
The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors,
entered the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an
unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy
direction. In addition, the economy remained highly regulated,
inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and investment
barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities is
divided among private interests - including several multinationals -
and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with
the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between
large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed office in March 1990,
launched an ambitious reform program that sought to modernize and
reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the
economy, and opening it to increased foreign competition. The
government also obtained an IMF standby loan in January 1992 and
reached agreements with commercial bankers on the repayment of
interest arrears and on the reduction of debt and debt service
payments. Galloping inflation (the rate doubled in 1992 and by March
1994 had risen to 42% per month) continues to undermine economic
stability. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed the presidency following
President COLLOR'S resignation in December 1992, was out of step with
COLLOR'S reform agenda; initiatives to redress fiscal problems,
privatize state enterprises, and liberalize trade and investment
policies have lost momentum. Brazil's natural resources remain a
major, long-term economic strength
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $785 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$5,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2,709% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
4.9% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$113 billion 
expenditures: 
$109 billion, including capital expenditures of $23 billion (1992)
Exports: 
$38.8 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
commodities: 
iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle
parts
partners: 
EC 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)
Imports: 
$25.7 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
commodities: 
crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
partners: 
US 23.3%, EC 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%, Japan 6.5%
(1993)
External debt: 
$119 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 9.5% (1993); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
63,765,000 kW
production: 
242.184 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,531 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber,
iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital
goods, tin
Agriculture: 
accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of
coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of
soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic
consumption; government has a modest eradication program to control
cannabis and coca cultivation; important transshipment country for
Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist
countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion 
Currency: 
1 cruzeiro real (CR$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992),
0.407 (1991), 0.068 (1990), 0.003 (1989)
note: 
on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real, equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was
introduced; another new currency, the real, will be introduced on 1
July 1994
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Brazil, Communications

Railroads: 
30,133 km total; 24,690 km 1.000-meter gauge, 5,120 km 1.600-meter
gauge, 310 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge;
2,150 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
1,670,148 km 
paved: 
161,503 km 
unpaved: 
gravel/earth 1,508,645 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
50,000 km navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km 
Ports: 
Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio
de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine: 
220 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,139,176 GRT/8,695,682 DWT,
bulk 53, cargo 40, chemical tanker 14, combination ore/oil 12,
container 11, liquified gas 11, oil tanker 62, passenger-cargo 5,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 
note: 
in addition, 1 naval tanker is sometimes used commercially
Airports: 
total: 
3,581 
usable: 
3,024 
with permanent-surface runways: 
436 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
22 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
598 
Telecommunications: 
good system; extensive microwave radio relay facilities; 9.86 million
telephones; broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151
shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and 64 domestic satellite earth stations

@Brazil, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air
Force, Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 43,489,704; fit for military service 29,286,530; reach
military age (18) annually 1,674,930 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)


@British Indian Ocean Territory

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, south of India about halfway
between Africa and Indonesia
Map references: 
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
60 sq km 
land area: 
60 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes the island of Diego Garcia
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
698 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate: 
tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources: 
coconuts, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost
island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is
site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants
note: 
there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known as the
Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military
facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
British Indian Ocean Territory 
conventional short form: 
none 
Abbreviation: 
BIOT 
Digraph: 
IO
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
none 
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Commissioner Thomas GEORGE (since September 1991); Administrator Mr.
R. G. WELLS (since NA 1991); note - both reside in the UK 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six
blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown
centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Economy

Overview: 
All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego
Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction
projects and various services needed to support the military
installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK,
Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or
agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity: 
provided by the US military

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Diego Garcia
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
1 on Diego Garcia
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,229-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1
FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@British Indian Ocean Territory, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@British Virgin Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Virgin Islands, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east of Puerto
Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
150 sq km 
land area: 
150 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes the island of Anegada
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
80 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
7% 
meadows and pastures: 
33% 
forest and woodland: 
7% 
other: 
33% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

@British Virgin Islands, People

Population: 
12,864 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.24% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
20.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
19.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.67 years 
male: 
70.83 years 
female: 
74.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.27 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
British Virgin Islander(s) 
adjective: 
British Virgin Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 90%, white, Asian 
Religions: 
Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages: 
English (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
4,911 (1980)
by occupation: 
NA

@British Virgin Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
British Virgin Islands 
Abbreviation: 
BVI 
Digraph: 
VI
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Road Town 
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Territory Day, 1 July 
Constitution: 
1 June 1977
Legal system: 
English law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Peter Alfred PENFOLD (since 14 October 1991) 
head of government: 
Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA September 1986) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Council: 
election last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6,
IPM 1, independents 2
Judicial branch: 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H.
Lavity STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), E. Walwyln
BREWLEY
Member of: 
CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau),
IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical
column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE
(Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is
highly dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of
the national income. In 1985 the government offered offshore
registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and,
in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2 million in 1987.
The economy slowed in 1991 because of the poor performances of the
tourist sector and tight commercial bank credit. Livestock raising is
the most significant agricultural activity. The islands' crops,
limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $133 million (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$10,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NEGL% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$51 million 
expenditures: 
$88 million, including capital expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports: 
$2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
partners: 
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports: 
$11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: 
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt: 
$4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4% (1985)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,500 kW
production: 
43 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,510 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
financial center
Agriculture: 
livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
106 km (1983)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Road Town
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine
cable communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
FM, 1 TV

@British Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Brunei, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, on the northern coast of Borneo almost completely
surrounded by Malaysia
Map references: 
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
5,770 sq km 
land area: 
5,270 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries: 
total 381 km, Malysia 381 km 
Coastline: 
161 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country;
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam;
parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984,
Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa
Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: 
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
79% 
other: 
18% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea
natural hazards: 
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note: 
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an
enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei, People

Population: 
284,653 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.7% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
26.18 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
5.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
25.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.1 years 
male: 
69.46 years 
female: 
72.78 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.43 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bruneian(s) 
adjective: 
Bruneian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16% 
Religions: 
Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs
and other 15% (1981)
Languages: 
Malay (official), English, Chinese 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 
77% 
male: 
85% 
female: 
69% 
Labor force: 
89,000 (includes members of the Army)
by occupation: 
government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and
construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
note: 
33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

@Brunei, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Negara Brunei Darussalam 
conventional short form: 
Brunei 
Digraph: 
BX
Type: 
constitutional sultanate 
Capital: 
Bandar Seri Begawan 
Administrative divisions: 
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 
1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday: 
National Day 23 February (1984) 
Constitution: 
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January
1984)
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967) 
cabinet: 
Council of Cabinet Ministers; composed chiefly of members of the royal
family
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri): 
elections last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to
an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected legislative
Council is being considered as part of constitution reform, but
elections are unlikely for several years
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman;
Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and
now banned), leader NA
Member of: 
APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, UNTAC, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador JAYA bin Abdul Latif 
chancery: 
2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037 
telephone: 
(202) 342-0159 
FAX: 
(202) 342-0158 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Theresa A. TULL 
embassy: 
Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan 
mailing address: 
American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440 
telephone: 
[673] (2) 229-670 
FAX: 
[673] (2) 225-293 
Flag: 
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and
black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red
is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed
flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a
scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It
is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas,
with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50%
of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and
substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic
production. The government provides for all medical services and
subsidizes food and housing.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$9,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
3.7% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $255 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: 
Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports: 
$2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners: 
Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt: 
$0 
Industrial production: 
growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
310,000 kW
production: 
890 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,300 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture: 
imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock
include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $153
million 
Currency: 
1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6032 (January 1994), 1.6158 (1993),
1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989); note - the
Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Brunei, Communications

Railroads: 
13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways: 
total: 
1,090 km 
paved: 
bituminous 370 km (with another 52 km under construction)
unpaved: 
gravel or earth 720 km 
Inland waterways: 
209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines: 
crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km 
Ports: 
Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine: 
7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runway over 3,659 m: 
with runway 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runway 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
service throughout country is adequate for present needs;
international service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast
coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM,
1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

@Brunei, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 79,486; fit for military service 46,258; reach
military age (18) annually 2,756 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 9% of GDP (1990)


@Bulgaria, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey
Map references: 
Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Middle
East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
110,910 sq km 
land area: 
110,550 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
with Serbia), Turkey 240 km 
Coastline: 
354 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources: 
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land 
Land use: 
arable land: 
34% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
35% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
air pollution; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical
plants and industrial wastes
natural hazards: 
subject to earthquakes, landslides
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria, People

Population: 
8,799,986 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-0.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
12 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.24 years 
male: 
69.99 years 
female: 
76.67 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.71 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Bulgarian(s) 
adjective: 
Bulgarian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian
0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6% 
Religions: 
Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%,
Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5% 
Languages: 
Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
4.3 million 
by occupation: 
industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

@Bulgaria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Bulgaria 
conventional short form: 
Bulgaria 
Digraph: 
BU
Type: 
emerging democracy 
Capital: 
Sofia 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya,
Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya, Varna
Independence: 
22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
Independence Day 3 March (1878) 
Constitution: 
adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system: 
based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990); Vice President
(vacant); election last held January 1992; results - Zhelyu ZHELEV was
elected by popular vote
head of government: 
Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Lyuben Borisov
BEROV (since 30 December 1992); Deputy Chairman of the Council of
Ministers (Deputy Prime Minister) Evgeniy MATINCHEV (since 30 December
1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie): 


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