(con't 6)

12% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$20.3 million 
expenditures: 
$44 million, including capital expenditures of $23.9 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$6.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners: 
US, UK
Imports: 
$42.8 million (1992)
commodities: 
food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction
materials
partners: 
US, UK
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
9,050 kW
production: 
11.1 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
860 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
fishing, tourism, offshore financial services
Agriculture: 
subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more
important than farming; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $110 million 
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
121 km (including 24 km tarmac)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; broadcast stations -
3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

@Turks and Caicos Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Tuvalu, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South
Pacific Ocean
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
26 sq km 
land area: 
26 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
24 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November);
westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Terrain: 
very low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable,
all water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage
facilities
natural hazards: 
severe tropical storms are rare
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Tuvalu, People

Population: 
9,831 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.66% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.73 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.15 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
63.03 years 
male: 
61.57 years 
female: 
64.08 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.11 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Tuvaluans(s) 
adjective: 
Tuvaluan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian 96% 
Religions: 
Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%,
Baha'i 1%, other 0.6% 
Languages: 
Tuvaluan, English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
NA

@Tuvalu, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Tuvalu 
former: 
Ellice Islands 
Digraph: 
TV
Type: 
democracy; began debating republic status in 1992; referendum expected
in 1993
Capital: 
Funafuti 
Administrative divisions: 
none
Independence: 
1 October 1978 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 October (1978) 
Constitution: 
1 October 1978
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Tomu Malaefono SIONE (since NA 1993) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Kamuta LATASI (since 10 December 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Otinielu TAUSI (since 10 December 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the
prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Palamene): 
elections last held 25 November 1993 (next to be held by NA 1997);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (12 total)
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Member of: 
ACP, AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Tuvalu has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation: 
none
Flag: 
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant;
the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine
yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

@Tuvalu, Economy

Overview: 
Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor
soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few exports.
Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities.
The islands are too small and too remote for development of a tourist
industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and
coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually
from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, NZ,
and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $6.4 million (1990)
National product real growth rate: 
4% (1990 est.)
National product per capita: 
$700 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$4.3 million 
expenditures: 
$4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports: 
$165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: 
copra
partners: 
Fiji, Australia, NZ
Imports: 
$4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: 
food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods
partners: 
Fiji, Australia, NZ
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,600 kW
production: 
3 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
330 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
fishing, tourism, copra
Agriculture: 
coconuts and fish
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $101
million 
Currency: 
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364
(January 1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799
(1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
NA

@Tuvalu, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
8 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 8 km 
Ports: 
Funafuti, Nukufetau
Merchant marine: 
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 57,067 GRT/102,037 DWT, chemical
tanker 4, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000
radios; 108 telephones

@Tuvalu, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Police Force 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GNP


@Uganda, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, between Kenya and Zaire
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
236,040 sq km 
land area: 
199,710 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: 
total 2,698 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania
396 km, Zaire 765 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February,
June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain: 
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Natural resources: 
copper, cobalt, limestone, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
23% 
permanent crops: 
9% 
meadows and pastures: 
25% 
forest and woodland: 
30% 
other: 
13% 
Irrigated land: 
90 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Environmental
Modification
Note: 
landlocked

@Uganda, People

Population: 
19,121,934 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.42% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
48.8 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
23.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
112.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
37.46 years 
male: 
37.15 years 
female: 
37.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.77 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ugandan(s) 
adjective: 
Ugandan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%,
Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batobo 3%, European,
Asian, Arab 1%, other 23% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Languages: 
English (official), Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages, Nilotic
languages 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
48% 
male: 
62% 
female: 
35% 
Labor force: 
4.5 million (est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture over 80%
note: 
50% of population of working age (1983)

@Uganda, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Uganda 
conventional short form: 
Uganda 
Digraph: 
UG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Kampala 
Administrative divisions: 
39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga,
Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa,
Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero,
Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono,
Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sototi, Tororo
Independence: 
9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 9 October (1962) 
Constitution: 
8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision
Legal system: 
government plans to restore system based on English common law and
customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986);
Vice President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since NA January 1991) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA January 1991) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Resistance Council: 
elections last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held by January
1995); results - NRM was the only party; seats - (278 total, 210
indirectly elected) 210 members elected without party affiliation
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
only party - National Resistance Movement (NRM), Yoweri MUSEVENI
note: 
Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Milton OBOTE; Democratic Party (DP),
Paul SSEMOGEERE; and Conservative Party (CP), Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI
continue to exist but are all proscribed from conducting public
political activities
Other political or pressure groups: 
Uganda People's Front (UPF); Lord's Resistance Army (LRA); Ruwenzori
Movement
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI 
chancery: 
5909 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 
telephone: 
(202) 726-7100 through 7102 and 726-0416 
FAX: 
(202) 726-1727 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Johnnie CARSON 
embassy: 
Parliament Avenue, Kampala 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 7007, Kampala 
telephone: 
[256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795 
Flag: 
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow,
and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a
red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

@Uganda, Economy

Overview: 
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils,
regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt.
The economy has been devastated by widespread political instability,
mismanagement, and civil war since independence in 1962. (GDP remains
below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.)
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing
over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and
accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government
has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking
currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing
prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The
policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was
running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting production and export
earnings. In 1990-93, the economy has turned in a solid performance
based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure,
improved incentives for production and exports, and gradually
improving domestic security.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $24.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
41.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$365 million 
expenditures: 
$545 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$150 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
coffee 97%, cotton, tea
partners: 
US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%
Imports: 
$513 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals,
transportation equipment, food
partners: 
Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%
External debt: 
$1.9 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 8% (1992 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
200,000 kW
production: 
610 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
30 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Agriculture: 
mainly subsistence; accounts for 57% of GDP and over 80% of labor
force; cash crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops -
cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products - beef,
goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.4
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $169 million 
Currency: 
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,165.0 (November 1993), 1.133.8
(1992), 734.0 (1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.1 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Uganda, Communications

Railroads: 
1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track
Highways: 
total: 
26,200 km 
paved: 
1,970 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 5,849 km; earth, tracks 18,381 km 
Inland waterways: 
Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward;
Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja
and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria
Merchant marine: 
3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091
GRT/NA DWT
Airports: 
total: 
31 
usable: 
23 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
11 
Telecommunications: 
fair system with microwave and radio communications stations;
broadcast stations - 10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite communications
ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Uganda, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Resistance Army (NRA); includes Air Force and Navy, Local
Defense Units (LDU) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,138,087; fit for military service 2,248,232 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 15% of budget (FY89/90)


@Ukraine, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and Russia
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
603,700 sq km 
land area: 
603,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 4,558 km, Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland
428 km, Romania (southwest) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia
1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km 
Coastline: 
2,782 km 
Maritime claims: 
NA
International disputes: 
potential future border disputes with Moldova and Romania in Northern
Bukovina and southern Odes'ka Oblast'; potential dispute with Moldova
over former southern Bessarabian area; potential dispute with Russia
over Crimea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has
reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any
other nation
Climate: 
temperate continental; subtropical only on the southern Crimean coast;
precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and
north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the
Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater
part of the country, hot in the south
Terrain: 
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaux,
mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the
Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
Natural resources: 
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulphur, graphite,
titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
56% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
12% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
30% 
Irrigated land: 
26,000 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
unsafe drinking water; air and water pollution; deforestation;
radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at
Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second
largest country in Europe

@Ukraine, People

Population: 
51,846,958 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.05% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
20.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.99 years 
male: 
65.45 years 
female: 
74.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ukrainian(s) 
adjective: 
Ukrainian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4% 
Religions: 
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev
Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic
(Uniate), Protestant, Jewish 
Languages: 
Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1979)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
23.985 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 33%, agriculture and forestry 21%, health,
education, and culture 16%, trade and distribution 7%, transport and
communication 7%, other 16% (1992)

@Ukraine, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Ukraine 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ukrayina 
former: 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
UP
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Kiev (Kyyiv) 
Administrative divisions: 
24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya
respublika), and 2 municipalites (mista, singular - misto) with oblast
status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv),
Chernivets'ka (Chernitsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k),
Donets'ka (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k),
Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka
(Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka
(Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka
(Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Respublika Krym*
(Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**,Sums'ka
(Sevastopol'), Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya),
Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka
(Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr)
note: 
names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from
oblast' name
Independence: 
1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 24 August (1991) 
Constitution: 
using 1978 pre-independence constitution; new constitution currently
being drafted
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President-elect Leonid D. KUCHMA; election last held 26 June and 10
July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%,
Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%
head of government: 
Prime Minister (vacant); Acting First Deputy Prime Minister (and
Acting Prime Minister since September 1993) Yukhym Leonidovych
ZVYAHIL'SKYY (since 11 June 1993) and five deputy prime ministers 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and approved by the
Supreme Council
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme Council: 
elections last held 27 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total) number of seats by
party NA; note - 338 deputies were elected; the remaining 112 seats to
be filled on 24 July 1994
Judicial branch: 
being organized
Political parties and leaders: 
Green Party of Ukraine, Vitaliy KONONOV, leader; Liberal Party of
Ukraine, Ihor MERKULOV, chairman; Liberal Democratic Party of Ukraine,
Volodymyr KLYMCHUK, chairman; Democratic Party of Ukraine, Volodymyr
Oleksandrovych YAVORIVSKIY, chairman; People's Party of Ukraine,
Leopol'd TABURYANSKYY, chairman; Peasants' Party of Ukraine, Serhiy
DOVGRAN', chairman; Party of Democratic Rebirth of Ukraine, Volodymyr
FILENKO, chairman; Social Democratic Party of Ukraine, Yuriy ZBITNEV,
chairman; Socialist Party of Ukraine, Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman;
Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party, Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY, chairman;
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party, Stepan KHMARA, chairman;
Ukrainian Labor Party, Valentyn LANDYK, chairman; Ukrainian Party of
Justice, Mykhaylo HRECHKO, chairman; Ukrainian Peasants' Democratic
Party, Serhiy PLACHINDA, chairman; Ukrainian Republican Party,
Mykhaylo HORYN', chairman; Ukrainian National Conservative Party,
Viktor RADIONOV, chairman; Ukrainian People's Movement for
Restructuring (Rukh), Vyacheslav CHORNOUL, chairman; Ukrainian
Communist Party, Petr SYMONENKO
Other political or pressure groups: 
New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina); Congress of National Democratic Forces
Member of: 
BSEC, CBSS (observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI (participating), CIS,
CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Oleh Hryhorovych BILORUS 
chancery: 
3350 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 333-0606 
FAX: 
(202) 333-0817 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William MILLER 
embassy: 
10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 252053 Kiev 53 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[7] (044) 244-7349 or 244-7344 
FAX: 
[7] (044) 244-7350 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent
grainfields under a blue sky

@Ukraine, Economy

Overview: 
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most
important economic component of the former Soviet Union producing more
than three times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile
black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural
output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk,
grain and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified
heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to industrial and
mining sites in other regions of the former USSR. In 1992 the
Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal
framework for privatizing state enterprises while retaining many
central economic controls and continuing subsidies to state production
enterprises. In November 1992 the new Prime Minister KUCHMA launched a
new economic reform program promising more freedom to the agricultural
sector, faster privatization of small and medium enterprises, and
stricter control over state subsidies. In 1993, however, severe
internal political disputes over the scope and pace of economic reform
and payment arrears on energy imports have led to further declines in
output, and inflation of 50% or more per month by the last quarter. In
first quarter 1994, national income and industrial output were less
than two-thirds the first quarter 1993 figures, according to official
statistics. At the same time an increasing number of people are
developing small private businesses and exploiting opportunities in
non-official markets. Even so, the magnitude of the problems and the
slow pace in building new market-oriented institutions preclude a
near-term recovery of output to the 1990 level. A vital economic
concern in 1994 will continue to be Russia's decisions on the prices
and quantities of oil and gas to be shipped to the Ukraine.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $205.4 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Ukrainian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-16% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,960 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
45% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
0.4% officially registered; large number of unregistered or
underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$3 billion to countries outside of the FSU (1993)
commodities: 
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals,
machinery and transport equipment, grain, meat
partners: 
FSU countries, Germany, China, Austria
Imports: 
$2.2 billion from outside of the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles
partners: 
FSU countries, Germany, China, Austria
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -14% (1993); accounts for 50% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
55,882,000 kW
production: 
281 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,410 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and
transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing (especially sugar)
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 25% of GDP; grain, vegetables, meat, milk, sugar
beets
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
$350 million economic aid and $350 million to help disassemble the
atomic weapons from the US in 1994
Currency: 
Ukraine withdrew the Russian ruble from circulation on 12 November
1992 and declared the karbovanets (plural karbovantsi) sole legal
tender in Ukrainian markets; Ukrainian officials claim this is an
interim move toward introducing a new currency - the hryvnya -
possibly in mid-1994
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Ukraine, Communications

Railroads: 
23,350 km (1,524-mm gauge); 8,600 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
273,700 km 
paved and gravel: 
236,400 km 
unpaved: 
earth 37,300 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,672 km perennially navigable (Pryp''yat' and Dnipro Rivers)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,010 km; petroleum products 1,920 km; natural gas 7,800 km
(1992)
Ports: 
coastal - Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Kerch, Kherson, Mariupol',
Mykolayiv, Odesa, Sevastopol', Pivdenne; inland - Kiev (Kyyiv)
Merchant marine: 
390 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,932,009 GRT/5,236,134 DWT,
barge carriers 7, bulk cargo 55, cargo 231, chemical tanker 2,
container 18, liquefied gas 1, multi-function-large-load-carrier 1,
oil tanker 10, passenger 12, passenger cargo 5, railcar carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 33, short-sea passenger 8
Airports: 
total: 
694 
usable: 
199 
with permanent-surface runways: 
111 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
81 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
78 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
the telephone system is inadequate both for business and for personal
use; about 7,886,000 telephone circuits serve 52,056,000 people
(1991); telephone density is 151.4 telephone circuits per 1,000
persons (1991); 3.56 million applications for telephones had not been
satisfied as of January 1991; calls to other CIS countries are carried
by land line or microwave; other international calls to 167 countries
are carried by satellite or by the 150 leased lines through the Moscow
gateway switch; an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates
in Kiev (Kyyiv) and allows direct dialing of international calls
through Kiev's EWSD digital exchange; electronic mail services have
been established in Kiev, Odessa, and Lugansk by Sprint; satellite
earth stations employ INTELSAT, INMARSAT, and Intersputnik

@Ukraine, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces
(internal and border troops), National Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 12,191,984; fit for military service 9,591,276; reach
military age (18) annually 364,676 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
544,256 million karbovantsi, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results


@United Arab Emirates, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, along the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Map references: 
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
75,581 sq km 
land area: 
75,581 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries: 
total 867 km, Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km 
Coastline: 
1,318 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm assumed for most of country; 12 nm for Ash Shariqah (Sharjah)
International disputes: 
location and status of boundary with Saudi Arabia is not final; no
defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far
north; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran
(Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); claims island in the Persian Gulf jointly
administered with Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa); in 1992, the
dispute over Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more acute when Iran
unilaterally tried to control the entry of third country nationals
into the UAE portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently backed
off in the face of significant diplomatic support for the UAE in the
region
Climate: 
desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Terrain: 
flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast
desert wasteland; mountains in east
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
2% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
98% 
Irrigated land: 
50 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination
plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spills
natural hazards: 
frequent dust and sand storms
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone
Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea
Note: 
strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a
vital transit point for world crude oil

@United Arab Emirates, People

Population: 
2,791,141 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
4.79% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
27.68 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
3.05 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
23.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.26 years 
male: 
70.16 years 
female: 
74.46 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.6 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Emirian(s) 
adjective: 
Emirian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates
(includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note: 
less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)
Religions: 
Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu 
Literacy: 
age 10 and over but definition of literacy not available (1980)
total population: 
68% 
male: 
70% 
female: 
63% 
Labor force: 
580,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 5%
note: 
80% of labor force is foreign (est.)

@United Arab Emirates, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
United Arab Emirates 
conventional short form: 
none 
local long form: 
Al Imarata al Arabiyah al Muttahidah 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Trucial States 
Abbreviation: 
UAE 
Digraph: 
TC
Type: 
federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central
government and other powers reserved to member emirates
Capital: 
Abu Dhabi 
Administrative divisions: 
7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman,
Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy, Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al
Qaywayn
Independence: 
2 December 1971 (from UK)
National holiday: 
National Day, 2 December (1971) 
Constitution: 
2 December 1971 (provisional)
Legal system: 
secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in
several member emirates; Islamic law remains influential
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan, (since 2 December 1971), ruler
of Abu Dhabi; Vice President Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since
8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Shaykh MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October
1990), ruler of Dubayy; Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Zayid Al
NUHAYYAN (since 20 November 1990) 
Supreme Council of Rulers: 
composed of the seven emirate rulers, the council is the highest
constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and
sanctions federal legislation, Abu Dhabi and Dubayy rulers have veto
power; council meets four times a year
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis Watani Itihad); no
elections
Judicial branch: 
Union Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn al-SHAALI 
chancery: 
Suite 600, 3000 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 338-6500 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William A. RUGH 
embassy: 
Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi 
telephone: 
[971] (2) 336691 
FAX: 
[971] (2) 318441 
consulate(s) general: 
Dubayy (Dubai) 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a
thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

@United Arab Emirates, Economy

Overview: 
The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's highest incomes
per capita and with a sizable annual trade surplus. Its wealth is
based on oil and gas output (about 40% of GDP), and the fortunes of
the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since
1973, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an
impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state
with a high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude
oil reserves should last for over 100 years. Although much stronger
economically than most Gulf states, the UAE faces similar problems
with weak international oil prices and the pressures for cuts in OPEC
oil production quotas. The UAE government is encouraging increased
privatization within the economy.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$24,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NEGL% (1988)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$4.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est)
Exports: 
$22.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil 66%, natural gas, re-exports, dried fish, dates
partners: 
Japan 39%, Singapore 5%, Korea 4%, Iran 4%, India 4% (1991)
Imports: 
$18 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, food
partners: 
Japan 14%, UK 9%, US 8%, Germany 6% (1992)
External debt: 
$11 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.7% (1992 est.); accounts for 50% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,090,000 kW
production: 
17.85 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,718 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat
building, handicrafts, pearling
Agriculture: 
accounts for 2% of GDP and 5% of labor force; cash crop - dates; food
products - vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only
25% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
growing role as heroin transshipment and money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
donor: 
pledged in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89) $9.1
billion 
Currency: 
1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils
Exchange rates: 
Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - 3.6710 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@United Arab Emirates, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,000 km 
paved: 
1,800 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, graded earth 200 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 830 km; natural gas, including natural gas liquids, 870 km 
Ports: 
Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina'
Rashid, Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid
Merchant marine: 
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 909,041 GRT/1,512,741 DWT, bulk
1, cargo 18, chemical tanker 2, container 9, liquified gas 1, oil
tanker 22, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 
Airports: 
total: 
39 
usable: 
36 
with permanent-surface runways: 
22 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern system consisting of microwave and coaxial cable; key centers
are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; satellite ground
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi
Arabia; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV

@United Arab Emirates, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,040,828; fit for military service 567,766; reach
military age (18) annually 17,303 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.47 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1989 est.)


@United Kingdom, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea, between Ireland and France
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
244,820 sq km 
land area: 
241,590 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Oregon
note: 
includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Land boundaries: 
total 360 km, Ireland 360 km 
Coastline: 
12,429 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed
upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain;
Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island
of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental
shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the
UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial
claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)
Climate: 
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North
Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast
Terrain: 
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east
and southeast
Natural resources: 
coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay,
chalk, gypsum, lead, silica 
Land use: 
arable land: 
29% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
48% 
forest and woodland: 
9% 
other: 
14% 
Irrigated land: 
1,570 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants contribute to air
pollution; some rivers polluted by agricultural wastes and coastal
waters polluted because of large-scale disposal of sewage at sea
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity
Note: 
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and
now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily
indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

@United Kingdom, People

Population: 
58,135,110 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.28% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.76 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.75 years 
male: 
73.94 years 
female: 
79.69 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Briton(s), British (collective pl.) 
adjective: 
British 
Ethnic divisions: 
English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%,
West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8% 
Religions: 
Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1 million,
Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu 350,000,
Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)
note: 
the UK does not include a question on religion in its census
Languages: 
English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form
of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
28.048 million 
by occupation: 
services 62.8%, manufacturing and construction 25.0%, government 9.1%,
energy 1.9%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1992)

@United Kingdom, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
conventional short form: 
United Kingdom 
Abbreviation: 
UK 
Digraph: 
UK
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
London 
Administrative divisions: 
47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3
islands areas
England: 
39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire,
Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby,
Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater
London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester,
Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester,
Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North
Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*,
Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*,
West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire
Northern Ireland: 
26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge,
Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon,
Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry,
Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh,
Strabane
Scotland: 
9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway,
Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde,
Tayside, Western Isles*
Wales: 
8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South
Glamorgan, West Glamorgan
Dependent areas: 
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin
Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong
Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on
1 July 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint
Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos
Islands 
Independence: 
1 January 1801 (United Kingdom established)
National holiday: 
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June) 
Constitution: 
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system: 
common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental
influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince
CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November 1990) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
House of Lords: 
consists of a 1,200-member body, four-fifths are hereditary peers, 2
archbishops, 24 other senior bishops, serving and retired Lords of
Appeal in Ordinary, other life peers, Scottish peers
House of Commons: 
elections last held 9 April 1992 (next to be held by NA April 1997);
results - Conservative 41.9%, Labor 34.5%, Liberal Democratic 17.9%,
other 5.7%; seats - (651 total) Conservative 336, Labor 271, Liberal
Democratic 20, other 24
Judicial branch: 
House of Lords 
Political parties and leaders: 
Conservative and Unionist Party, John MAJOR; Labor Party; Liberal
Democrats (LD), Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN; Scottish National Party, Alex
SALMOND; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY;
Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX; Democratic
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY; Ulster Popular
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), Sir James KILFEDDER; Social
Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP, Northern Ireland), John HUME; Sinn
Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry ADAMS
Other political or pressure groups: 
Trades Union Congress; Confederation of British Industry; National
Farmers' Union; Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTRC, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN
Trusteeship Council, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Sir Robin RENWICK 
chancery: 
3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 462-1340 
FAX: 
(202) 898-4255 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
and San Francisco, 
consulate(s): 
Dallas, Miami, Nuku'alofa, and Seattle 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Adm. William CROWE 
embassy: 
24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W.1A1AE 
mailing address: 
PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040 
telephone: 
[44] (71) 499-9000 
FAX: 
[44] (71) 409-1637 
consulate(s) general: 
Belfast and Edinburgh 
Flag: 
blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England)
edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick
(patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white
cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union
Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign)
have been the basis for a number of other flags including
dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

@United Kingdom, Economy

Overview: 
The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial
centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in Western
Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic; over the past
thirteen years the ruling Tories have greatly reduced public ownership
and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is
intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards,
producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The
UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves, and primary energy
production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any
industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and
business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP
while industry continues to decline in importance, now employing only
25% of the work force and generating only 21% of GDP. The economy is
emerging out of its 3-year recession with only weak recovery in 1993;
even so, the economy fared better in 1993 than the economies of most
other European countries. Unemployment is hovering around 10% of the
labor force. The government in 1992 adopted a pro-growth strategy,
cutting interest rates sharply and removing the pound from the
European exchange rate mechanism. Excess industrial capacity probably
will moderate inflation which for the first time in a decade is below
the EC average. The major economic policy question for Britain in the
1990s is the terms on which it participates in the financial and
economic integration of Europe.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $980.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
2.1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$16,900 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.6% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
10.3% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$325.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$400.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $33 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$190.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods,
transport equipment
partners: 
EC countries 56.7% (Germany 14.0%, France 11.1%, Netherlands 7.9%), US
10.9%
Imports: 
$221.6 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs,
consumer goods
partners: 
EC countries 51.7% (Germany 14.9%, France 9.3%, Netherlands 8.4%), US
11.6%
External debt: 
$16.2 billion (June 1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.2% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
99,000,000 kW
production: 
317 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,480 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
production machinery including machine tools, electric power
equipment, equipment for the automation of production, railroad
equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts,
electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal,
petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles,
clothing, and other consumer goods
Agriculture: 
accounts for only 1.5% of GDP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized
and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products
produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs
Illicit drugs: 
gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European
market; producer of synthetic drugs; money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1992-93), $3.2 billion 
Currency: 
1 British pound (#) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
British pounds (#) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6033 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April-31 March

@United Kingdom, Communications

Railroads: 
UK, 16,914 km total; Great Britain's British Railways (BR) operates
16,584 km 1,435-mm (standard) gauge (including 4,545 km electrified
and 12,591 km double or multiple track), several additional small
standard-gauge and narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and
operated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 330 km 1,600-mm
gauge (including 190 km double track)
Highways: 
total: 
362,982 km (Great Britian 339,483 km; Northern Ireland 23,499 km)
paved: 
362,390 km (Great Britian 339,483 km, including 2,573 km limited
access divided highway; Northern Ireland 22,907 km)
unpaved: 
gravel 592 km (in Northern Ireland)
Inland waterways: 
2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706
km; other, 979 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum products 2,993
km; natural gas 12,800 km 
Ports: 
London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe,
Southampton
Merchant marine: 
180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,428,571 GRT/4,297,489 DWT,
bulk 17, cargo 35, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container
24, liquefied gas 5, oil tanker 59, passenger 7, passenger cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger
14, specialized tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
497 
usable: 
388 
with permanent-surface runways: 
251 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
37 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
133 
Telecommunications: 
technologically advanced domestic and international system; 30,200,000
telephones; equal mix of buried cables, microwave and optical-fiber
systems; excellent countrywide broadcast systems; broadcast stations -
225 AM, 525 (mostly repeaters) FM, 207 (3,210 repeaters) TV; 40
coaxial submarine cables; 5 satellite ground stations operating in
INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT
systems; at least 8 large international switching centers

@United Kingdom, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 14,432,081; fit for military service 12,056,828 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $34.8 billion, 3.7% of GDP (FY93/94)


@United States, Geography

Location: 
North America, between Canada and Mexico
Map references: 
North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
9,372,610 sq km 
land area: 
9,166,600 sq km 
comparative area: 
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa;
about one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than
Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the
size of Western Europe
note: 
includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
Land boundaries: 
total 12,248 km, Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska),
Cuba 29 km (US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), Mexico 3,326 km 
Coastline: 
19,924 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm depth
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary disputes with Canada (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea,
Strait of Juan de Fuca); US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased
from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no
territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so)
and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Republic of
Marshall Islands claims Wake Island
Climate: 
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida and arctic in
Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River and
arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in
the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by
warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Terrain: 
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in
east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged,
volcanic topography in Hawaii
Natural resources: 
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold,
iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum,
natural gas, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
26% 
forest and woodland: 
29% 
other: 
25% 
Irrigated land: 
181,020 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US
is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of
fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and
fertilizers; sparse water resources in much of the western part of the
country requires careful management; desertification
natural hazards: 
tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin;
hurricanes along the Atlantic coast; tornadoes in the midwest;
mudslides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding;
permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
Hazardous Wastes
Note: 
world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China)

@United States, People

Population: 
260,713,585 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.99% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.2 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.9 years 
male: 
72.58 years 
female: 
79.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.06 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
American(s) 
adjective: 
American 
Ethnic divisions: 
white 83.4%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Native American 0.8% (1992)
Religions: 
Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%, none 10%
(1989)
Languages: 
English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1991)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
97% 
Labor force: 
129.525 million (includes armed forces and unemployed); civilian labor
force 128.040 million) (1993)
by occupation: 
managerial and professional 27.1%; technical, sales and administrative
support 30.9%; services 13.8%; manufacturing, mining, transportation,
and crafts 25.5%; farming, forestry, and fishing 2.8%

@United States, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
United States of America 
conventional short form: 
United States 
Abbreviation: 
US or USA 
Digraph: 
US
Type: 
federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Capital: 
Washington, DC 
Administrative divisions: 
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas,
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*,
Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia,
Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areas: 
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island,
Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake
Island 
note: 
since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political
relationship with three of the four political units; the Northern
Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth in political union with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free
Association with the US that was approved by the US Congress but to
date the Compact process has not been completed in Palau, which
continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands; the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact
of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the
Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association
with the US (effective 21 October 1986)
Independence: 
4 July 1776 (from England)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 4 July (1776) 
Constitution: 
17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789
Legal system: 
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993); election last held
3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996); results - William
Jefferson CLINTON (Democratic Party) 43.2%, George BUSH (Republican
Party) 37.7%, Ross PEROT (Independent) 19.0%, other 0.1%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president with Senate approval
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Congress
Senate: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 8 November 1994);
results - Democratic Party 53%, Republican Party 47%, other NEGL%;
seats - (100 total) Democratic Party 57, Republican Party 43
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 8 November 1994);
results - Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 46%, other 2%; seats
- (435 total) Democratic Party 258, Republican Party 176, Independent
1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Republican Party, Haley BARBOUR, national committee chairman; Jeanie
AUSTIN, co-chairman; Democratic Party, David C. WILHELM, national
committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political
significance
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC,
COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, ESCAP, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8,
G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UN Security Council,
UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
ZC 
Flag: 
thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating
with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset
horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of
five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes
represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including
Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

@United States, Economy

Overview: 
The US has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced
economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $24,700, the largest
among major industrial nations. The economy is market oriented with
most decisions made by private individuals and business firms and with
government purchases of goods and services made predominantly in the
marketplace. In 1989 the economy enjoyed its seventh successive year
of substantial growth, the longest in peacetime history. The expansion
featured moderation in wage and consumer price increases and a steady
reduction in unemployment to 5.2% of the labor force. In 1990,
however, growth slowed to 1% because of a combination of factors, such
as the worldwide increase in interest rates, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
in August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and a general decline
in business and consumer confidence. In 1991 output fell by 1%,
unemployment grew, and signs of recovery proved premature. Growth
picked up to 2.6% in 1992 and to 3.0% in 1993. Unemployment, however,
declined only gradually, the increase in GDP being mainly attributable
to gains in output per worker. Ongoing economic problems for the
remainder of the 1990s include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and
trade deficits.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.379 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$24,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
6% (May 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.1535 trillion 
expenditures: 
$1.4082 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$449 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials,
consumer goods, agricultural products
partners: 
Western Europe 24.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 10.5% (1993 est.)
Imports: 
$582 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles,
consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages
partners: 
Canada, 19.3%, Western Europe 18.1%, Japan 18.1% (1993 est.)
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.6% (1993); accounts for 23% of GDP (1991)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
780,000,000 kW
production: 
3.23 trillion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
12,690 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and
technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace,
telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer
goods, lumber, mining
Agriculture: 
accounts for 2% of GDP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and
soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock production;
world's second largest producer and number one exporter of grain;
surplus food producer; fish catch of 4.4 million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987
production estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the
available marijuana; ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots
and greenhouses has not reduced production
Economic aid: 
donor: 
commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89), $115.7 billion 
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
British pounds: 
(#) per US$ - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6033 (1993), 0.5664 (1992),
0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989)
Canadian dollars: 
(Can$) per US$ - 1.3174 (January 1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992),
1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989)
French francs: 
(F) per US$ - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992),
5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Italian lire: 
(Lit) per US$ - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4
(1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1.372.1 (1989)
Japanese yen: 
(Y) per US$ - 111.51 (January 1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992),
134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989)
German deutsche marks: 
(DM) per US$ - 1.7431 (January 1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992),
1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@United States, Communications

Railroads: 
240,000 km of mainline routes, all standard 1.435 meter track, no
government ownership (1989)
Highways: 
total: 
6,243,163 km 
paved: 
3,633,520 km (including 84,865 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
2,609,643 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes
(est.)
Pipelines: 
petroleum 276,000 km; natural gas 331,000 km (1991)
Ports: 
Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Chicago,
Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu,
Houston, Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond
(California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington
Merchant marine: 
385 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,567,000 GRT/19,511,000 DWT,
bulk 23, cargo 36, intermodal 128, liquefied gas 13, passenger-cargo
3, tanker 169, tanker tug-barge 13 
note: 
in addition, there are 219 government-owned vessels
Airports: 
total: 
14,177 
usable: 
12,417 
with permanent-surface runways: 
4,820 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
63 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
325 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
2,524 
Telecommunications: 
126,000,000 telephone access lines; 7,557,000 cellular phone
subscribers; broadcast stations - 4,987 AM, 4,932 FM, 1,092 TV; about
9,000 TV cable systems; 530,000,000 radio sets and 193,000,000 TV sets
in use; 16 satellites and 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite
ground stations - 45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT (1990)

@United States, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine
Corps), Department of the Air Force 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $315.5 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1992)


@Uruguay, Geography

Location: 
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between
Argentina and Brazil
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
176,220 sq km 
land area: 
173,620 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Washington State
Land boundaries: 
total 1,564 km, Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km 
Coastline: 
660 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short
sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute - Arroyo de la
Invernada (Arroio Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at
the confluence of the Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the Uruguay River
Climate: 
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain: 
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Natural resources: 
soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
78% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
1,100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Uruguay, People

Population: 
3,198,910 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.75% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
17.7 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
17.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.09 years 
male: 
70.88 years 
female: 
77.47 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Uruguayan(s) 
adjective: 
Uruguayan 
Ethnic divisions: 
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 66% (less than half adult population attends church
regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other 30% 
Languages: 
Spanish, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
96% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
96% 
Labor force: 
1.355 million (1991 est.)
by occupation: 
government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%, commerce 12%,
utilities, construction, transport, and communications 12%, other
services 21% (1988 est.)

@Uruguay, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Oriental Republic of Uruguay 
conventional short form: 
Uruguay 
local long form: 
Republica Oriental del Uruguay 
local short form: 
Uruguay 
Digraph: 
UY
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Montevideo 
Administrative divisions: 
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas,
Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja,
Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San
Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence: 
25 August 1828 (from Brazil)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 25 August (1828) 
Constitution: 
27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new
constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980
Legal system: 
based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President
Gonzalo AGUIRRE Ramirez (since 1 March 1990); election last held 26
November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results - Luis
Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (Colorado)
29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General)
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): 
elections last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space
7%; seats - (30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space
2
Chamber of Representatives (Camera de Representantes): 
elections last held NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space
8%, other 1%; seats - (99 total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National (Blanco) Party; Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE; Broad Front
Coalition, Gen. Liber SEREGNI Mosquera; New Space Coalition, Hugo
BATALLA
Member of: 
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNTAC,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLYCUDDY 
chancery: 
1918 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20006 
telephone: 
telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles, Miami, and New York 
consulate(s): 
New Orleans 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Thomas DODD 
embassy: 
Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 
mailing address: 
APO AA 34035 
telephone: 
[598] (2) 23-60-61 or 48-77-77 
FAX: 
[598] (2) 48-86-11 
Flag: 
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating
with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with
a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays
alternately triangular and wavy

@Uruguay, Economy

Overview: 
Uruguay is a small economy with favorable climate, good soils, and
solid hydropower potential. Economic development has been held back by
excessive government regulation of economic detail and 50% to 130%
inflation. After several years of sluggish growth, real GDP jumped by
about 7.5% in 1992. The rise is attributable mainly to an increase in
Argentine demand for Uruguayan exports, particularly agricultural
products and electricity. In a major step toward greater regional
economic cooperation, Uruguay in 1991 had joined Brazil, Argentina,
and Paraguay in forming the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur). A
referendum in December 1992 overturned key portions of landmark
privatization legislation, dealing a serious blow to President
LACALLE's broad economic reform plan. Hampered by a slowdown in the
agricultural sector, the economy grew at only 2% in 1993 compared with
7.5% in 1992. Although inflation declined for the second consecutive
year, a surge in the money supply, rising food prices, a record trade
deficit, and an increase in the government deficit toward the end of
the year foreshadowed troubles ahead in 1994.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$6,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
50% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
8.8% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$3 billion, including capital expenditures of $388 million (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
wool and textile manufactures, beef and other animal products,
leather, rice
partners: 
Brazil, Argentina, US, China, Italy
Imports: 
$2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, minerals, plastics
partners: 
Brazil, Argentina, US, Nigeria
External debt: 
$4.2 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.2% (1992 est.), accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,168,000 kW
production: 
5.96 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,900 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather
apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine
Agriculture: 
accounts for 12% of GDP; large areas devoted to livestock grazing;
wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $420
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million 
Currency: 
1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos
Exchange rates: 
Uruguayan pesos ($Ur) per US$1 - 4.4710 (January 1994), 3.9484 (1993);
new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1 - 3,457.5 (December 1992), 3,026.9
(1992), 2,489 (1991), 1,594 (1990), 805 (1989)
note: 
on 1 March 1993 the former New Peso (N$Ur) was replaced as Uruguay's
unit of currency by the Peso which is equal to 1,000 of the New Pesos;
consequently there is a major change in the peso/dollar exchange rate
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Uruguay, Communications

Railroads: 
3,000 km, all 1.435-meter (standard) gauge and government owned
Highways: 
total: 
49,900 km 
paved: 
6,700 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 3,000 km; earth 40,200 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft
Ports: 
Montevideo, Punta del Este, Colonia
Merchant marine: 
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,797 GRT/132,296 DWT, cargo 1,
container 2, oil tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
87 
usable: 
80 
with permanent-surface runways: 
16 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
14 
Telecommunications: 
most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide
microwave network; 337,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 99 AM, no
FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Uruguay, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, Marines), Air Force,
Grenadier Guards, Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 765,490; fit for military service 621,629 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $216 million, 2.3% of GDP (1991 est.)


@Uzbekistan, Geography

Location: 
Central Asia, bordering the Aral Sea, between Kazakhstan and
Turkmenistan
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
447,400 sq km 
land area: 
425,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: 
total 6,221 km, Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan
1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km 
Coastline: 
0 km 
note: 
Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of
Caspian Sea from shore
Climate: 
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid
grassland in east
Terrain: 
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely
irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya and Sirdaryo Rivers;
Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and
Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Natural resources: 
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and
zinc, tungsten, molybdenum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
47% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
42% 
Irrigated land: 
41,550 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of
chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown
from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to
desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes is the cause
of many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil
contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer
Protection
Note: 
landlocked

@Uzbekistan, People

Population: 
22,608,866 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.13% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
30.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.51 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
53.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.58 years 
male: 
65.28 years 
female: 
72.04 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.73 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Uzbek(s) 
adjective: 
Uzbek 
Ethnic divisions: 
Uzbek 71.4%, Russian 8.3%, Tajik 4.7%, Kazakh 4.1%, Tatar 2.4%,
Karakalpak 2.1%, other 7% 
Religions: 
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3% 
Languages: 
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1% 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
8.234 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and forestry 43%, industry and construction 22%, other 35%
(1992)

@Uzbekistan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Uzbekistan 
conventional short form: 
Uzbekistan 
local long form: 
Uzbekiston Respublikasi 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
UZ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Tashkent (Toshkent) 
Administrative divisions: 
12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat), 1 autonomous republic*
(respublikasi, singular - respublika), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon
Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati,
Karakalpakstan* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm
Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand
Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati
(Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
note: 
an administrative division has the same name as its administrative
center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in
parentheses)
Independence: 
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 September (1991) 
Constitution: 
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system: 
evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Islam KARIMOV (since NA March 1990); election last held 29
December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1996); results - Islam
KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Abdulkhashim MUTALOV (since 13 January 1992), First
Deputy Prime Minister Ismail Hakimovitch DJURABEKOV (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president with approval of the
Supreme Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme Soviet: 
elections last held 18 February 1990 (next to be held winter 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (500 total) Communist
450, ERK 10, other 40; note - total number of seats will be reduced to
250 in next election
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's Democratic Party (PDP; formerly Communist Party), Islam A.
KARIMOV, chairman; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party (EDP), Muhammad
SOLIKH, chairman (in exile); note - ERK was banned 9 December 1992
Other political or pressure groups: 
Birlik (Unity) People's Movement (BPM), Abdul Rakhim PULATOV, chairman
(in exile); Islamic Rebirth Party (IRP), Abdullah UTAYEV, chairman
note: 
PULATOV (BPM) and SOLIKH (EDP) are both in exile in the West; UTAYEV
(IRP) is either in prison or in exile
Member of: 
CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Fatikh TESHABAYEV 
chancery: 
Suites 619 and 623, 1511 K Street NW, Washington DC, 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 638-4266/4267 
FAX: 
(202) 638-4268 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Henry L. CLARKE 
embassy: 
82 Chelanzanskaya, Tashkent 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[7] (3712) 77-14-07, 77-11-32 
FAX: 
[7] (3712) 77-69-53 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated
by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper
hoist-side quadrant

@Uzbekistan, Economy

Overview: 
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 20% is intensely
cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It is one of the poorest states
of the former USSR with 60% of its population living in overpopulated
rural communities. Nevertheless, Uzbekistan is the world's third
largest cotton exporter, a major producer of gold and natural gas, and
a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Since
independence, the government has sought to prop up the Soviet-style
command economy with subsidies and tight controls on prices and
production. Such policies have buffered the economy from the sharp
declines in output and high inflation experienced by many other former
Soviet republics. By late 1993, however, they had become increasingly
unsustainable as inflation soared and Russia forced the Uzbek
Government to introduce its own currency. Faced with mounting economic
problems, the government has increased its cooperation with
international financial institutions, announced an acceleration of
privatization, and stepped up efforts to attract foreign investors.
Nevertheless, the regime is likely to resist full-fledged market
reforms.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53.7 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Uzbek statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-3.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,430 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
18% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
0.2% includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of
underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$706.5 million to outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals,
textiles, food products
partners: 
Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, US
Imports: 
$947.3 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other foods
partners: 
principally other FSU countries, Czech Republic
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -7% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
11,950,000 kW
production: 
50.9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,300 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas
Agriculture: 
livestock, cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as
transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
$125 million by yearend 1993; future commitments for about $500
million
Currency: 
introduced provisional som-coupons 10 November 1993 which circulated
parallel to the Russian rubles; became the sole legal currency 31
January 1994; will be replaced in July 1994 by the som currency
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Uzbekistan, Communications

Railroads: 
3,460 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
78,400 km 
paved and gravel: 
67,000 km 
unpaved: 
earth 11,400 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
265 
usable: 
74 
with permanent-surface runways: 
30 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
20 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
19 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
poorly developed; 1,458,000 telephone circuits with 68.75 circuits per
1,000 persons (1991); linked by landline or microwave with CIS member
states and by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway
switch to other countries; new INTELSAT links to Tokyo and Ankara give
Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian facilities;
satellite earth stations - Orbita and INTELSAT; NMT-450 analog
cellular network established in Tashkent

@Uzbekistan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 5,388,456; fit for military service 4,403,497; reach
military age (18) annually 222,405 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Vanuatu, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Melanesia, 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South
Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and
Australia
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
14,760 sq km 
land area: 
14,760 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Connecticut
note: 
includes more than 80 islands
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
2,528 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds
Terrain: 
mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
Natural resources: 
manganese, hardwood forests, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
2% 
forest and woodland: 
1% 
other: 
91% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism
causes minor earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Dumping, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

@Vanuatu, People

Population: 
169,776 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.29% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.31 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
68.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
59.25 years 
male: 
57.51 years 
female: 
61.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.31 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Ni-Vanuatu 
Ethnic divisions: 
indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, Vietnamese, Chinese, Pacific
Islanders 
Religions: 
Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs
7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7% 
Languages: 
English (official), French (official), pidgin (known as Bislama or
Bichelama) 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1979)
total population: 
53% 
male: 
57% 
female: 
48% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
NA

@Vanuatu, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Vanuatu 
conventional short form: 
Vanuatu 
former: 
New Hebrides 
Digraph: 
NH
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Port-Vila 
Administrative divisions: 
11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi,
Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea
Independence: 
30 July 1980 (from France and UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 30 July (1980) 
Constitution: 
30 July 1980
Legal system: 
unified system being created from former dual French and British
systems
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Jean Marie LEYE (since 2 March 1994) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Maxime CARLOT Korman (since 16 December 1991); Deputy
Prime Minister Sethy REGENVANU (since 17 December 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, responsible to
parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held by November
1995); note - after election, a coalition was formed by the Union of
Moderate Parties and the National United Party to form a new
government on 16 December 1991, but political party associations are
fluid; seats - (46 total) UMP 19; NUP 10; VP 10; MPP 4; TUP 1;
Nagriamel 1; Friend 1
note: 
the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Vanuatu Party (VP), Donald KALPOKAS; Union of Moderate Parties (UMP),
Serge VOHOR; Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP), Barak SOPE; National
United Party (NUP), Walter LINI; Tan Union Party (TUP), Vincent
BOULEKONE; Nagriamel Party, Jimmy STEVENS; Friend Melanesian Party,
leader NA
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Vanuatu does not have a mission in the US
US diplomatic representation: 
the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black
isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a
black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two
points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle);
centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed
namele leaves, all in yellow

@Vanuatu, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming which provides a
living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the
other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the
country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector
caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import
duties.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $142 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$1,050 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$90 million 
expenditures: 
$103 million, including capital expenditures of $45 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$14.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
copra, beef, cocoa, timber, coffee
partners: 
Netherlands, Japan, France, New Caledonia, Belgium
Imports: 
$74 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
machines and vehicles, food and beverages, basic manufactures, raw
materials and fuels, chemicals
partners: 
Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 8%
External debt: 
$38 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 8.1% (1990); accounts for about 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
17,000 kW
production: 
30 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
180 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Agriculture: 
accounts for 40% of GDP; export crops - coconuts, cocoa, coffee, fish;
subsistence crops - taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, vegetables
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $606 million 
Currency: 
1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
vatu (VT) per US$1 - 123.48 (September 1993), 113.39 (1992), 111.68
(1991), 116.57 (1990), 116.04 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Vanuatu, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
1,027 km 
paved: 
240 km 
unpaved: 
787 km 
Ports: 
Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo
Merchant marine: 
131 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,992,201 GRT/2,909,381 DWT,
bulk 57, cargo 23, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container 5,
liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 8, passenger 1,
refrigerated cargo 19, vehicle carrier 11 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
31 
usable: 
31 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT ground station

@Vanuatu, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Vanuatu Police Force (VPF), paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF)
note: 
no military forces
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Venezuela, Geography

Location: 
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Colombia
and Guyana
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
912,050 sq km 
land area: 
882,050 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries: 
total 4,993 km, Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km 
Coastline: 
2,800 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
15 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River; maritime boundary
dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: 
Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains
(llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals,
hydropower, diamonds 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
39% 
other: 
37% 
Irrigated land: 
2,640 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago
de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial
pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast
natural hazards: 
subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping
Note: 
on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

@Venezuela, People

Population: 
20,562,405 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.16% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73 years 
male: 
70.12 years 
female: 
76.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.05 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Venezuelan(s) 
adjective: 
Venezuelan 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2% 
Religions: 
nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
88% 
male: 
87% 
female: 
90% 
Labor force: 
5.8 million 
by occupation: 
services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16% (1985)

@Venezuela, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Venezuela 
conventional short form: 
Venezuela 
local long form: 
Republica de Venezuela 
local short form: 
Venezuela 
Digraph: 
VE
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Caracas 
Administrative divisions: 
21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* (territorio), 1
federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence***
(dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas,
Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales***,
Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas,
Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: 
the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island
groups with a total of 72 individual islands
Independence: 
5 July 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 5 July (1811) 
Constitution: 
23 January 1961
Legal system: 
based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in
Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Rafael CALDERA Rodriquez (since 2 February 1994); election
last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998); results -
Rafael CALDERA (National Convergence) 30.45%, Claudio FERMIN (AD)
23.59%, Oswaldo ALVAREZ PAZ (COPEI) 22.72%, Andres VELASQUEZ (Causa R)
21.94%, other 1.3%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica)
Senate (Senado): 
elections last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (52 total) AD 18, COPEI
15, Causa R 9, MAS 5, National Convergence 5; note - 3 former
presidents (2 from AD, 1 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate seats
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
elections last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998);
results - AD 27.9%, COPEI 26.9%, MAS 12.4%, National Convergence
12.9%, Causa R 19.9%; seats - (201 total) AD 55, COPEI 53, MAS 24,
National Convergence 26, Causa R 40, other 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) Gonzalo RODRIGUEZ
Corro, President
Political parties and leaders: 
National Convergence (Convergencia), Jose Miguel UZCATEGUI, director;
Social Christian Party (COPEI), Hilarion CARDOZO, president, and Jose
CURIEL, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD), Pedro PARIS
Montesinos, president, and Luis ALFARO Ucero, secretary general;
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and Freddy
MUNOZ, secretary general; Radical Cause (La Causa R), Pablo MEDINA,
secretary general
Other political or pressure groups: 
FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; Venezuelan Confederation
of Workers (CTV, labor organization dominated by the Democratic
Action); VECINOS groups
Member of: 
AG, BCIE, CARICOM (observer), CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-15,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Pedro Luis ECHEVERRIA 
chancery: 
1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 342-2214 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW 
embassy: 
Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta,
Caracas 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO AA 34037 
telephone: 
[58] (2) 285-2222 
FAX: 
[58] (2) 285-0336 
consulate(s): 
Maracaibo (closed March 1994) 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the
coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven
white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

@Venezuela, Economy

Overview: 
Petroleum is the backbone of the economy, accounting for 23% of GDP,
61% of central government ordinary revenues, and 77% of export
earnings in 1993. Former President PEREZ introduced an economic
readjustment program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower
tariffs and the removal of price controls, a free market exchange
rate, and market-linked interest rates threw the economy into
confusion, causing an 8% decline in GDP in 1989. The economy recovered
part way in 1990 and grew by 9.7% in 1991 and 6.8% in 1992; economic
activity fell by 1% in 1993, primarily because of business concerns
over political instability.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $161 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$8,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
46% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
8.2% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$9.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$11.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $103 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$14.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum 77%, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, agricultural
products, basic manufactures
partners: 
US and Puerto Rico 42%, Japan, Netherlands, Italy
Imports: 
$11 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment,
construction materials
partners: 
US 50%, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Canada
External debt: 
$28.5 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.1% (1992 est.); accounts for 40% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
21,130,000 kW
production: 
58.541 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,830 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing,
textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly
Agriculture: 
accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products - corn,
sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork,
milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug
trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine transit
the country from Colombia; important money-laundering hub
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $10 million 
Currency: 
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 107.260 (January 1994), 90.826 (1993), 68.38
(1992), 56.82 (1991), 46.90 (1990), 34.68 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Venezuela, Communications

Railroads: 
542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single track,
government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned
Highways: 
total: 
81,000 km 
paved: 
31,200 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 24,800 km; earth and unimproved earth 25,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels
Pipelines: 
crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km 
Ports: 
Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Puerto
Ordaz
Merchant marine: 
47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 741,688 GRT/1,204,233 DWT, bulk
4, cargo 16, combination bulk 1, container 1, liquefied gas 2, oil
tanker 17, passenger cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea
passenger 1 
Airports: 
total: 
425 
usable: 
392 
with permanent-surface runways: 
139 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
15 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
92 
Telecommunications: 
modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 181
AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite
ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

@Venezuela, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales, FAN) includes -
Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval Forces
(Fuerzas Navales or Armada), Air Forces (Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion),
Armed Forces of Cooperation or National Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de
Cooperation or Guardia Nacional)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 5,341,855; fit for military service 3,875,523; reach
military age (18) annually 224,550 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.95 billion, 4% of GDP (1991)


@Vietnam, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Laos and the
Philippines
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
329,560 sq km 
land area: 
325,360 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 3,818 km, Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km 
Coastline: 
3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex
dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines,
Taiwan, and possibly Brunei; unresolved maritime boundary with
Thailand; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan
Climate: 
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May
to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Terrain: 
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly,
mountainous in far north and northwest
Natural resources: 
phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits,
forests 
Land use: 
arable land: 
22% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
40% 
other: 
35% 
Irrigated land: 
18,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing
threatening marine life populations
natural hazards: 
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

@Vietnam, People

Population: 
73,103,898 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.78% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
27.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.76 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
45.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.41 years 
male: 
63.37 years 
female: 
67.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Vietnamese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Vietnamese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Vietnamese 85-90%, Chinese 3%, Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham 
Religions: 
Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic,
Protestant 
Languages: 
Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal
languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
88% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
83% 
Labor force: 
32.7 million 
by occupation: 
agricultural 65%, industrial and service 35% (1990 est.)

@Vietnam, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Socialist Republic of Vietnam 
conventional short form: 
Vietnam 
local long form: 
Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam 
local short form: 
Viet Nam 
Abbreviation: 
SRV 
Digraph: 
VM
Type: 
Communist state 
Capital: 
Hanoi 
Administrative divisions: 
50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh
pho, singular and plural); An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Bac Thai, Ben
Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Lac, Dong Nai, Dong
Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Hung,
Hai Phong*, Ho Chi Minh*, Hoa Binh, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum,
Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe
An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang,
Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Song Be, Tay
Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen
Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai
Independence: 
2 September 1945 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 2 September (1945) 
Constitution: 
15 April 1992
Legal system: 
based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Le Duc ANH (since 23 September 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991); First Deputy Prime
Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 10 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
Nguyen KHANH (since NA February 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Tran Duc
LUONG (since NA February 1987) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on proposal of the prime minister
and ratification of the Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi): 
elections last held 19 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1997);
results - VCP is the only party; seats - (395 total) VCP or
VCP-approved 395
Judicial branch: 
Supreme People's Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
only party - Vietnam Communist Party (VCP), DO MUOI, general secretary
Member of: 
ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none; Ambassador Le Van BANG is the Permanent Representative to the UN
US diplomatic representation: 
none
Flag: 
red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

@Vietnam, Economy

Overview: 
Vietnam has made significant progress in recent years moving away from
the planned economic model toward a more effective market-based
economic system. Most prices are now fully decontrolled, and the
Vietnamese currency has been effectively devalued and floated at world
market rates. In addition, the scope for private sector activity has
been expanded, primarily through decollectivization of the
agricultural sector and introduction of laws giving legal recognition
to private business. Nearly three-quarters of export earnings are
generated by only two commodities, rice and crude oil. Led by industry
and construction, the economy did well in 1993 with output rising
perhaps 7%. However, the industrial sector remains burdened by
uncompetitive state-owned enterprises the government is unwilling or
unable to privatize. Unemployment looms as a serious problem with
roughly 25% of the workforce without jobs and with population growth
swelling the ranks of the unemployed yearly.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $72 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5.2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
25% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum, rice, agricultural products, marine products, coffee
partners: 
Japan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Germany, Indonesia
Imports: 
$3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum products, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals,
medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain
partners: 
Hong Kong, Japan, Indonesia, South Korea, Taiwan
External debt: 
$3.4 billion Western countries; $4.5 billion CEMA debts primarily to
Russia; $700 million commercial debts (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 15% (1992); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,300,000 kW
production: 
9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
130 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizer, glass, tires, oil
Agriculture: 
accounts for almost 40% of GDP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50%
of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea,
bananas) and animal products 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient in food
staple rice; fish catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)
Illicit drugs: 
minor opium producer and secondary transit point for Southeast Asian
heroin destined for the US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
$1.9 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for
1994, Japan largest contributor with $550 million
Currency: 
1 new dong (D) = 100 xu
Exchange rates: 
new dong (D) per US$1 - 10,800 (November 1993), 8,100 (July 1991),
7,280 (December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990); note - 1985-89 figures are
end of year
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Vietnam, Communications

Railroads: 
3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter (standard)
gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to
service after war damage
Highways: 
total: 
85,000 km 
paved: 
9,400 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 48,700 km; unimproved earth 26,900 km 
Inland waterways: 
17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by
vessels up to 1.8 meter draft
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 150 km 
Ports: 
Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City
Merchant marine: 
101 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 460,225 GRT/741,231 DWT, bulk
3, cargo 86, oil tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
100 
usable: 
100 
with permanent-surface runways: 
50 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
20 
Telecommunications: 
the inadequacies of the obsolete switching equipment and cable system
is a serious constraint on the business sector and on economic growth,
and restricts access to the international links that Vietnam has
established with most major countries; the telephone system is not
generally available for private use (25 telephones for each 10,000
persons); 3 satellite earth stations; broadcast stations - NA AM, 288
FM; 36 (77 repeaters) TV; about 2,500,000 TV receivers and 7,000,000
radio receivers in use (1991)

@Vietnam, Defense Forces

Branches: 
People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) including: 
Ground, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 18,281,483; fit for military service 11,602,318; reach
military age (17) annually 762,943 (1994 est.)

Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GNP


@Virgin Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Virgin Islands, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east and
southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
352 sq km 
land area: 
349 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
188 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low humidity,
little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
Terrain: 
mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Natural resources: 
sun, sand, sea, surf 
Land use: 
arable land: 
15% 
permanent crops: 
6% 
meadows and pastures: 
26% 
forest and woodland: 
6% 
other: 
47% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
lack of natural freshwater resources
natural hazards: 
rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts,
floods, earthquakes
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for
the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater
harbors in the Caribbean

@Virgin Islands, People

Population: 
97,564 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-0.52% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-19.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.29 years 
male: 
73.6 years 
female: 
77.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.53 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Virgin Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Virgin Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in
the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%;
black 80%, white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%
Religions: 
Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7% 
Languages: 
English (official), Spanish, Creole 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
45,500 (1988)
by occupation: 
tourism 70%

@Virgin Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Virgin Islands of the United States 
conventional short form: 
Virgin Islands 
Digraph: 
VQ
Type: 
organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior
Capital: 
Charlotte Amalie 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of the US)
National holiday: 
Transfer Day, 31 March (1917) (from Denmark to US) 
Constitution: 
Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system: 
based on US
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
Governor Alexander A. FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant
Governor Derek M. HODGE (since 5 January 1987); election last held 6
November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - Governor
Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) 56.5% defeated Juan LUIS
(independent) 38.5%
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Senate: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 2 November 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) number of
seats by party NA
US House of Representatives: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 2 November 1994);
results - Ron DE LUGO reelected as delegate; seats - (1 total); seat
by party NA; note - the Virgin Islands elect one representative to the
US House of Representatives
Judicial branch: 
US District Court: 
handles civil matters over $50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age
and over), and federal cases
Territorial Court: 
handles civil matters up to $50,000, small claims, juvenile, domestic,
misdemeanors, and traffic cases
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON; Independent Citizens' Movement
(ICM), Virdin C. BROWN; Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS
Member of: 
ECLAC (associate), IOC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large
blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding an
olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a
superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue
panel

@Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview: 
Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70%
of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists of
textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The
agricultural sector is small, most food being imported. International
business and financial services are a small but growing component of
the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at
Saint Croix.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.2 billion (1987)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$11,000 (1987)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
3.7% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$364.4 million 
expenditures: 
$364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports: 
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
refined petroleum products
partners: 
US, Puerto Rico
Imports: 
$3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
partners: 
US, Puerto Rico
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate 12% (year NA); accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
380,000 kW
production: 
565 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,710 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling,
construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Agriculture: 
truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum, Senepol
cattle
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $42 million 
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
856 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Saint Croix - Christiansted, Frederiksted; Saint Thomas - Long Bay,
Crown Bay, Red Hook; Saint John - Cruz Bay
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways : 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
note: 
international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix
Telecommunications: 
modern telephone system using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable,
microwave radio, and satellite facilities; 58,931 telephones; 98,000
radios; 63,000 TV sets in use; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 8 FM, 4 TV
(1988)

@Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Wake Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Wake Island, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km west of
Honolulu, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern
Mariana Islands
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
6.5 sq km 
land area: 
6.5 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
19.3 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano;
central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average
elevation less than 4 meters
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to occasional typhoons
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; emergency landing
location for transpacific flights

@Wake Island, People

Population: 
302 (July 1994 est.) 

@Wake Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Wake Island 
Digraph: 
WQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force
(under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June
1972; presently administered by Base Commander, Major James ANDEL
until August 1994, when Willis ALLEY will take over until July 1995
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC
Independence: 
none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
the US flag is used

@Wake Island, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military
personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity: 
supplied by US military

@Wake Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore anchorages for
large ships
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
satellite communications; 1 Autovon circuit off the Overseas Telephone
System (OTS); Armed Forces Radio/Television Service (AFRTS) radio and
television service provided by satellite; broadcast station - closed
early 1992.
Note: 
formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used by US
military, some commercial cargo planes, as well as the US Army Space
and Strategic Defense Command for missile launches

@Wake Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US


@Wallis and Futuna

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas territory of France) 

@Wallis and Futuna, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia in the South Pacific Ocean, 4,600 km southwest of
Honolulu, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
274 sq km 
land area: 
274 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: 
includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile
Alofi, and 20 islets
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
129 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May
to October)
Terrain: 
volcanic origin; low hills
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% 
permanent crops: 
20% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
75% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
both island groups have fringing reefs

@Wallis and Futuna, People

Population: 
14,338 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.13% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.74 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-9.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
26.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.72 years 
male: 
71.08 years 
female: 
72.4 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.23 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders 
adjective: 
Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)
Literacy: 
all ages can read and write (1969)
total population: 
50% 
male: 
50% 
female: 
51% 
Labor force: 
NA 
by occupation: 
agriculture, livestock, and fishing 80%, government 4% (est.)

@Wallis and Futuna, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands 
conventional short form: 
Wallis and Futuna 
local long form: 
Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna 
local short form: 
Wallis et Futuna 
Digraph: 
WF
Type: 
overseas territory of France 
Capital: 
Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea) 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas territory of France)
Independence: 
none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French legal system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
High Administrator Philippe LEGRIX (since NA); President of the
Territorial Assembly Soane Noni UHILA (since NA March 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of the Territory consists of 3 kings and 3 members appointed
by the high administrator on advice of the Territorial Assembly
note: 
there are three traditional kings with limited powers
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Territorial Assembly (Assemblee Territoriale): 
elections last held 15 March 1987 (next to be held NA March 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (20 total) RPR 7, UPL
5, UDF 4, UNF 4
French Senate: 
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPR 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1992 (next to be held by NA
September 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
total) MRG 1
Judicial branch: 
none; justice generally administered under French law by the chief
administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary
law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu
Political parties and leaders: 
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour
la Democratie Francaise (UDF); Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement
des Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)
Member of: 
FZ, SPC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@Wallis and Futuna, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with
about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture
(coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About
4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from
French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and
South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in
New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food, fuel, clothing,
machinery, and transport equipment, but its exports are negligible,
consisting of copra and handicrafts.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $25 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.7 million 
expenditures: 
$2.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1983 est.)
Exports: 
negligible
commodities: 
copra, handicrafts
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$13.3 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, fuel
partners: 
France, Australia, New Zealand
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,200 kW
production: 
1 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
70 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber
Agriculture: 
dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of yams, taro,
bananas, and herds of pigs and goats
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $118 million 
Currency: 
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
(January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.0
(1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc
Fiscal year: 
NA

@Wallis and Futuna, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
120 km (Ile Uvea 100 km, Ile Futuna 20km)
paved: 
16 km (on Il Uvea)
unpaved: 
104 km (Ile Uvea 84 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)
Inland waterways: 
none
Ports: 
Mata-Utu, Leava
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
225 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

@Wallis and Futuna, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@West Bank

Header
The war between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza
Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel withdrew
from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to a 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.
The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993,
provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of
Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West
Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no later
than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@West Bank, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, between Jordan and Israel
Map references: 
Middle East 
Area: 
total area: 
5,860 sq km 
land area: 
5,640 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Delaware
note: 
includes West Bank, East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's
Land, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt.
Scopus
Land boundaries: 
total 404 km, Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with interim status
subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations - final status to be
determined
Climate: 
temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to
hot summers, cool to mild winters
Terrain: 
mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in
east
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
27% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
32% 
forest and woodland: 
1% 
other: 
40% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal
aquifers; there are 200 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites
in the West Bank and 25 in East Jerusalem (April 1994)

@West Bank, People

Population: 
1,443,790 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
in addition, there are 110,500 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and
144,100 in East Jerusalem (1994 est.)
Population growth rate: 
2.68% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.11 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.39 years 
male: 
68.88 years 
female: 
71.98 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.2 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
NA 
adjective: 
NA 
Ethnic divisions: 
Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12% 
Religions: 
Muslim 80% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12%, Christian and other 8% 
Languages: 
Arabic, Hebrew spoken by Israeli settlers, English widely understood
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
construction 28.2%, agriculture 21.8%, industry 14.5%, commerce,
restaurants, and hotels 12.6%, other services 22.9% (1991)
note: 
excluding Jewish settlers

@West Bank, Government

Note: 
Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arragements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. The DOP provides that Israel
will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external
security and for internal security and public order of settlements and
Israelis. Final status is to be determined through direct negotiations
within five years.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
West Bank 
Digraph: 
WE

@West Bank, Economy

Overview: 
Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli
military administration and the effects of the Palestinian uprising
(intifadah). Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable
investment have been discouraged by a lack of local capital and
restrictive Israeli policies. Capital investment consists largely of
residential housing, not productive assets that would enable local
Palestinian firms to compete with Israeli industry. A major share of
GNP has traditionally been derived from remittances of workers
employed in Israel and Persian Gulf states. Such transfers from the
Gulf dropped after Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. In the wake of
the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned to the West
Bank, increasing unemployment, and export revenues have dropped
because of the decline of markets in Jordan and the Gulf states.
Israeli measures to curtail the intifadah also have added to
unemployment and lowered living standards. The area's economic
situation has worsened since Israel's partial closure of the
territories in 1993.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,050 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
12% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$43.4 million 
expenditures: 
$43.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports: 
$175 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
olives, fruit, vegetables
partners: 
Jordan, Israel
Imports: 
$775 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: 
Jordan, Israel
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1% (1991); accounts for about 6% of GNP
Electricity: 
power supplied by Israel
Industries: 
generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap,
olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and
industrial centers
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 23% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits,
vegetables, beef, and dairy products
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot; 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) =
1,000 fils
Exchange rates: 
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
(1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989);
Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7019 (February 1994), 0.6928
(1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@West Bank, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
note: 
small road network, Israelis developing east-west axial highways to
service new settlements
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded; broadcast
stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

@West Bank, Defense Forces

Branches: 
NA
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Western Sahara, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, along the Atlantic Ocean, between Morocco and
Mauritania
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
266,000 sq km 
land area: 
266,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries: 
total 2,046 km, Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km 
Coastline: 
1,110 km 
Maritime claims: 
contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue
International disputes: 
claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is unresolved and
the UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the
UN-administered cease-fire has been currently in effect since
September 1991
Climate: 
hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog
and heavy dew
Terrain: 
mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces
rising to small mountains in south and northeast
Natural resources: 
phosphates, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
19% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
81% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
sparse water and arable land
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and
spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely
restricting visibility
international agreements: 
NA 

@Western Sahara, People

Population: 
211,877 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.5% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
47.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
19.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
152.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
45.59 years 
male: 
44.66 years 
female: 
46.83 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.96 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s) 
adjective: 
Sahrawian, Sahraouian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab, Berber 
Religions: 
Muslim 
Languages: 
Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
12,000 
by occupation: 
animal husbandry and subsistence farming 50%

@Western Sahara, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Western Sahara 
Digraph: 
WI
Type: 
legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved;
territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for
the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in
February 1976 formally proclaimed a government in exile of the Sahrawi
Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned between Morocco
and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern
two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas,
abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to
occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted
administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was seated
as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically,
until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September 1991
Capital: 
none 
Administrative divisions: 
none (under de facto control of Morocco)
Executive branch: 
none 
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none
US diplomatic representation: 
none

@Western Sahara, Economy

Overview: 
Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having
little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of roughly $300. Pastoral
nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining are the principal sources of
income for the population. Most of the food for the urban population
must be imported. All trade and other economic activities are
controlled by the Moroccan Government.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $60 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$300 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.)
commodities: 
phosphates 62%
partners: 
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
Imports: 
$30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.)
commodities: 
fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners: 
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
60,000 kW
production: 
79 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
425 kWh (1989)
Industries: 
phosphate mining, fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
limited largely to subsistence agriculture; some barley is grown in
nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases;
food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the
nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.669 (January 1994), 9.299 (1993),
8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
NA

@Western Sahara, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
6,200 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 1,450 km; improved, unimproved earth, tracks 4,750 km 
Ports: 
El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla
Airports: 
total: 
14 
usable: 
14 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system by microwave
radio relay, troposcatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

@Western Sahara, Defense Forces

Branches: 
NA
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Western Samoa, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,860 sq km 
land area: 
2,850 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
403 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)
Terrain: 
narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in
interior
Natural resources: 
hardwood forests, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
19% 
permanent crops: 
24% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
47% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion
natural hazards: 
subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change,
Law of the Sea

@Western Samoa, People

Population: 
204,447 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.38% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.02 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
37 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.97 years 
male: 
65.59 years 
female: 
70.48 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.16 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Western Samoan(s) 
adjective: 
Western Samoan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian
blood), Europeans 0.4% 
Religions: 
Christian 99.7% (about half of population associated with the London
Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic,
Methodist, Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages: 
Samoan (Polynesian), English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
97% 
Labor force: 
38,000 
by occupation: 
agriculture 22,000 (1987 est.)

@Western Samoa, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Independent State of Western Samoa 
conventional short form: 
Western Samoa 
Digraph: 
WS
Type: 
constitutional monarchy under native chief
Capital: 
Apia 
Administrative divisions: 
11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga,
Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti,
Vaisigano
Independence: 
1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New Zealand)
National holiday: 
National Day, 1 June (1962) 
Constitution: 
1 January 1962
Legal system: 
based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of
legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal, but only matai (head of family) are able
to run for the Legislative Assembly
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Chief Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State from 1 January
1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April 1988) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the head of state with the prime minister's
advice
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Fono): 
elections last held 5 April 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) HRPP 28, SNDP 18,
independents 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), TOFILAU Eti Alesana, chairman;
Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman
Member of: 
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Neroni SLADE 
chancery: 
820 Second Avenue, Suite 800, New York, NY 10017 
telephone: 
(212) 599-6196 or 6197 
FAX: 
(212) 972-3970 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa 
embassy: 
5th floor, Beach Road, Apia 
mailing address: 
P.O. Box 3430, Apia 
telephone: 
(685) 21-631 
FAX: 
(685) 22-030 
Flag: 
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing
five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross
constellation

@Western Samoa, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force, contributes 50%
to GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings
comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends on
emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports
much greater than export earnings. Tourism has become the most
important growth industry, and construction of the first international
hotel is under way. The economy continued to falter in 1993, as
remittances and tourist earnings fell off. A fungal plant disease
severely damaged the taro crop, the primary food and export crop.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $400 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-4.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$95.3 million 
expenditures: 
$95.4 million, including capital expenditures of $41 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$5.7 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
coconut oil and cream, taro, copra, cocoa
partners: 
New Zealand 34%, American Samoa 21%, Germany 18%, Australia 11%
Imports: 
$11.5 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%
partners: 
New Zealand 37%, Australia 25%, Japan 11%, Fiji 9%
External debt: 
$83 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -0.3% (1992 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
29,000 kW
production: 
45 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
240 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
timber, tourism, food processing, fishing
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including bananas,
taro, yams)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $306
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million 
Currency: 
1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene
Exchange rates: 
tala (WS$) per US$1 - 2.5920 (January 1994), 2.5681 (1993), 2.4655
(1992), 2.3975 (1991), 2.3095 (1990), 2.2686 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Western Samoa, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,042 km 
paved: 
375 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 1,667 km 
Ports: 
Apia
Merchant marine: 
1 roll on/roll off cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,838
GRT/5,536 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
7,500 telephones; 70,000 radios; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no
TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground station

@Western Samoa, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Department of Police and Prisons 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@World, Geography

Map references: 
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
510.072 million sq km 
land area: 
148.94 million sq km 
water area: 
361.132 million sq km 
comparative area: 
land area about 16 times the size of the US
note: 
70.8% of the world is water, 29.2% is land
Land boundaries: 
the land boundaries in the world total 250,883.64 km (not counting
shared boundaries twice)
Coastline: 
356,000 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm claimed by most but can vary
continental shelf: 
200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of exploitation, others claim
200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm claimed by most but can vary
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm claimed by most but can vary
territorial sea: 
12 nm claimed by most but can vary
note: 
boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many countries
from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm; 42
nations and other areas that are landlocked include Afghanistan,
Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czech
Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malawi, Mali,
Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino,
Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
Climate: 
two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow
temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical
climates
Terrain: 
highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest depression
is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth is
the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters
Natural resources: 
the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of
forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species,
and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern
Europe and the former USSR) pose serious long-term problems that
governments and peoples are only beginning to address 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
24% 
forest and woodland: 
31% 
other: 
34% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution
(air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation
(overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil
degradation, soil depletion, erosion
natural hazards: 
large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural
disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)
international agreements: 
20 selected international environmental agreements included under the
Environment entry for each country and in Appendix E: Selected
International Environmental Agreements

@World, People

Population: 
5,643,289,771 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.5% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
65 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
62 years 
male: 
61 years 
female: 
64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.1 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.);
total population: 
82% 
male: 
68% 
female: 
75% 
Labor force: 
2.24 billion (1992)
by occupation: 
NA

@World, Government

Digraph: 
XX
Administrative divisions: 
265 sovereign nations, dependent areas, other, and miscellaneous
entries
Legal system: 
varies by individual country; 182 are parties to the United Nations
International Court of Justice (ICJ or World Court)

@World, Economy

Overview: 
Real global output - gross world product (GWP) - rose roughly 2% in
1993, with results varying widely among regions and countries. Average
growth of 1% in the GDP of industrialized countries (57% of GWP in
1993) and average growth of 6% in the GDP of less developed countries
(37% of GWP) were partly offset by a further 10% drop in the GDP of
the former USSR/Eastern Europe area (now only 6% of GWP). Within the
industrialized world the US posted a 3% growth rate whereas both Japan
and the 12-member European Union (formerly the European Community) had
zero growth. With the notable exception of Japan at 2.5%, unemployment
was typically 6-11% in the industrial world. The US accounted for 22%
of GWP in 1993; Western Europe accounted for 22.5%; and Japan
accounted for 9%. These are the three "economic superpowers" which are
presumably destined to compete for mastery in international markets on
into the 21st century. As for the less developed countries, China,
India, and the Four Dragons--South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and
Singapore--once again posted good records; however, many other
countries, especially in Africa, continued to suffer from drought,
rapid population growth, inflation, and civil strife. Central Europe,
especially Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, made considerable
progress in moving toward "market-friendly" economies, whereas the 15
ex-Soviet countries typically experienced further declines in output
of 10-15%. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock
economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over
international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology.
Internally, the central government in a number of cases is losing
control over resources as separatist regional movements - typically
based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in the successor states of
the former Soviet Union, in former Yugoslavia, and in India. In
Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of
channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase
investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition
of nearly 100 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe
is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification,
underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal
problems, the industrialized countries have inadequate resources to
deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least
from the economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized.
(For the specific economic problems of each country, see the
individual country entries in this volume.)
National product: 
GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power equivalent - $29 trillion
(1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
developed countries: 
5% (1993 est.)
developing countries: 
50% (1993 est.)
note: 
these figures vary widely in individual cases
Unemployment rate: 
developed countries typically 6%-11%; developing countries, extensive
unemployment and underemployment (1993)
Exports: 
$3.64 trillion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners: 
in value, about 75% of exports from the developed countries
Imports: 
$3.82 trillion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners: 
in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries
External debt: 
$1 trillion for less developed countries (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1% (1992 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,864,000,000 kW
production: 
11.45 trillion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,150 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
industry worldwide is dominated by the onrush of technology,
especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines
and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD
nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in
rapidly adjusting to these technological forces, and the technological
gap between the industrial nations and the less-developed countries
continues to widen; the rapid development of new industrial (and
agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental
problems
Agriculture: 
the production of major food crops has increased substantially in the
last 20 years; the annual production of cereals, for instance, has
risen by 50%, from about 1.2 billion metric tons to about 1.8 billion
metric tons; production increases have resulted mainly from increased
yields rather than increases in planted areas; while global production
is sufficient for aggregate demand, about one-fifth of the world's
population remains malnourished, primarily because local production
cannot adequately provide for large and rapidly growing populations,
which are too poor to pay for food imports; conditions are especially
bad in Africa where drought in recent years has intensified the
consequences of overpopulation
Economic aid: 
$NA

@World, Communications

Railroads: 
239,430 km of narrow gauge track; 710,754 km of standard gauge track;
251,153 km of broad gauge track; includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km
of electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in
the Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and only
4,160 km in North America; fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr
attained by France's SNCF TGV-Atlantique line
Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Mina' al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille,
New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama
Merchant marine: 
23,943 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 397,225,000 GRT/652,025,000
DWT, bulk carrier 5,473, freighter 12,581, passenger-cargo 347, tanker
5,542 (all data as of January 1992)

@World, Defense Forces

Branches: 
ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology
Defense expenditures: 
somewhat less than $1.0 trillion, 3% of total world output; decline of
5%-10% (1993 est.)


@Yemen, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, along the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, south of Saudi
Arabia
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
527,970 sq km 
land area: 
527,970 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
note: 
includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North
Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or
South Yemen)
Land boundaries: 
total 1,746 km, Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km 
Coastline: 
1,906 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
continental shelf: 
200-m depth in the North; 200 nm in the South or to the edge of the
continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia; a treaty with Oman
defining the Yemeni-Omani boundary was ratified in December 1992
Climate: 
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western
mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry,
harsh desert in east
Terrain: 
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains;
dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert
interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Natural resources: 
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits of coal, gold,
lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
30% 
forest and woodland: 
7% 
other: 
57% 
Irrigated land: 
3,100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
scarcity of natural freshwater resources (shortages of potable water);
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
subject to sandstorms and dust storms in summer
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of
Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

@Yemen, People

Population: 
11,105,202 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.34% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
50.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
14.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
112.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
51.47 years 
male: 
50.34 years 
female: 
52.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
7.2 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Yemeni(s) 
adjective: 
Yemeni 
Ethnic divisions: 
predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in coastal locations;
South Asians in southern regions; small European communities in major
metropolitan areas; 60,000 (est.) Somali refugees encamped near Aden
Religions: 
Muslim including Sha'fi (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), Jewish, Christian,
Hindu 
Languages: 
Arabic 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
38% 
male: 
53% 
female: 
26% 
Labor force: 
no reliable estimates exist, most people are employed in agriculture
and herding or as expatriate laborers; services, construction,
industry, and commerce account for less than half of the labor force

@Yemen, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Yemen 
conventional short form: 
Yemen 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah 
local short form: 
Al Yaman 
Digraph: 
YM
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Sanaa 
Administrative divisions: 
17 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al
Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramaut,
Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana, Shabwah, Taizz
note: 
there may be a new capital district of Sana
Independence: 
22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990 with the
merger of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen} and
the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen
(Aden) or South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become independent
on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had
become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holiday: 
Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990) 
Constitution: 
16 May 1991
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local
customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president
of North Yemen); note - Sanaa dismissed Vice President Ali Salim
al-BIDH, Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS (the former
president of South Yemen), and 14 other southern officials following
the outbreak of civil war on 4 May 1994 
five-member Presidential Council: 
president, vice president, two members from General People's Congress
party, two members from Yemeni Socialist Party, and one member from
Yemeni Grouping for Reform, or Islaah party 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 27 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (301 total) GPC 124, YSP 55, Islaah 61,
Ba'thist parties 7, Nasserist parties 4, Hizb al-Haqq 2, Independents
47, election nullified 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Ba'thist parties; General People's Congress (GPC), Ali Abdallah SALIH;
Hizb al Haqq, Ibrahim al-WAZIR, Sheikh Ahmad ibn Ali SHAMI (Secretary
General); Nasserist parties; Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), Ali Salim
al-BIDH; Yemeni Grouping for Reform or Islaah, Shaykh Abdallah bin
Husayn al-AHMAR
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad AL-AYNI 
chancery: 
Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 
telephone: 
(202) 965-4760 or 4761 
FAX: 
(202) 337-2017 
consulate general(s): 
Detroit 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Arthur H. HUGHES 
embassy: 
Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa or Sanaa, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-6330 
telephone: 
[967] (1) 238-842 through 238-852 
FAX: 
[967] (1) 251-563 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar
to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq which has
three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line
centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which
has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Yemen, Economy

Overview: 
Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of a united
Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port facilities,
is the economic and commercial capital. Future economic development
depends heavily on Western-assisted development of its moderate oil
resources. Former South Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed partly
from the steady decline in Soviet economic support. The low level of
domestic industry and agriculture have made northern Yemen dependent
on imports for practically all of its essential needs. Large trade
deficits have been compensated for by remittances from Yemenis working
abroad and by foreign aid. Because of the Gulf crisis, remittances
have dropped substantially. Once self-sufficient in food production,
northern Yemen has become a major importer. Land once used for export
crops - cotton, fruit, and vegetables - has been turned over to
growing a shrub called qat, whose leaves are chewed for their
stimulant effect by Yemenis and which has no significant export
market. Economic growth in former South Yemen has been constrained by
a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over
production decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.
Nominal growth in 1994-95 is apt to be under 3% annually because of
low oil prices and political deadlock that is causing a lack of
economic cooperation and leadership.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
55% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
30% (December 1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$695 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and salted fish
partners: 
Italy 55%, US 32%, Jordan 5% (1991)
Imports: 
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products,
sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery, chemicals
partners: 
UAE 6%, Japan 6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 6% (1991)
External debt: 
$7 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%, accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
714,000 kW
production: 
1.224 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
120 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of
cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small
aluminum products factory; cement
Agriculture: 
accounted for 26% of GDP; products - grain, fruits, vegetables, qat
(mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, fish;
not self-sufficient in grain
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion 
Currency: 
Yemeni rial (new currency); 1 North Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils; 1
South Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils
note: 
following the establishment of the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990,
the North Yemeni riyal and the South Yemeni dinar are to be replaced
with a new Yemeni rial
Exchange rates: 
Yemeni rials per US$1 - 12.0 (official); 70 (market rate, April 1994)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Yemen, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
15,500 km 
paved: 
4,000 km 
unpaved: 
natural surface 11,500 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km 
Ports: 
Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Al Mukalla, Mocha, Nishtun, Ra's Kathib,
Salif
Merchant marine: 
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT, cargo 2, oil
tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
46 
usable: 
40 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
18 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
11 
Telecommunications: 
since unification in 1990, efforts are still being made to create a
national domestic civil telecommunications network; the network
consists of microwave radio relay, cable and troposcatter; 65,000
telephones (est.); broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 10 TV; satellite
earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia, and
Djibouti

@Yemen, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,142,519; fit for military service 1,219,985; reach
military age (14) annually 137,497 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $762 million, 14% of GDP (1992)


@Zaire, Geography

Location: 
Central Africa, between Congo and Zambia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,345,410 sq km 
land area: 
2,267,600 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than one-quarter the size of US
Land boundaries: 
total 10,271 km, Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Uganda
765 km, Zambia 1,930 km 
Coastline: 
37 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along
the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands
has been made)
Climate: 
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in
southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of
Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October
Terrain: 
vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Natural resources: 
cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold,
silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite,
iron ore, coal, hydropower potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
78% 
other: 
15% 
Irrigated land: 
100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution;
deforestation
natural hazards: 
periodic droughts in south
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Environmental Modification
Note: 
straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower
Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical
rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

@Zaire, People

Population: 
42,684,091 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.17% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
48.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
16.74 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
110.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
47.4 years 
male: 
45.57 years 
female: 
49.29 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.7 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Zairian(s) 
adjective: 
Zairian 
Ethnic divisions: 
over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest
tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande
(Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other
syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10% 
Languages: 
French, Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
72% 
male: 
84% 
female: 
61% 
Labor force: 
15 million (13% of the labor force is wage earners; 51% of the
population is of working age)
by occupation: 
agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services 12% (1985)

@Zaire, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Zaire 
conventional short form: 
Zaire 
local long form: 
Republique du Zaire 
local short form: 
Zaire 
former: 
Belgian Congo Congo/Leopoldville Congo/Kinshasa 
Digraph: 
CG
Type: 
republic with a strong presidential system
Capital: 
Kinshasa 
Administrative divisions: 
10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu,
Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental,
Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu
Independence: 
30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965) 
Constitution: 
24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978; amended
April 1990; new transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994
Legal system: 
based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24
November 1965) election last held 29 July 1984 (next to be scheduled
by High Council, the opposition-controlled transition legislature);
results - President MOBUTU was reelected without opposition
head of government: 
Prime Minister Etienne TSHISEKEDI (since NA 1993); note - de facto
executive authority is exercised by President MOBUTU
cabinet: 
National Executive Council; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
parliament: 
a single body consisting of the High Council of the Republic and the
Parliament of the Transition with membership equally divided between
presidential supporters and opponents
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
sole legal party until January 1991 - Popular Movement of the
Revolution (MPR); other parties include Union for Democracy and Social
Progress (UDPS), Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba; Democratic Social
Christian Party (PDSC), Joseph ILEO; Union of Federalists and
Independent Republicans (UFERI), NGUZ a Karl-I-Bond; Unified Lumumbast
Party (PALU), Antoine GIZENGA
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador TATANENE Manata 
chancery: 
1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 234-7690 or 7691 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission John YATES 
embassy: 
310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa 
mailing address: 
Unit 31550, Kinshasha; APO AE 09828 
telephone: 
[243] (12) 21532, 21628 
FAX: 
[243] (12) 21232 or 21534/5, ext. 2308 
consulate(s) general: 
Lubumbashi (closed and evacuated in October 1991 because of the poor
security situation)
Flag: 
light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm
holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away
from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Zaire, Economy

Overview: 
Zaire's economy has continued to disintegrate. While meaningful
economic figures are difficult to come by, Zaire's hyperinflation, the
largest government deficit ever, and plunging mineral production have
made the country one of the world's poorest. Most formal transactions
are conducted in hard currency as indigenous banknotes have lost
almost all value, and a barter economy now flourishes in all but the
largest cities. Most individuals and families hang on grimly through
subsistence farming and petty trade. The government has not been able
to meet its financial obligations to the International Momentary Fund
or put in place the financial measures advocated by the IMF. Although
short-term prospects for improvement are dim, improved political
stability would boost Zaire's long-term potential to effectively
exploit its vast wealth of mineral and agricultural resources.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
35%-40% per month (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
copper, coffee, diamonds, cobalt, crude oil
partners: 
US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport
equipment, fuels
partners: 
South Africa, US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK
External debt: 
$9.2 billion (May 1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,580,000 kW
production: 
6 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
160 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles,
footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement,
diamonds
Agriculture: 
cash crops - coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops - cassava,
bananas, root crops, corn
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.9
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $263 million 
note: 
except for humanitarian aid to private organizations, no US assistance
was given to Zaire in 1992
Currency: 
1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta
Exchange rates: 
zaire (Z) per US$1 - 7,915,000 (September 1993), 1,990,000 (1992),
15,587 (1991), 719 (1990), 381 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Zaire, Communications

Railroads: 
5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125
km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter
gauge; limited trackage in use because of civil strife
Highways: 
total: 
146,500 km 
paved: 
2,800 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 46,200 km; unimproved earth 97,500 km 
Inland waterways: 
15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 390 km 
Ports: 
Matadi, Boma, Banana
Merchant marine: 
1 passenger cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,489 GRT/13,481
DWT
Airports: 
total: 
278 
usable: 
233 
with permanent-surface runways: 
25 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
72 
Telecommunications: 
barely adequate wire and microwave service; broadcast stations - 10
AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
14 domestic

@Zaire, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, Civil Guard,
Special Presidential Division 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 9,178,659; fit for military service 4,674,819 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $49 million, 0.8% of GDP (1988)


@Zambia, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, between Zaire and Zimbabwe
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
752,610 sq km 
land area: 
740,720 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,664 km, Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km,
Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled
Climate: 
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain: 
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Natural resources: 
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium,
hydropower potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
47% 
forest and woodland: 
27% 
other: 
19% 
Irrigated land: 
320 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations;
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Note: 
landlocked

@Zambia, People

Population: 
9,188,190 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.83% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.99 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
17.65 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
85 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
44.18 years 
male: 
43.82 years 
female: 
44.54 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Zambian(s) 
adjective: 
Zambian 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2% 
Religions: 
Christian 50-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24-49%, indigenous beliefs 1% 
Languages: 
English (official)
note: 
about 70 indigenous languages
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
73% 
male: 
81% 
female: 
65% 
Labor force: 
2.455 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and construction 6%, transport
and services 9%

@Zambia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Zambia 
conventional short form: 
Zambia 
former: 
Northern Rhodesia 
Digraph: 
ZA
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Lusaka 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern,
North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence: 
24 October 1964 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 24 October (1964) 
Constitution: 
2 August 1991
Legal system: 
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991); Vice President
Levy MWANAWASA (since 31 October 1991); election last held 31 October
1991 (next to be held in 1996); results - Frederick CHILUBA 84%,
Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the National
Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elections last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held in 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total) MMD 125, UNIP 25;
note - the MMD's majority was weakened by the defection of 13 of its
parliamentary members during 1993 and the defeat of its candidates in
4 of the resulting by-elections
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; United
National Independence Party (UNIP), Kebby MUSOKATWANE; National Party
(NP), Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA; 
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFTU, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA 
chancery: 
2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-9717 through 9721 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Roland KUCHEL 
embassy: 
corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka 
telephone: 
[260-1] 228-595, 228-601, 228-602, 228-603 
FAX: 
[260-1] 261-538 
Flag: 
green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black,
and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

@Zambia, Economy

Overview: 
The economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling
imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a
chronically depressed level of copper production and ineffective
economic policies. In 1991 real GDP fell by 2% and in 1992 by 3% more.
An annual population growth of 3% has brought a decline in per capita
GDP of 50% over the past decade. A high inflation rate has also added
to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-2.8% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
191% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$665 million 
expenditures: 
$767 million, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners: 
EC countries, Japan, South Africa, US, India
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures
partners: 
EC countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, US
External debt: 
$7.6 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2% (1991); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,775,000 kW
production: 
12 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,400 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages,
chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer
Agriculture: 
accounts for 12% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops - corn (food
staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton,
sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs
Illicit drugs: 
role as regional transshipment center for mandrax and heroin
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $4.8 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $533 million 
Currency: 
1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee
Exchange rates: 
Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1 - 344.8276 (October 1993), 156.25 (1992),
61.7284 (1991), 28.9855 (1990), 12.9032 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Zambia, Communications

Railroads: 
1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track
Highways: 
total: 
36,370 km 
paved: 
6,500 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 7,000 km; improved, unimproved
earth 22,870 km 
Inland waterways: 
2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,724 km 
Ports: 
Mpulungu (lake port)
Airports: 
total: 
113 
usable: 
103 
with permanent-surface runways: 
13 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
22 
Telecommunications: 
facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity
microwave connects most larger towns and cities; broadcast stations -
11 AM, 5 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Zambia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,882,053; fit for military service 988,913 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $45 million, 1% of GDP (1992 est.)


@Zimbabwe, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
390,580 sq km 
land area: 
386,670 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries: 
total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225
km, Zambia 797 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain: 
mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains
in east
Natural resources: 
coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore,
vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
NA% (coffee is a permanent crop)
meadows and pastures: 
12% 
forest and woodland: 
62% 
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
2,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution
natural hazards: 
recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note: 
landlocked

@Zimbabwe, People

Population: 
10,975,078 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.2% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
37.24 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
18.1 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-7.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
tatal population: 
42.06 years 
male: 
40.44 years 
female: 
43.74 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.1 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Zimbabwean(s) 
adjective: 
Zimbabwean 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and
Asian 1% 
Religions: 
syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian
25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1% 
Languages: 
English (official), Shona, Sindebele 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.);
total population: 
67% 
male: 
74% 
female: 
60% 
Labor force: 
3.1 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining, manufacturing,
construction 10% (1987)

@Zimbabwe, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Zimbabwe 
conventional short form: 
Zimbabwe 
former: 
Southern Rhodesia 
Digraph: 
ZI
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Harare 
Administrative divisions: 
8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East,
Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North,
Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence: 
18 April 1980 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 18 April (1980) 
Constitution: 
21 December 1979
Legal system: 
mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987);
Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987);
Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); election last
held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results -
Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president; responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120
elected) ZANU-PF 117, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert
MUGABE; Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi
SITHOLE; Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE and Abel
MUYOREWA; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel MAGOCHE; Forum Party, Enock
DUMBUTSHENA
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI 
chancery: 
1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 332-7100 
FAX: 
(202) 483-9326 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward Gibson LANPHER 
embassy: 
172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 3340, Harare 
telephone: 
[263] (4) 794-521 
FAX: 
[263] (4) 796-488 
Flag: 
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red,
yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black
based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a
red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

@Zimbabwe, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies
almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture
and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP.
Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies
of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide
fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years have
resulted in an uneven growth rate, one that on average has matched the
3% annual increase in population. Helped by an IMF/World Bank
structural adjustment program, output rose 3.5% in 1991. A severe
drought in 1991/92 caused the economy to contract by about 10% in
1992.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
22% (January 1994 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
at least 35% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.7 billion 
expenditures: 
$2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $253 million (FY93)
Exports: 
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 10%), manufactures 25%, gold 12%,
ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992)
partners: 
UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991)
Imports: 
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other manufactures 23%,
chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991)
partners: 
South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991)
External debt: 
$3.5 billion (December 1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 35% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,650,000 kW
production: 
8.18 billion kWh (1992)
consumption per capita: 
740 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs,
fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products
Agriculture: 
accounts for 20% of GDP and employs 74% of population; 40% of land
area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal
lands; crops - corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee,
sugarcane, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
NA
Currency: 
1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 8.1037 (January 1994), 6.4725
(1993), 5.1046 (1992), 3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Zimbabwe, Communications

Railroads: 
2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge (including 42 km double track, 355 km
electrified)
Highways: 
total: 
85,237 km 
paved: 
15,800 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 39,090 km; improved earth
23,097 km; unimproved earth 7,250 km 
Inland waterways: 
Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 212 km 
Airports: 
total: 
477 
usable: 
401 
with permanent-surface runways: 
22 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
28 
Telecommunications: 
system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor
maintenance; consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio
communications stations; 247,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8
AM, 18 FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Zimbabwe, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic
Police (including Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Manpower availability: 
males 15-49 2,371,186; fit for military service 1,472,603 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $412.4 million, about 6% of GDP (FY91 est.)


Appendix A: The United Nations System 

The UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous subordinate 
agencies and bodies as follows: 

1) Secretariat 

2) General Assembly: 

Habitat Commission on Human Settlements 
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
UNDP United Nations Development Program 
UNEP United Nations Environment Program 
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund 
UNHCR United Nations Office of High Commissioner for Refugees 
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund 
UNITAR UN Institute for Training and Research 
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees 
in the Near East 
UN Special Fund 
UN University 
WFC World Food Council 
WFP World Food Program 

3) Security Council: 

Peacekeeping Forces and Organizations 
UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission 
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force 
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus 
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon 
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and 
Pakistan 
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization 
UNIKOM United Nations Iran-Kuwait Observation Mission 
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western 
Sahara 
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador 
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia 
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force 
UNOSOM II United Nations Operation in Somalia 
UNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia 
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique 
UNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda 

Commissions Established Pursuant to SC Res.687 
UNSCOM UN Special Commission 
United National Compensation Commission 
UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission 

4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): 

Specialized agencies 
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization 
IDA International Development Association 
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development 
IFC International Finance Corporation 
ILO International Labor Organization 
IMF International Monetary Fund 
IMO International Maritime Organization 
ITU International Telecommunication Union 
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Organization 
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization 
UPU Universal Postal Union 
WHO World Health Organization 
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization 
WMO World Meteorological Organization 

Related organizations 
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency 

Regional commissions 
ECA Economic Commission for Africa 
ECE Economic Commission for Europe 
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia 

Functional commissions 
Commission on Human Rights 
Commission on Narcotics Drugs 
Commission for Social Development 
Commission on the Status of Women 
Population Commission 
Statistical Commission 
Commission on Science and Technology for Development 
Commission on Sustainable Development 
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice 
Commission on Transnational Corporations 

5) Trusteeship Council 

6) International Court of Justice (ICJ) 


Appendix B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups 

A ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa 
ACC Arab Cooperation Council 
ACCT Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique; see Agency 
for Cultural and Technical Cooperation 
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries 
AfDB African Development Bank 
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development 
AG Andean Group 
AL Arab League 
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin 
American Integration Association (LAIA) 
AMF Arab Monetary Fund 
AMU Arab Maghreb Union 
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty 
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation 
AsDB Asian Development Bank 
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations 

B BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement; see African Development 
Bank (AfDB) 
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique; see 
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA) 
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central 
American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) 
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see 
Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC) 
Benelux Benelux Economic Union 
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo; see Inter-American 
Development Bank (IADB) 
BIS Bank for International Settlements 
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African 
Development Bank (WADB) 
BSEC Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone 

C C Commonwealth 
CACM Central American Common Market 
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity 
CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market 
CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States 
CCC Customs Cooperation Council 
CDB Caribbean Development Bank 
CE Council of Europe 
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West 
African Economic Community (CEAO) 
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see 
Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) 
CEI Central European Initiative 
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA 
or Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991 
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic 
Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) 
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European 
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) 
CG Contadora Group 
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States 
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known 
as Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991 
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls 
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known 
as CMEA; abolished 1 January 1991 
CP Colombo Plan 
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 

D DC developed country 

E EADB East African Development Bank 
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
EC European Community; see European Union (EU) 
ECA Economic Commission for Africa 
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic 
and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) 
ECE Economic Commission for Europe 
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic 
Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) 
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 
ECO Economic Cooperation Organization 
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council 
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States 
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community 
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and 
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) 
EEC European Economic Community 
EFTA European Free Trade Association 
EIB European Investment Bank 
Entente Council of the Entente 
ESA European Space Agency 
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia 
EU European Union 
Euratom European Atomic Energy Community 

F FAO Food and Agriculture Organization 
FLS Front Line States 
FZ Franc Zone 

G G-2 Group of 2 
G-3 Group of 3 
G-5 Group of 5 
G-6 Group of 6 (not to be confused with the Big Six) 
G-7 Group of 7 
G-8 Group of 8 
G-9 Group of 9 
G-10 Group of 10 
G-11 Group of 11 
G-15 Group of 15 
G-19 Group of 19 
G-24 Group of 24 
G-30 Group of 30 
G-33 Group of 33 
G-77 Group of 77 
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council 

H Habitat Commission on Human Settlements 

I IADB Inter-American Development Bank 
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency 
IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation 
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization 
ICC International Chamber of Commerce 
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; see 
International Organization for Migration (IOM) 
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 
ICJ International Court of Justice 
ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration; see 
International Organization for Migration (IOM) 
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross 
IDA International Development Association 
IDB Islamic Development Bank 
IEA International Energy Agency 
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development 
IFC International Finance Corporation 
IFCTU International Federation of Christian Trade Unions 
IGADD Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development 
IIB International Investment Bank 
ILO International Labor Organization 
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; see 
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 
IMF International Monetary Fund 
IMO International Maritime Organization 
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization 
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization 
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization 
IOC International Olympic Committee 
IOM International Organization for Migration 
ISO International Organization for Standardization 
ITU International Telecommunication Union 

L LAES Latin American Economic System 
LAIA Latin American Integration Association 
LAS League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL) 
LDC less developed country 
LLDC least developed country 
LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 

M MERCOSUR Mercado Comun del Cono Sur; see Southern Cone Common Market 
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara 
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime 

N NACC North Atlantic Cooperation Council 
NAM Nonaligned Movement 
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
NC Nordic Council 
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency 
NIB Nordic Investment Bank 
NIC newly industrializing country; see newly industrializing 
economy (NIE) 
NIE newly industrializing economy 
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group 

O OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries 
OAS Organization of American States 
OAU Organization of African Unity 
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 
OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States 
OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference 
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador 
OPANAL Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la 
America Latina y el Caribe; see Agency for the 
Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and 
the Caribbean 
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries 

P PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration 

R RG Rio Group 

S SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 
SACU Southern African Customs Union 
SADC Southern African Development Community 
SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference 
SELA Sistema Economico Latinoamericana; see Latin American 
Economic System (LAES) 
SPARTECA South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation 
Agreement 
SPC South Pacific Commission 
SPF South Pacific Forum 

U UDEAC Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale; see 
Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) 
UN United Nations 
UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission 
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force 
UNDP United Nations Development Program 
UNEP United Nations Environment Program 
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Organization 
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus 
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities; see UN 
Population Fund (UNFPA) 
UNHCR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees 
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund 
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization 
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon 
UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission 
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and 
Pakistan 
UNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia 
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique 
UNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda 
UNOSOM United Nations Operation in Somalia 
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force 
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East 
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia 
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization 
UPU Universal Postal Union 
USSR/EE USSR/Eastern Europe 

W WADB West African Development Bank 
WCL World Confederation of Labor 
WEU Western European Union 
WFC World Food Council 
WFP World Food Program 
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions 
WHO World Health Organization 
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization 
WMO World Meteorological Organization 
WP Warsaw Pact (members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the 
alliance) 
WTO World Tourism Organization 

Z ZC Zangger Committee 

Note: Not all international organizations and groups have abbreviations


Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups 

----- 

Note: The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved, 
and ceases to exist. None of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, 
including Serbia and Montenegro, have been permitted to participate solely 
on the basis of the membership of the former Yugoslavia in the United 
Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council and their 
subsidiary bodies and in various United Nations Specialized Agencies. The 
United Nations, however, permits the seat and nameplate of the SFRY to 
remain, permits the SFRY mission to continue to function, and continues to 
fly the flag of the former Yugoslavia. For a variety of reasons, a number 
of other organizations have not yet taken action with regard to the 
membership of the former Yugoslavia. The World Factbook therefore continues 
to list Yugoslavia under international organizations where the SFRY seat 
remains or where no action has yet been taken. 

----- 

advanced developing countries 

another term for those less developed countries (LDCs) with particularly 
rapid industrial development; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs) 

----- 

African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (ACP) 

established - 1 April 1976 

aim - members have a preferential economic and aid relationship with the EU 

members - (70) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, 
Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African 
Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, 
Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, 
Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, 
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao 
Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, 
Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

African Development Bank (AfDB), 
also known as Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD) 

established - 4 August 1963 

aim - to promote economic and social development 

regional members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, 
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome 
and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, 
Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

nonregional members - (26) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, 
Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia 

----- 

Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT) 

see Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) 

----- 

Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) 

note - acronym from Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique 

established - 21 March 1970 

aim - to promote cultural and technical cooperation among French-speaking 
countries 

members - (34) Belgium, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central 
African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, 
Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, 
Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaire 

associate members - (5) Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Saint 
Lucia 

participating governments - (2) New Brunswick (Canada), Quebec (Canada) 

observers - (3) Bulgaria, Cambodia, Romania 

----- 

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the 
Caribbean (OPANAL) 

note - acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares 
en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL) 

established - 14 February 1967 

aim - to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear 
weapons 

members - (26) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, 
Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela 

----- 

Andean Group (AG) 

established - 26 May 1969 

effective - 16 October 1969 

aim - to promote harmonious development through economic integration 

members - (5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela 

associate member - (1) Panama 

observers - (26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, 
Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, 
Uruguay, Yugoslavia 

----- 

Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA) 

note - also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique 
(BADEA) 

established - 18 February 1974 

effective - 16 September 1974 

aim - to promote economic development 

members - (17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, 
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, 
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation 
Organization; note - these are all the members of the Arab League except 
Djibouti, Somalia, and Yemen 

----- 

Arab Cooperation Council (ACC) 

established - 16 February 1989 

aim - to promote economic cooperation and integration, possibly leading to 
an Arab Common Market 

members - (4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen 

----- 

Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) 

established - 16 May 1968 

aim - to promote economic and social development 

members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, 
Djibouti, Egypt (suspended from 1979 to 1988), Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, 
Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, 
Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

Arab League (AL) 

note - also known as League of Arab States (LAS) 

established - 22 March 1945 

aim - to promote economic, social, political, and military cooperation 

members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, 
Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, 
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, 
Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) 

established - 17 February 1989 

aim - to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of 
northern Africa 

members - (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia 

----- 

Arab Monetary Fund (AMF) 

established - 27 April 1976 

effective - 2 February 1977 

aim - to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in monetary 
and economic affairs 

members - (19 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, 
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, 
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine 
Liberation Organization 

----- 

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 

established - 7 November 1989 

aim - to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin 

members - (16) all ASEAN members (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, 
Singapore, Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, South 
Korea, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, US 

----- 

Asian Development Bank (AsDB) 

established - 19 December 1966 

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation 

regional members - (37) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, 
Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, 
Kiribati, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, 
Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua 
New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, 
Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa 

nonregional members - (16) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, 
France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Turkey, UK, US 

----- 

Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI) 

see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) 

----- 

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 

established - 9 August 1967 

aim - to encourage regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation 
among the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia 

members - (6) Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand 

observers - (3) Laos, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam 

----- 

Australia Group 

established - 1984 

aim - to consult on and coordinate export controls related to chemical and 
biological weapons 

members - (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, 
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
UK, US 

observer - (1) Singapore 

----- 

Australia--New Zealand--United States Security Treaty (ANZUS) 

established - 1 September 1951 

effective - 29 April 1952 

aim - to implement a trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US 
suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986 

members - (3) Australia, NZ, US 

----- 

Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE) 

see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) 

----- 

Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) 

see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) 

----- 

Bank for International Settlements (BIS) 

established - 20 January 1930 

effective - 17 March 1930 

aim - to promote cooperation among central banks in international financial 
settlements 

members - (33) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech 
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, 
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, 
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia 

----- 

Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD) 

see African Development Bank (AfDB) 

----- 

Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA) 

see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA) 

----- 

Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BDEAC) 

see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC) 

----- 

Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD) 

see West African Development Bank (WADB) 

----- 

Benelux Economic Union (Benelux) 

note - acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg 

established - 3 February 1958 

effective - 1 November 1960 

aim - to develop closer economic cooperation and integration 

members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands 

----- 

Big Seven 

note - membership is the same as the Group of 7 

established - NA 1975 

aim - to discuss and coordinate major economic policies 

members - (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the 
US 

----- 

Big Six 

note - not to be confused with the Group of 6 

established - NA 1967 

aim - to foster economic cooperation 

members - (6) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK 

----- 

Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC) 

established - 25 June 1992 

aim - to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation 

members - (11) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, 
Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine 

observer - (1) Poland 

----- 

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) 

established - 4 July 1973 

effective - 1 August 1973 

aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially among the 
less developed countries 

members - (13) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, 
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, 
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago 

associate members - (2) British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 

observers - (10) Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, 
Haiti, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Venezuela 

----- 

Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) 

established - 18 October 1969 

effective - 26 January 1970 

aim - to promote economic development and cooperation 

regional members - (20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, 
Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia, 
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and 
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela 

nonregional members - (5) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK 

----- 

Cartagena Group 

see Group of 11 

----- 

Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) 

note - acronym from Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale 

established - 8 December 1964 

effective - 1 January 1966 

aim - to promote the establishment of a Central African Common Market 

members - (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial 
Guinea, Gabon 

----- 

Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC) 

note - acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale 

established - 3 December 1975 

aim - to provide loans for economic development 

members - (9) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial 
Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Kuwait 

----- 

Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) 

note - acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico 

established - 13 December 1960 

aim - to promote economic integration and development 

members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua 

nonregional members - (4) Argentina, Mexico, Taiwan, Venezuela 

----- 

Central American Common Market (CACM) 

established - 13 December 1960 

effective - 3 June 1961 

aim - to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market 

members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua 

----- 

Central European Initiative (CEI) 

note - evolved from the Hexagonal Group 

established - 27 July 1991 

aim - to form an economic and political cooperation group for the region 
between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas 

members - (10) Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, 
Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia 

participating nonmembers - (6) Baden-Wurtemburg, Bavaria, Belarus, 
Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine 

----- 

centrally planned economies 

a term applied mainly to the traditionally Communist states that looked to 
the former USSR for leadership; most are now evolving toward more 
democratic and market-oriented systems; also known formerly as the Second 
World or as the Communist countries; through the 1980s, this group included 
Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, 
North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia 

----- 

Colombo Plan (CP) 

established - 1 July 1951 

aim - to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific 

members - (24) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, 
Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, 
Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, 
Sri Lanka, Thailand, US 

----- 

Commission for Social Development 

established - 21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed 29 July 1966 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with social 
development programs of UN 

members - (32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Commission on Human Rights 

established - 18 February 1946 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with human rights 
programs of UN 

members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Commission on Human Settlements (Habitat) 

established - 12 October 1978 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization assisting in solving human 
settlement problems of UN 

members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Commission on Narcotic Drugs 

established - 16 February 1946 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with illicit drugs 
programs of UN 

members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions with emphasis 
on producing and processing countries 

----- 

Commission on the Status of Women 

established - 21 June 1946 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with women's rights 
goals of UN 

members - (32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Commonwealth (C) 

established - 31 December 1931 

aim - voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire and that 
seeks to foster multinational cooperation and assistance 

members - (48) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, 
Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, The Gambia, 
Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, 
Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua 
New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri 
Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, 
Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

special members - (2) Nauru, Tuvalu 

----- 

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 

established - 8 December 1991 

effective - 21 December 1991 

aim - to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism 
for the orderly dissolution of the USSR 

members - (12) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, 
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan 

----- 

Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO) 
see West African Economic Community (CEAO) 

----- 

Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (CEEAC) 

see Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) 

----- 

Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL) 

see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) 

----- 

Communist countries 

traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with authoritarian governments 
and command economies based on the Soviet model; most of the successor 
states are no longer Communist; see centrally planned economies 

----- 

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 

established - 3 July 1973 

aim - discusses issues of mutual concern and reviews implementation of the 
Helsinki Agreement 

members - (53) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, 
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, 
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, 
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, 
US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (suspended) 

observer - (1) The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 

----- 

Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) 

see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) 

----- 

Contadora Group (CG) 

was established 5 January 1983 (on the Panamanian island of Contadora) to 
reduce tensions and conflicts in Central America but evolved into the Rio 
Group (RG); members included Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela 

----- 

Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf 

see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 

----- 

Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM) 

note - was abolished 31 March 1994; COCOM members are working on a new 
organization with expanded membership which focuses on nonproliferation 
export controls as opposed to East-West controls of advanced technology 

established - NA 1949 

aim - to control the export of strategic products and technical data from 
member countries to proscribed destinations 

members - (17) Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, 
Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, 
Turkey, UK, US 

cooperating countries - (14) Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hong Kong, 
Hungary, Ireland, South Korea, NZ, Poland, Singapore, Slovakia, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Taiwan 

----- 

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) 
also known as CMEA or Comecon, 

was established 25 January 1949 to promote the development of socialist 
economies and was abolished 1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan 
(observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR), 
Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), 
GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua 
(observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia 
(associate) 

----- 

Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) 

established - 3 June 1957 

effective - 30 May 1964 

aim - to promote economic integration among Arab nations 

members - (11 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt, Iraq, 
Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen, 
Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

Council of Europe (CE) 

established - 5 May 1949 

effective - 3 August 1949 

aim - to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe 

members - (32) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, 
Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, 
Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Turkey, UK 

guests - (8) Albania, Belarus, Croatia, Latvia, Moldova, Russia, The Former 
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine 

observers - (2) Holy See, Israel 

----- 

Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) 

established - 5 March 1992 

aim - to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in the areas of 
aid to new democratic institutions, economic development, humanitarian aid, 
energy and the environment, cultural programs and education, and 
transportation and communication 

members - (10) Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden 

observers - (2) Belarus, Ukraine 

----- 

Council of the Entente (Entente) 

established - 29 May 1959 

aim - to promote economic, social, and political coordination 

members - (5) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo 

----- 

Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) 

established - 15 December 1950 

aim - to promote international cooperation in customs matters 

members - (126) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, 
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, 
Central African Republic, Chile, China, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, 
Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, 
The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong 
Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Latvia, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, 
Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, 
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, 
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

developed countries (DCs) 

the top group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of 
developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and 
less developed countries (LDCs); includes the market-oriented economies of 
the mainly democratic nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the European 
ministates; also known as the First World, high-income countries, the 
North, industrial countries; generally have a per capita GNP/GDP in excess 
of $10,000 although four OECD countries and South Africa have figures well 
under $10,000 and two of the excluded OPEC countries have figures of more 
than $10,000; the 35 DCs are: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, 
Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San 
Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US 

----- 

developing countries 

an imprecise term for the less developed countries with growing economies; 
see less developed countries (LDCs) 

----- 

East African Development Bank (EADB) 

established - 6 June 1967 

effective - 1 December 1967 

aim - to promote economic development 

members - (3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda 

----- 

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) 

established - 28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 
East (ECAFE) 

aim - to carryout the commitment of the Economic and Social Council of the 
UN to promote economic development 

members - (48) Afghanistan, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, 
Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, 
Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, 
Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, 
Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, 
Thailand, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Vietnam, Western Samoa 

associate members - (10) American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, 
Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) 

----- 

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) 

established - 9 August 1973 as Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA) 

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission for the UN's 
Economic and Social Council 

members - (12 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Bahrain, Egypt, 
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, 
Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes five 
regional commissions (see Economic Commission for Africa, Economic 
Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the 
Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and six functional 
commissions (see Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human 
Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women, 
Population Commission, Statistical Commission, Commission on Science and 
Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development, 
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, and Commission on 
Transnational Corporations) 

members - (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) 

established - 29 April 1958 

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's 
Economic and Social Council 

members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, 
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, 
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Sudan, 
Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

associate members - (2) France, UK 

----- 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) 

see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) 

----- 

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 

established - 28 March 1947 

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's 
Economic and Social Council 

members - (54) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, 
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech 
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, 
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, 
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, 
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia 

----- 

Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) 

see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) 

----- 

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) 

established - 25 February 1948 as Economic Commission for Latin America 
(ECLA) 

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's 
Economic and Social Council 

members - (41) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, 
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, 
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Grenada, 
Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Netherlands, 
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint 
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and 
Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela 

associate members - (6) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, 
Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands 

----- 

Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA) 

see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) 

----- 

Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)-acronym from 
Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale 

established - 18 October 1983 

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and establish a Central 
African Common Market 

members - (10) Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, 
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Zaire 

observer - (1) Angola 

----- 

Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) 

note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs 

established - 26 September 1976 

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and integration 

members - (3) Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire 

----- 

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 

established - 28 May 1975 

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation 

members - (16) Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, 
Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, 
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo 

----- 

Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) 

established - NA 1985 

aim - to promote regional cooperation in trade, transportation, 
communications, tourism, cultural affairs, and economic development 

members - (11) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, 
Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", 
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan 

----- 

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 

established - 15 April 1991 

aim - to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned economies in 
Europe (Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former 
USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its 
loans to privatization 

members - (58) Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, European 
Community (EC), European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France, 
Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, 
Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, 
Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia; note - includes all 
25 members of the OECD; also includes the EC as a single entity 

----- 

European Community (or European Communities, EC) was established 8 April 
1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the 
European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), the European Economic Community 
(EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common 
market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union 
(EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium, 
Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
Portugal, Spain, UK 

----- 

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 

established - 4 January 1960 

effective - 3 May 1960 

aim - to promote expansion of free trade 

members - (7) Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden, 
Switzerland 

----- 

European Investment Bank (EIB) 

established - 25 March 1957 

effective - 1 January 1958 

aim - to promote economic development of the EU 

members - (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK 

----- 

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) 

note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeen 
pour la Recherche Nucleaire 

established - 1 July 1953 

effective - 29 September 1954 

aim - to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only 

members - (19) Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, 
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, 
Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK 

observers - (6) EC, Israel, Russia, Turkey, United Nations Educational, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Yugoslavia 

----- 

European Space Agency (ESA) 

established - 31 July 1973 

effective - 1 May 1975 

aim - to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and technology 

members - (13) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, 
Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK 

associate member - (1) Finland 

cooperating state - (1) Canada 

----- 

European Union (EU) 

note - evolved from the European Community (EC) 

established - 7 February 1992 

effective - 1 November 1993 

aim - to coordinate policy among the 12 members in three fields: economics, 
building on the European Economic Community's (EEC) efforts to establish a 
common market and eventually a common currency; defense, within the concept 
of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and justice and home 
affairs, including immigration, drugs, terrorism, and improved living and 
working conditions 

members-(12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK 

----- 

First World 

another term for countries with advanced, industrialized economies; this 
term is fading from use; see developed countries (DCs) 

----- 

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 

established - 16 October 1945 

aim - UN specialized agency to raise living standards and increase 
availability of agricultural products 

members - (162) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, 
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, 
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, 
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, 
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, 
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial 
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EC, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, 
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, 
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, 
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, 
Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, 
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, 
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, 
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, 
Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri 
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, 
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, 
UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, 
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

associate member - (1) Puerto Rico 

----- 

Former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE) 

the middle group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of 
developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and 
less developed countries (LDCs); these countries are in political and 
economic transition and may well be grouped differently in the near future; 
this group of 27 countries consists of Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, 
Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, 
Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, 
Slovenia, Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan 

----- 

Four Dragons 

the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs) that have experienced 
unusually rapid economic growth; also known as the Four Tigers; this group 
includes Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan 

----- 

Four Tigers 

another term for the Four Dragons; see Four Dragons 

----- 

Franc Zone (FZ) 

established - NA 

aim - to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies are linked 
to the French franc 

members - (15) Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, 
Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Mali, 
Niger, Senegal, Togo; note - France includes metropolitan France, the four 
overseas departments of France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, 
Reunion), the two territorial collectivities of France (Mayotte, Saint 
Pierre and Miquelon), and the three overseas territories of France (French 
Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna) 

----- 

Front Line States (FLS) 

established - NA 

aim - to achieve black majority rule in South Africa 

members - (7) Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe 

----- 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 

note - to be subsumed by the World Trade Organization on 31 December 1994 

established - 30 October 1947 

effective - 1 January 1948 

aim - to promote the expansion of international trade on a 
nondiscriminatory basis 

members - (117) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, 
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, 
Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African 
Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, 
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, 
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, 
Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, 
Kuwait, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, 
Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, 
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint 
Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, 
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, 
UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe 

----- 

Group of 2 (G-2) 

established - informal term that came into use about 1986 

aim - bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful economic 
giants 

members - (2) Japan, US 

----- 

Group of 3 (G-3) 

established - NA October 1990 

aim - mechanism for policy coordination 

members - (3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela 

----- 

Group of 5 (G-5) 

established - 22 September 1985 

aim - to coordinate the economic policies of the five major non-Communist 
economic powers 

members - (5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US 

----- 

Group of 6 (G-6) 

note - also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement not to be confused 
with the Big Six 

established - 22 May 1984 

aim - to achieve nuclear disarmament 

members - (6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania 

----- 

Group of 7 (G-7) 

note - membership is the same as the Big Seven 

established - 22 September 1985 

aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the seven major non-
Communist economic powers 

members - (7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus Canada and 
Italy 

----- 

Group of 8 (G-8) 

established - NA October 1975 

aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the developed countries 
(DCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic 
Cooperation (CIEC), held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 
June 1977 

members - (8) Australia, Canada, EU (as one member), Japan, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, US 

----- 

Group of 9 (G-9) 

established - NA 

aim - informal group that meets occasionally on matters of mutual interest 

members - (9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, 
Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia 

----- 

Group of 10 (G-10) 

note - also known as the Paris Club, wealthiest members of the IMF who 
provide most of the money to be loaned and act as the informal steering 
committee; name persists in spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA 
April 1984 


established - NA October 1962 

aim - to make credit policy 

members - (11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, 
Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US 

----- 

Group of 11 (G-11) 

note - also known as the Cartagena Group 

established - 22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia 

aim - to provide a forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America 

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela 

----- 

Group of 15 (G-15) 

note - byproduct of the Non-Aligned Movement 

established - September 1989 

aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as 
the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement 

members - (15) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, 
Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, 
Zimbabwe 

----- 

Group of 19 (G-19) 

established - NA October 1975 

aim - to represent the interests of the less developed countries (LDCs) 
that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation 
(CIEC) held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977 

members - (19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Egypt, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi 
Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia 

----- 

Group of 24 (G-24) 

established - NA January 1972 

aim - to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and 
Latin America within the IMF 

members - (24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, 
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, 
Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire 

----- 

Group of 30 (G-30) 

established - NA 1979 

aim - to discuss and propose solutions to the world's economic problems 

members - (30) informal group of 30 leading international bankers, 
economists, financial experts, and businessmen organized by Johannes 
Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF) 

----- 

Group of 33 (G-33) 

established - NA 1987 

aim - to promote solutions to international economic problems 

members - (33) leading economists from 13 countries 

----- 

Group of 77 (G-77) 

established - NA October 1967 

aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name 
persists in spite of increased membership 

members - (128 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, 
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, 
Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central 
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, 
Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, 
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South 
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, 
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, 
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, 
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, 
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, 
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, 
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, 
Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 

note - also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the 
Gulf 

established - 25 May 1981 

aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic, social, political, and 
military affairs 

members - (6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE 

----- 

Habitat 

see Commission on Human Settlements 

----- 

Hexagonal Group 

see Central European Initiative (CEI) 

----- 

high-income countries 

another term for the industrialized countries with high per capita 
GNPs/GDPs; see developed countries (DCs) 

----- 

industrial countries 

another term for the developed countries; see developed countries (DCs) 

----- 

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) 

note - also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) 

established - 8 April 1959 

effective - 30 December 1959 

aim - to promote economic and social development in Latin America 

members - (44) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, 
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, 
Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, 
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, 
Venezuela 

----- 

Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) 

established - 15-16 January 1986 

aim - to promote cooperation on drought-related 
matters 

members - (6) Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda 

----- 

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 

established - 26 October 1956 

effective - 29 July 1957 

aim - to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy 

members - (116) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, 
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa 
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, 
Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See, 
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, 
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, 
Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, 
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, 
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, 
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra 
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, 
Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia 
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC) 

was established on 22 October 1963 to promote economic cooperation and 
development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, 
Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank 
with a new charter 

----- 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 

note - also known as the World Bank 

established - 22 July 1944 

effective - 27 December 1945 

aim - UN specialized agency that initially promoted economic rebuilding 
after World War II and now provides economic development loans 

members - (177) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, 
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, 
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, 
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, 
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, 
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, 
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts 
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and 
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, 
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, 
Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 

established - NA 1919 

aim - to promote free trade and private enterprise and to represent 
business interests at national and international levels 

members - (59 national councils) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, 
Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Iceland, 
India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, 
Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, 
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, 
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Togo, 
Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire 

----- 

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 

established - 7 December 1944 

effective - 4 April 1947 

aim - UN specialized agency to promote international cooperation in civil 
aviation 

members - (181) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, 
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, 
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, 
Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, 
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, 
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, 
South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, 
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, 
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of 
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, 
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, 
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, 
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, 
Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, 
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, The Former Yugoslav 
Republic of Macedonia, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, 
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 

established - NA 1863 

aim - to provide humanitarian aid in wartime 

members - (25 individuals) all Swiss nationals 

----- 

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) 

established - NA December 1949 

aim - to promote the trade union movement 

members - (164 national organizations in the following 117 areas) Antigua 
and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, 
Barbados, Basque Country, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Curacao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, 
Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, 
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland, 
India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, South 
Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, 
Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Morocco, Netherlands, New 
Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, 
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, 
Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and 
the Grenadines, San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, 
Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, 
US, Venezuela, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Court of Justice (ICJ) 

note - also known as the World Court 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - primary judicial organ of the UN 

members - (15 judges) elected by the UN General Assembly and Security 
Council to represent all principal legal systems 

----- 

International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) 

established - 13 June 1956 

aim - to promote international cooperation between criminal police 
authorities 

members - (170) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, 
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, 
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, 
Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, 
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, 
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, 
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, 
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, 
Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, 
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts 
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and 
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, 
Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

subbureaus - (11) American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin 
Islands, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Macau, Montserrat, Puerto 
Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands 

----- 

International Development Association (IDA) 

established - 26 January 1960 

effective - 24 September 1960 

aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that provides economic loans 
for low income countries 

members - (156) 

Part I - (24 more economically advanced countries) Australia, Austria, 
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, 
Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, South 
Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US 

Part II - (132 less developed nations) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, 
Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, 
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, 
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, 
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, 
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, 
Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, 
Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, 
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, 
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, 
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, 
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, 
Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western 
Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Energy Agency (IEA) 

established - 15 November 1974 

aim - established by the OECD to promote cooperation on energy matters, 
especially emergency oil sharing and relations between oil consumers and 
oil producers 

members - (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, 
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US 

----- 

International Finance Corporation (IFC) 

established - 25 May 1955 

effective - 20 July 1956 

aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that helps private 
enterprise sector in economic development 

members - (159) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, 
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, 
Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, 
Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, 
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, 
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, 
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, 
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, 
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, 
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, 
Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 

established - NA November 1974 

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes agricultural development 

members - (150) 

Category I - (21 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria, 
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, 
Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, 
US 

Category II - (12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, 
Venezuela 

Category III - (117 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua 
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, 
Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, 
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, 
Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, 
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel, 
Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, 
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, 
Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, 
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, 
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, 
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Investment Bank (IIB) 

established on 7 July 1970; to promote economic development; members were 
Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, 
Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter 

----- 

International Labor Organization (ILO) 

established - 11 April 1919 (affiliated with the UN 14 December 1946) 

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world labor issues 

members - (169) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, 
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, 
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, 
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, 
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, 
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, 
Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, 
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, 
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Maritime Organization (IMO) 

note - name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 
Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982 

established - 17 March 1958 

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world maritime affairs 

members - (146) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, 
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, 
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, 
Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, 
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, 
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, 
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, 
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, 
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, 
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, 
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, 
Turkey, Turkmenistan, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, 
Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire 

associate members - (2) Hong Kong, Macau 

----- 

International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) 

established - 3 September 1976 

effective - 26 July 1979 

aim - to provide worldwide communications for maritime shipping and other 
applications 

members - (69) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, 
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, 
Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, 
Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Monaco, 
Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, 
Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, 
Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Yugoslavia 

----- 

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 

established - 22 July 1944 

effective - 27 December 1945 

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world monetary stability and 
economic development 

members - (179) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, 
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, 
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, 
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, 
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, 
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, 
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts 
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao 
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, 
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, 
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, 
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, 
Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, 
Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

observers-(3) Holy See, North Korea, Monaco 

----- 

International Olympic Committee (IOC) 

established-23 June 1894 

aim-to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games: 1994 
Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway (12-27 February); 1996 Summer 
Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20 July-4 August); 1998 Winter Olympics 
in Nagano, Japan (date NA) 

members-(184) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, 
Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, 
Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, 
Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, 
Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, 
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, 
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, 
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, 
Jordan, Kazahkstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, 
Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, 
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, 
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, 
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, 
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, 
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, 
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, 
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, 
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Organization for Migration (IOM) 

established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of 
Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European 
Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee 
for Migration (ICM) in November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989 

established - 5 December 1951 

aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration 

members - (48) Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Kenya, South Korea, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Thailand, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia 

observers - (40) Albania, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Croatia, 
Czech Republic, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Council of Australia 
Inc., Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Japan, Japan 
International Friendship and Welfare Foundation, Jordan, Latvia, Malta, 
Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, NZ, Niwano Peace Foundation, Partnership with the 
Children of the Third World, Presiding Bishop's Fund for World 
Relief/Episcopal Church, Refugee Council of Australia, Romania, Russia, San 
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, 
Turkey, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 

established - NA February 1947 

aim - to promote the development of international standards 

members - (73 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria, 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, 
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, 
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, 
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, 
Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, 
Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, 
Zimbabwe 

correspondent members - (20) Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Estonia, Hong Kong, 
Jordan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, 
Nepal, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Seychelles, Uganda, UAE 

----- 

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement 

established - NA 1928 

aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International 
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and League of Red Cross and 
Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) in peacetime 

members - (9) 2 representatives from ICRC, 2 from LORCS, and 5 from 
national societies elected by the international conference of the 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement 

----- 

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 

established - 9 December 1932 

effective - 1 January 1934 

affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947 

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world telecommunications 

members - (182) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, 
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, 
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, 
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, 
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, 
Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, 
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, 
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, 
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated 
States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, 
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, 
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, 
South Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav 
Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), 
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) 

established - 20 August 1971 

effective - 12 February 1973 

aim - to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications 
satellite system 

members - (126) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, 
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, 
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, 
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, 
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, 
Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, 
Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, 
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, 
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, 
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, 
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, 
Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

nonsignatory users - (56) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Belarus, 
Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, 
Cambodia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, 
Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, 
North Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Maldives, Malta, 
Marshall Islands, Moldova, Mongolia, Namibia, Nauru, Niue, Poland, Sao Tome 
and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon 
Islands, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, 
Tajikistan, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tonga, Turkmenistan, 
Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Western Samoa 

----- 

Islamic Development Bank (IDB) 

established - 15 December 1973 

aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development 

members - (47 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan 
(suspended), Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, 
Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, 
Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, 
Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, 
Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, 
Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

Latin American Economic System (LAES) 

note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA) 

established - 17 October 1975 

aim - to promote economic and social development through regional 
cooperation 

members - (27) Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela 

----- 

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) 

note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI) 

established - 12 August 1980 

effective - 18 March 1981 

aim - to promote freer regional trade 

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, 
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela 

observers - (16) Commission of the European Communities, Costa Rica, Cuba, 
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American 
Development Bank, Italy, Nicaragua, Organization of American States, 
Panama, Portugal, Spain, United Nations Development Program, United Nations 
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 

----- 

League of Arab States (LAS) 

see Arab League (AL) 

----- 

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) 

established - 5 May 1919 

aim - to provide humanitarian aid in peacetime 

members - (153) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, 
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, 
Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African 
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, 
Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, 
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, 
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, 
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, 
Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, 
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, 
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, 
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, 
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, 
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

associate members - (2) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon 

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least developed countries (LLDCs) 

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially identified 
by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic 
growth, per capita GNPs/GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low literacy 
rates; also known as the undeveloped countries. The 42 LLDCs are: 
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, 
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial 
Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, 
Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, 
Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, 
Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen 

----- 

less developed countries (LDCs) 

the bottom group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of 
developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and 
less developed countries (LDCs); mainly countries with low levels of 
output, living standards, and technology; per capita GNPs/GDPs are 
generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group also 
includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes, areas of 
advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the advanced 
developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers), 
least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income 
countries, newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World, 
underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries; the 174 LDCs are: 
Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and 
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, 
Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, 
Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman 
Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, 
Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, 
Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, 
Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, 
Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North 
Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man, Marshall 
Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of 
Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, 
Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, 
Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Trust Territory of 
the Pacific Islands (Palau), Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, 
Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and 
Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, 
Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, 
Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and 
Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, 
Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Western 
Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

low-income countries 

another term for those less developed countries with below-average per 
capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs) 

----- 

London Suppliers Group 

see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 

----- 

Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (MERCOSUR) 

see Southern Cone Common Market 

----- 

middle-income countries 

another term for those less developed countries with above-average per 
capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs) 

----- 

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) 

established - April 1987 

aim - to arrest missile proliferation by controlling the export of key 
missile technologies and equipment 

members - (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, 
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
UK, US 

----- 

Near Abroad 

the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in which 25 million ethnic 
Russians live and in which Moscow has expressed a strong national security 
interest 

----- 

newly industrializing countries (NICs) 

former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly 
industrializing economies (NIEs) 

----- 

newly industrializing economies (NIEs) 

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced 
particularly rapid industrialization of their economies; formerly known as 
the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced 
developing countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South 
Korea, Singapore, Taiwan) plus Brazil 

----- 

Nonaligned Movement (NAM) 

established - 1-6 September 1961 

aim - to establish political and military cooperation apart from the 
traditional East or West blocs 

members - (107 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, 
Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, 
Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, 
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, 
Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, 
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, 
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, 
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, 
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, 
Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, 
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, 
Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, 
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization 

observers - (21) African National Congress, Afro-Asian Solidarity 
Organization, Antigua and Barbuda, Arab League, Armenia, Brazil, China, 
Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, El Salvador, Islamic Conference, Kanaka 
Socialist National Liberation Front (New Caledonia), Mexico, Mongolia, 
Organization of African Unity, Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, Socialist 
Party of Puerto Rico, Thailand, UN, Uruguay 

guests - (21) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, 
Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, NZ, 
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland 

----- 

Nordic Council (NC) 

established - 16 March 1952 

effective - 12 February 1953 

aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation 

members - (5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden; note - Denmark 
includes Faroe Islands and Greenland, and Finland includes Aland Islands 

----- 

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) 

established - 4 December 1975 

effective - 1 June 1976 

aim - to promote economic cooperation and development 

members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland 
(including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden 

----- 

North 

a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located in 
the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of the 
South; see developed countries (DCs) 

----- 

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) 

note - an extension of NATO 

established - 8 November 1991 

effective - 20 December 1991 

aim - to form a forum to discuss cooperation concerning mutual political 
and security issues 

members - (38) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, 
Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, 
Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, 
Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, 
Uzbekistan 

----- 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 

established - 17 September 1949 

aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation 

members - (16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, 
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US 

----- 

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) 

established - NA 1958 

aim - associated with OECD, seeks to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear 
energy 

members - (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, 
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, 
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US 

----- 

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 

note - also known as the London Suppliers Group 

established - 1974 

aim - to establish guidelines for exports of technical information, 
processing equipment for uranium enrichment and nuclear materials to 
countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability 

members - (28) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech 
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, 
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, 
Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US 

----- 

Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina 
y el Caribe (OPANAL) 

see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the 
Caribbean (OPANAL) 

----- 

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 

established - 14 December 1960 

effective - 30 September 1961 

aim - to promote economic cooperation and development 

members - (25) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, 
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, 
Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Turkey, UK, US 

special member - (1) EU 

----- 

Organization of African Unity (OAU) 

established - 25 May 1963 

aim - to promote unity and cooperation among African states 

members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, 
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, 
Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and 
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, 
Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 
Organization of American States (OAS) 

established - 30 April 1948 

effective - 13 December 1951 

aim - to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and social 
development 

members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, 
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba 
(excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, 
Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts 
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, 
Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela 

observers - (31) Algeria, Angola, Austria, Belgium, Central American 
Parliament, Cyprus, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, EU, Finland, France, Germany, 
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, 
Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi 
Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia 

----- 

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) 

established - 9 January 1968 

aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry 

members - (10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi 
Arabia, Syria, UAE 

----- 

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) 

established - 18 June 1981 

effective - 4 July 1981 

aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation 

members - (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint 
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 

associate member - (1) British Virgin Islands 

----- 

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 

established - 14 September 1960 

aim - to coordinate petroleum policies 

members - (12) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, 
Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela 

----- 

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) 

established - 22-25 September 1969 

aim - to promote Islamic solidarity and cooperation in economic, social, 
cultural, and political affairs 

members - (47 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan 
(suspended), Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, 
Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, 
Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, 
Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, 
Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, 
Palestine Liberation Organization 

observers - (4) Kazakhstan, Mozambique, Nigeria, "Turkish Republic of 
Northern Cyprus" 

----- 

Paris Club 

see Group of 10 

----- 

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 

established - 29 July 1899 

aim - to facilitate the settlement of international disputes 

members - (78) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, 
Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, 
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, 
Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Spain, Sri 
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, 
Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe 

----- 

Population Commission 

established - 3 October 1946 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with population 
matters of importance to the UN 

members - (27) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Rio Group (RG) 

note - formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December 1986 

established - NA 1988 

aim - a consultation mechanism on regional Latin American issues 

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, 
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru (suspended), Uruguay, Venezuela; note-Panama was 
expelled in 1988; Peru was suspended after April 1992 coup 

----- 

Second World 

another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states with 
authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; 
the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies 

----- 

socialist countries in general, countries in which the government owns and 
plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term is 
sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries 

----- 

South 

a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally 
located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the North; see 
less developed countries (LDCs) 

----- 

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 

established - 8 December 1985 

aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation 

members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri 
Lanka 

----- 

South Pacific Commission (SPC) 

established - 6 February 1947 

effective - 29 July 1948 

aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters 

members - (27) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, 
French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of 
Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn 
Islands, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis 
and Futuna, Western Samoa 

----- 

South Pacific Forum (SPF) 

established - 5 August 1971 

aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters 

members - (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, 
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon 
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa 

observer - (1) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) 

----- 

South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA) 

established - NA 1981 

aim - to redress unequal trade relationship of Australia and New Zealand 
with small island economies in Pacific region 

members - (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, 
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon 
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa 

----- 

Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 

established - 11 December 1969 

aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters 

members - (9) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland 

----- 

Southern African Development Community (SADC) 

note - evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination 
Conference (SADCC) 

established - 17 August 1992 

aim - to promote regional economic development and integration 

members - (10) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, 
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) 

established - 26 March 1991 

aim - regional economic cooperation 

members - (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay 

----- 

Statistical Commission 

established - 21 June 1946 

aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with development and 
standardization of national statistics of interest to the UN 

members - (25) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

Third World 

another term for the less developed countries; the term is fading from use; 
see less developed countries (LDCs) 

----- 

underdeveloped countries 

refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above-
average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs) 

----- 

undeveloped countries 

refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with little 
prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries (LLDCs) 

----- 

Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) 

see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) 

----- 

United Nations (UN) 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - to maintain international peace and security and to promote 
cooperation involving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems 

members - (183 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, 
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, 
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, 
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, 
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, 
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech 
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, 
El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, 
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, 
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, 
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, 
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, 
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of 
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, 
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, 
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, 
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, 
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon 
Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, 
Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former 
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, 
Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members are represented in the General 
Assembly 

observers - (2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See, 
Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization 

----- 

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II) 

note - successor to original UNAVEM 

established - 20 December 1988 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to verify the withdrawal of 
Cuban troops from Angola 

members - (25) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Congo, Czech Republic, 
Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco, 
Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, 
Sweden, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 

note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN International 
Children's Emergency Fund 

established - 11 December 1946 

aim - to help establish child health and welfare services 

members - (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
(UNCTAD) 

established - 30 December 1964 

aim - to promote international trade 

members - (187) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga 

----- 

United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 

established - 22 November 1965 

aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social 
development 

members - (48) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) 

established - 31 May 1974 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1973 Arab-
Israeli ceasefire 

members - (4) Austria, Canada, Finland, Poland 

----- 

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 

established - 16 November 1945 

effective - 4 November 1946 

aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture 

members - (178) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, 
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, 
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, 
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial 
Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The 
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, 
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, 
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, 
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, 
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, 
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, 
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, 
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, 
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, 
Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, 
Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, 
Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

associate members - (3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles 

----- 

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) 

established - 15 December 1972 

aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters 

members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) 

established - 4 March 1964 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to serve as a peacekeeping 
force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus 

members - (8) Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, 
Sweden, UK 

----- 

United Nations General Assembly 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - primary deliberative organ in the UN 

members - (184) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly 

----- 

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 

established - 17 November 1966 

effective - 1 January 1967 

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially 
among the members 

members - (165) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, 
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, 
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, 
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, 
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, 
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, 
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, 
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, 
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, 
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, 
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, 
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint 
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, 
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, 
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, 
UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia 
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) 

established - 19 March 1978 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to confirm the withdrawal of 
Israeli forces, restore peace, and reestablish Lebanese authority in 
southern Lebanon 

members - (10) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Norway, 
Poland, Sweden 

----- 

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) 

established - 9 April 1991 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe and monitor the 
demilitarized zone established between Iraq and Kuwait 

members - (33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Denmark, 
Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, 
Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, 
Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela 
----- 

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 

established - 13 August 1948 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1949 
India-Pakistan ceasefire 

members - (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, 
Uruguay 

----- 

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara 
(MINURSO) 

established - 29 April 1991 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to supervise the 
referendum in Western Sahara 

members - (26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, 
China, Egypt, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Ireland, Italy, 
Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, Tunisia, 
UK, US, Venezuela 

----- 

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) 

established - 20 May 1991 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to verify ceasefire 
arrangements and to monitor the maintenance of public order pending the 
organization of a new National Civil Police 

members - (16) Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, France, 
Guyana, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela 

----- 
United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) 

established - 1993 for a period of six months 

aim - to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement reached 27 July 
1993 and investigate reports of violations of that agreement 

members - (10) Austria, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, 
Greece, Poland, Sierra Leone, Sweden, Switzerland 

----- 
United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) 

established - 1993 for six months 

aim - to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to verify that no military 
assistance reaches Rwanda across the border 

members - (10) Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Fiji, Hungary, 
Netherlands, Senegal Slovakia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 

established - 3 December 1949 

effective - 1 January 1951 

aim - to try to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find 
permanent solutions to refugee problems 

members - (46) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, 
Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, 
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho, 
Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, 
Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, 
Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire 

----- 

United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ) 

established - 16 December 1992 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to supervise the ceasefire 

members - (18) Argentina, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, 
Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Malaysia, Portugal, 
Russia, Spain, Sweden, Uruguay, Zambia 

----- 

United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) 

established - 24 April 1992 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to facilitate an immediate 
cessation of hostilities, to maintain a ceasefire in order to promote a 
political settlement, and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance 

members - (33) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Egypt, 
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, 
South Korea, Malaysia, Morocco, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, 
Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, US, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe 

----- 

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 

note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for 
Population Activities 

established - NA July 1967 

aim - to assist in both developed and developing countries dealing with 
population problems 

members - (51) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) 

established - 28 February 1992 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to create conditions for peace 
and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the 
"Yugoslav" crisis 

members - (34) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Ghana, India, 
Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Luxembourg, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, 
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, Venezuela 

----- 

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near 
East (UNRWA) 

established - 8 December 1949 

aim - to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees 

members - (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, 
Turkey, UK, US 

----- 

United Nations Secretariat 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary 
General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the 
recommendation of the Security Council 

----- 

United Nations Security Council 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - to maintain international peace and security 

permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US 

nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General 
Assembly; Brazil (1993-94), Cape Verde (1992-93), Djibouti (1993-94), 
Hungary (1992-93), Japan (1992-93), Morocco (1992-93), NZ (1993-94), 
Pakistan (1993-94), Spain (1993-94), Venezuela (1992-93) 

----- 

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 

established - 28 February 1992 

aim - established by the UN Security Council to contribute to the 
restoration and maintenance of peace and to the holding of free elections 

members - (45) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, 
Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, 
France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, 
Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, 
Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, 
Thailand, Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay 

----- 

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) 

established - NA May 1948 

aim - initially established by the UN Security Council to supervise the 
1948 Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently extended to work in the Sinai, 
Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan 

members - (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, 
China, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, 
Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, US 

----- 

United Nations Trusteeship Council 

established - 26 June 1945 

effective - 24 October 1945 

aim - to supervise the administration of the UN trust territories; only one 
of the original 11 trusteeships remains - the Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Islands (Palau) 

members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US 

----- 

Universal Postal Union (UPU) 

established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947 

effective - 1 July 1948 

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes international postal cooperation 

members-(185) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, 
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, 
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, 
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, 
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, 
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, 
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, 
South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, 
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, 
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, 
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, 
Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas 
Territories of the UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts 
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao 
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, 
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, 
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, 
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, 
US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia 
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

------ 

Warsaw Pact (WP) 

was established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 
1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution 
were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; 
earlier members included East Germany and Albania 

----- 

West African Development Bank (WADB) 

note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD) 

established - 14 November 1973 

aim - to promote regional economic development and integration 

members - (7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, 
Togo 

----- 

West African Economic Community (CEAO) 

note - acronym from Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest 

established - 3 June 1972 

aim - to promote regional economic development 

members - (7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, 
Senegal 

observers - (2) Guinea, Togo 

----- 

Western European Union (WEU) 

established - 23 October 1954 

effective - 6 May 1955 

aim - mutual defense and progressive political unification 

members - (9) Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
Portugal, Spain, UK 

associate members - (4) Greece, Iceland, Norway, Turkey 

observers - (2) Denmark, Ireland 

----- 

World Bank 

see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 

----- 

World Bank Group 

includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 
International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance 
Corporation (IFC) 

----- 

World Confederation of Labor (WCL) 

established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian 
Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968 

aim - to promote the trade union movement 

members - (99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, 
Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, 
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, 
Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, 
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, 
Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, 
Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, 
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint 
Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri 
Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, 
Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

World Court 

see International Court of Justice (ICJ) 

----- 

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) 

established - 3 October 1945 

aim - to promote the trade union movement 

members - (86) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, 
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, 
Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, The 
Gambia, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, 
Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, 
North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Madagascar, Martinique, Mauritius, 
Mexico, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, 
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico, Reunion, 
Romania, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, 
Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire 

----- 

World Food Council (WFC) 

established - 17 December 1974 

aim - ECOSOC organization that studies world food problems and recommends 
solutions 

members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

World Food Program (WFP) 

established - 24 November 1961 

aim - ECOSOC organization that provides food aid to assist in development 
or disaster relief 

members - (42) selected on a rotating basis from all regions 

----- 

World Health Organization (WHO) 

established - 22 July 1946 

effective - 7 April 1948 

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with health matters 

members - (186) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, 
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, 
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, 
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial 
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, 
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, 
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, 
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, 
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint 
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, 
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, 
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, 
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, 
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, 
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe 

associate members - (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau 

----- 

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 

established - 14 July 1967 

effective - 26 April 1970 

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with the protection of literary, 
artistic, and scientific works 

members - (140) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, 
Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central 
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, 
El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, 
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, 
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, 
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, 
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, 
Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, 
Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, 
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Saudi 
Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, 
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, 
UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), 
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 

established - 11 October 1947 

effective - 4 April 1951 

aim - specialized UN agency concerned with meteorological cooperation 

members - (173) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, 
British Caribbean Territories, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, 
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, 
Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, 
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, 
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong 
Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, 
Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, 
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, 
Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, 
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint 
Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra 
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South 
Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav 
Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

----- 

World Tourism Organization (WTO) 

established - 2 January 1975 

aim - to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic 
development, international understanding, and peace 

members - (109) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Austria, 
Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, 
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote 
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, 
Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, 
Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South 
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, 
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, 
Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, 
Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and 
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, 
Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, 
US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, 
Zambia, Zimbabwe 

associate members-(4) Aruba, Macau, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico 

observer-(1) Holy See 

----- 

Zangger Committee (ZC) 

established-early 1970s 

aim-to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the 
nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 

members-(29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, 
Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US


Appendix D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental 
Agreements 

A Air Pollution 
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution 
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides 
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Nitrogen 
Oxides Protocol) 
Air Pollution-Sulphur 
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Sulphur 
Protocol) 
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds 
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Volatile Organic 
Compounds Protocol) 
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol 
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 

B Biodiversity 
Convention on Biological Diversity 

C Climate Change 
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 

E Endangered Species 
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of 
Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 
Environmental Modification 
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of 
Environmental Modification Techniques 

H Hazardous Wastes 
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of 
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal 

L Law of the Sea 
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS) 

M Marine Dumping 
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and 
Other Matter; note - also known as the London Convention 
Marine Life Conservation 
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High 
Seas 

N Nuclear Test Ban 
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer 
Space, and Under Water 

O Ozone Layer Protection 
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer 

S Ship Pollution 
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships 
(MARPOL) 

T Tropical Timber 
International Tropical Timber Agreement 

W Wetlands 
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As 
Waterfowl Habitat; note - also known as Ramsar 
Whaling 
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling 

Note: Not all of the selected international environmental agreements have 
abbreviations. 


6 April 1994 

Appendix E: Selected International Environmental Agreements 


Air Pollution 

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution 

----- 

Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides 

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Nitrogen 
Oxides Protocol) 

----- 

Air Pollution-Sulphur 

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Sulphur 
Protocol) 

----- 

Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds 

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Volatile 
Organic Compounds Protocol) 
----- 
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol 

see Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 

----- 

Antarctic Treaty 

date opened for signature - 1959 

objective - to ensure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purposes, 
for international cooperation in scientific research, and that it does 
not become the scene or object of international discord 

parties - (42) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, 
India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Netherlands, New 
Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, 
Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United 
Kingdom, United States, Uruguay 

----- 

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous 
Wastes and Their Disposal 

note - abbreviated as Hazardous Wastes 

date opened for signature - 1989 

objective - to reduce transboundary movements of wastes subject to the 
Convention to a minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and 
efficient management of such wastes; to minimize the amount and 
toxicity of wastes generated and ensure their environmentally sound 
management as closely as possible to the source of generation; and to 
assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and 
other wastes they generate 

parties - (65) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The 
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, 
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, 
European Union, Finland, France, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, 
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mexico, 
Monaco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Peru, Philippines, 
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 
Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Syria, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, United 
Kingdom, Uruguay 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Afghanistan, Bolivia, Colombia, Germany, Greece, 
Guatemala, Haiti, Israel, Lebanon, New Zealand, Russia, Thailand, 
Turkey, United States, Venezuela 

----- 

Biodiversity 

see Convention on Biological Diversity 

----- 

Convention on Biological Diversity 

note - abbreviated as Biodiversity 

date opened for signature - 1992 

objective - to develop national strategies for the conservation and 
sustainable use of biological diversity 

parties - (53) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Australia, The 
Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Brazil, Burkina, Canada, China, 
Cook Islands, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, European Union, 
Fiji, Germany, Guinea, Hungary, India, Japan, Jordan, Malawi, Maldives, 
Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, 
New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, 
Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Seychelles, Spain, Sri 
Lanka, Sweden, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Austria, 
Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, 
Botswana, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central 
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, 
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, 
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, 
Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, 
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, 
Malta, Mauritania, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Morocco, 
Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, 
Pakistan, Panama, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, 
Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon 
Islands, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, 
United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, 
Vietnam, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe 

----- 

Climate Change 

see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 

----- 

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High 
Seas 

note - abbreviated as Marine Life Conservation 

date opened for signature - 1958 

objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems 
involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, 
considering that through the development of modern techniques some of 
these resources are in danger of being over exploited 

parties - (37) Australia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina, 
Cambodia, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Finland, France, 
Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, 
Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal, Sierra 
Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, 
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, 
Venezuela, former Yugoslavia 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Afghanistan, Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ghana, 
Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Nepal, New 
Zealand, Pakistan, Panama, Sri Lanka, Taiwan (Canada signed on behalf 
of Taiwan), Tunisia, Uruguay 

----- 

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution 

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution 

date opened for signature - 1979 

objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and 
to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range 
transboundary air pollution 

parties - (38) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, European 
Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, 
Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, 
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, former 
Yugoslavia 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Holy See, San Marino 

----- 

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Nitrogen Oxides 
Protocol) 

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides 

date opened for signature - 1988 

objective - to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides 
and their transboundary fluxes 

parties - (23) Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, 
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Spain 

----- 

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Sulphur Protocol) 

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Sulphur 

date opened for signature - 1985; a second protocol to further reduce 
sulfur dioxide emissions was completed in 1994 

objective - to provide for a 30% reduction in sulfur emissions or 
transboundary fluxes by 1993 

parties - (21) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech 
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, 
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine 

----- 

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Volatile Organic 
Compounds Protocol) 

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds 

date opened for signature - 1991, but not yet in force 

objective - to provide for the control and reduction of emissions of 
Volatile Organic Compounds in order to reduce their transboundary 
fluxes so as to protect human health and the environment from adverse 
effects 

parties - (8) Finland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, 
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, European 
Union, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Ukraine, 
United Kingdom, United States 

----- 

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Flora and Fauna (CITES) 

note - abbreviated as Endangered Species 

date opened for signature - 1973 

objective - to protect certain endangered species from overexploitation 
by means of a system of import/export permits 

parties - (104) Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, 
Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, 
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, 
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, 
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, 
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, 
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United 
Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, 
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Cambodia, Ireland, Kuwait, Lesotho, Vietnam 

----- 

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and 
Other Matter (London Convention) 

note - abbreviated as Marine Dumping 

date opened for signature - 1972 

objective - to control pollution of the sea by dumping, and to 
encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention 

parties - (70) Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, 
Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, 
Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, European Union, 
Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, 
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, 
Kiribati, Libya, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nauru, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New 
Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saint Lucia, Seychelles, 
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, 
United States, Vanuatu, former Yugoslavia, Zaire 

----- 

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of 
Environmental Modification Techniques 

note - abbreviated as Environmental Modification 

date opened for signature - 1976 

objective - to prohibit the military or other hostile use of 
environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace 
and trust among nations 

parties - (62) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, 
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Dominica, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, 
India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, 
Malawi, Mauritius, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, 
Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Sao 
Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, 
Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Bolivia, Ethiopia, Holy See, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, 
Liberia, Luxembourg, Morocco, Nicaragua, Portugal, Sierra Leone, Syria, 
Turkey, Uganda, Zaire 

----- 

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As 
Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar) 

note - abbreviated as Wetlands 

date opened for signature - 1971 

objective - to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of 
wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological 
functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and 
recreational value 

parties - (65) Algeria, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, 
Burkina, Canada, Chad, Chile, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, 
Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, 
Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Mali, Malta, 
Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, 
Pakistan, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, South 
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, 
Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, 
former Yugoslavia, Zambia 

----- 

Endangered Species 

see Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Flora and Fauna (CITES) 

----- 

Environmental Modification 

see Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use 
of Environmental Modification Techniques 

----- 

Hazardous Wastes 

see Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of 
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal 

----- 

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships 
(MARPOL) 

note - abbreviated as Ship Pollution 

date opened for signature - 1973/78 

objective - to preserve the marine environment by achieving the 
complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances 
and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances 

parties - (83) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, 
Austria, The Bahamas, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada, 
China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, 
Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, 
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, 
Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, 
Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New 
Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, 
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, 
Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Vietnam, 
former Yugoslavia 

----- 

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling 

note - abbreviated as Whaling 

date opened for signature - 1946 

objective - to protect all species of whales from overfishing and 
safeguard for future generations the great natural resources 
represented by whale stocks; to establish a system of international 
regulation for the whale fisheries to ensure proper conservation and 
development of whale stocks 

parties - (39) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Belize, 
Brazil, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, 
Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mauritius, Mexico, 
Monaco, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, 
Peru, Philippines, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 
Senegal, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States 

----- 

International Tropical Timber Agreement 

note - abbreviated as Tropical Timber 

date opened for signature - 1983; a new agreement was opened for 
signature in 1994, but is not yet in force 

objective - to provide an effective framework for cooperation between 
tropical timber producers and consumers and to encourage the 
development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilization and 
conservation of tropical forests and their genetic resources 

parties - (45) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, 
China, Colombia, Congo, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, 
Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Ireland, 
Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, 
Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and 
Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Zaire 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
agreement: Bolivia, Brazil, Cote d'Ivoire, European Union, Honduras, 
Peru, Philippines 

----- 

Law of the Sea 

see United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS) 

----- 

Marine Dumping 

see Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes 
and Other Matter (London Convention) 

----- 

Marine Life Conservation 

see Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the 
High Seas 
----- 
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer 

note - abbreviated as Ozone Layer Protection 

date opened for signature - 1987 

objective - to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures 
to control emissions of substances that deplete it 

parties - (136) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, 
Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, 
Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, 
Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, 
Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, 
El Salvador, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, 
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, 
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, 
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, 
Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, 
Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Namibia, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, 
Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, 
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, 
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, 
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, The 
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab 
Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
protocol: Congo, Morocco 

----- 

Nuclear Test Ban 

see Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer 
Space, and Under Water 

----- 

Ozone Layer Protection 

see Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 

----- 

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 

note - abbreviated as Antarctic-Environmental Protocol 

date opened for signature - 1991, but not yet in force 

objective - to enhance the protection of the Antarctic environment and 
dependent and associated ecosystems 

parties - (9) Argentina, Australia, Ecuador, France, Netherlands, 
Norway, Peru, Spain, Sweden 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
protocol: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, 
Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, New 
Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South 
Africa, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay 

----- 

Ship Pollution 

see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships 
(MARPOL) 

----- 

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, 
and Under Water 

note - abbreviated as Nuclear Test Ban 

date opened for signature - 1963 

objective - to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament 
under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of 
the United Nations; to put an end to the armaments race and eliminate 
incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, 
including nuclear weapons 

parties - (112) Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, 
Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, 
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, 
Fiji, Finland, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, 
Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South 
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, 
Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, 
Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, 
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, 
Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, 
Venezuela, former Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
treaty: Algeria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Haiti, Mali, 
Paraguay, Portugal, Somalia, Vietnam 

----- 

Tropical Timber 

see International Tropical Timber Agreement 

----- 

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS) 

note - abbreviated as Law of the Sea 

date opened for signature - 1982, but not yet in force 

objective - to set up a comprehensive new legal regime for the sea and 
oceans and, as far as environmental provisions are concerned, to 
establish material rules concerning environmental standards as well as 
enforcement provisions dealing with pollution of the marine environment 

parties - (60) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Costa Rica, 
Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, 
Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, 
Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Iraq, Jamaica, Kenya, Kuwait, Mali, 
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, 
Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Paraguay, Philippines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, 
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, 
Senegal, Seychelles, Slovakia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad 
and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, 
Zimbabwe 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, 
Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brunei, Bulgaria, 
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Central African Republic, 
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, European 
Union, Finland, France, Gabon, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, 
India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, 
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, 
Nicaragua, Niger, Niue, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, 
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra 
Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, 
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tuvalu, Ukraine, 
United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa 

----- 

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 

note - abbreviated as Climate Change 

date opened for signature - 1992 

objective-to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in 
the atmosphere at a low enough level to prevent dangerous anthropogenic 
interference with the climate system 

parties - (64) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, 
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, 
Canada, China, Cook Islands, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, 
Ecuador, European Union, Fiji, France, Germany, Guinea, Hungary, 
Iceland, India, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Maldives, Malta, Marshall 
Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, 
Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New 
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, 
Seychelles, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, 
Tuvulu, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
Zambia, Zimbabwe 

note - the following countries have signed, but not yet ratified the 
convention: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burma, 
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, 
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, 
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, 
Finland, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-
Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, Latvia, 
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, 
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, 
Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and 
Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon 
Islands, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, 
Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western 
Samoa, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, Zaire 

----- 

Wetlands 

see Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As 
Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar) 

----- 

Whaling 
see International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling


Appendix F: Weights and Measures 

Mathematical Notation 

Mathematical Power Name 
10^18 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion 
10^15 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion 
10^12 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion 
10^9 or 1,000,000,000 one billion 
10^6 or 1,000,000 one million 
10^3 or 1,000 one thousand 
10^2 or 100 one hundred 
10^1 or 10 ten 
10^0 or 1 one 
10-^1 or 0.1 one-tenth 
10-^2 or 0.01 one-hundredth 
10-^3 or 0.001 one-thousandth 
10-^6 or 0.000 001 one-millionth 
10-^9 or 0.000 000 001 one-billionth 
10-^12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one-trillionth 
10-^15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one-quadrillionth 
10-^18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 00 one-quintillionth 

Metric Interrelationships 

Conversions from a multiple or submultiple to the basic units of meters, 
liters, or grams can be done using the table. For example, to convert from 
kilometers to meters, multiply by 1,000 (9.26 kilometers equals 9,260 
meters) or to convert from meters to kilometers, multiply by 0.001 (9,260 
meters equals 9.26 kilometers). 

Prefix Symbol Length, weight, 
or capacity Area Volume 
exa E 10^18 10^36 10^54 
peta P 10^15 10^30 10^45 
tera T 10^12 10^24 10^36 
giga G 10^9 10^18 10^27 
mega M 10^6 10^12 10^18 
hectokilo hk 10^5 10^10 10^15 
myria ma 10^4 10^8 10^12 
kilo k 10^3 10^6 10^9 
hecto h 10^2 10^4 10^6 
basic unit - 1 meter, 1 meter^2 1 meter^3 
1 gram, 
1 liter 
deci d 10-^1 10-^2 10-^3 
centi c 10-^2 10-^4 10-^6 
milli m 10-^3 10-^6 10-^9 
decimilli dm 10-^4 10-^8 10-^12 
centimilli cm 10-^5 10-^10 10-^15 
micro u 10-^6 10-^12 10-^18 
nano n 10-^9 10-^18 10-^27 
pico p 10-^12 10-^24 10-^36 
femto f 10-^15 10-^30 10-^45 
atto a 10-^18 10-^36 10-^54 

Equivalents 

Units Metric Equivalent US Equivalent 

acre 0.404 685 64 hectares 43,560 feet^2 
acre 4,046,856 4 meters^2 4,840 yards^2 
acre 0.004 046 856 4 0.001 562 5 miles^2, 
kilometers^2 statute 
are 100 meters^2 119.599 yards^2 
barrel 
(petroleum, US) 158.987 29 liters 42 gallons 
(proof spirits, US) 151.416 47 liters 40 gallons 
(beer, US) 117.347 77 liters 31 gallons 
bushel 35.239 07 liters 4 pecks 
cable 219.456 meters 120 fathoms 
chain (surveyor's) 20.116 8 meters 66 feet 
cord (wood) 3.624 556 meters^3 128 feet^3 
cup 0.236 588 2 liters 8 ounces, liquid (US) 
degrees, Celsius (water boils at 100 multiply by 1.8 and add 32 
degrees C, freezes at to obtain degrees F 
0 degrees C) 
degrees, Fahrenheit subtract 32 and divide water boils at 212 degrees 
by 1.8 to obtain F, freezes at 32 degrees F) 
degrees C 
dram, avdp. 1.771 845 2 grams 0.0625 5 ounces, avdp. 
dram, troy 3.887 934 6 grams 0.125 ounces, troy 
dram, liquid (US) 3.696 69 milliliters 0.125 ounces, liquid 
fathom 1.828 8 meters 6 feet 
foot 30.48 centimeters 12 inches 
foot 0.304 8 meters 0.333 333 3 yards 
foot 0.000 304 8 kilometers 0.000 189 39 miles, statute 
foot^2 929.030 4 centimeters^2 144 inches^2 
foot^2 0.092 903 04 meters^2 0.111 111 1 yards^2 
foot^3 28.316 846 592 liters 7.480 519 gallons 
foot^3 0.028 316 847 meters^3 1,728 inches^3 
furlong 201.168 meters 220 yards 
gallon, liquid (US) 3.785 411 784 liters 4 quarts, liquid 
gill (US) 118.294 118 milliliters 4 ounces, liquid 
grain 64.798 91 milligrams 0.002 285 71 ounces, advp. 
gram 1,000 milligrams 0.035 273 96 ounces, advp. 
hand (height of horse) 10.16 centimeters 4 inches 
hectare 10,000 meters^2 2.471 053 8 acres 
hundredweight, long 50.802 345 kilograms 112 pounds, avdp. 
hundredweight, short 45.359 237 kilograms 100 pounds, avdp. 
inch 2.54 centimeters 0.083 333 33 feet 
inch^2 6.451 6 centimeters^2 0.006 944 44 feet^2 
inch^3 16.387 064 centimeters^3 0.000 578 7 feet^3 
inch^3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.029 761 6 pints, dry 
inch^3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.034 632 0 pints, liquid 
kilogram 0.001 tons, metric 2.204 623 pounds, avdp. 
kilometer 1,000 meters 0.621 371 19 miles, statute 
kilometer^2 100 hectares 247.105 38 acres 
kilometer^2 1,000,000 meters^2 0.386 102 16 miles^2, 
statute 
knot (1 nautical 
mi/hr) 1.852 kilometers/hour 1.151 statute miles/hour 
league, nautical 5.559 552 kilometers 3 miles, nautical 
league, statute 4.828.032 kilometers 3 miles, statute 
link (surveyor's) 20.116 8 centimeters 7.92 inches 
liter 0.001 meters^3 61.023 74 inches^3 
liter 0.1 dekaliter 0.908 083 quarts, dry 
liter 1,000 milliliters 1.056 688 quarts, liquid 
meter 100 centimeters 1.093 613 yards 
meter^2 10,000 centimeters^2 1.195 990 yards^2 
meter^3 1,000 liters 1.307 951 yards^3 
micron 0.000 001 meter 0.000 039 4 inches 
mil 0.025 4 millimeters 0.001 inch 
mile, nautical 1.852 kilometers 1.150 779 4 miles, statute 
mile^2, nautical 3.429 904 kilometers^2 1.325 miles^2, statute 
mile, statute 1.609 344 kilometers 5,280 feet or 8 furlongs 
mile^2, statute 258.998 811 hectares 640 acres or 1 section 
mile^2, statute 2.589 988 11 
kilometers^2 0.755 miles^2, nautical 
minim (US) 0.061 611 52 milliliters 0.002 083 33 ounces, liquid 
or one-sixtieth of a dram 
ounce, avdp. 28.349 523 125 grams 437.5 grains 
ounce, liquid (US) 29.573 53 milliliters 0.062 5 pints, liquid 
ounce, troy 31.103 476 8 grams 480 grains 
pace 76.2 centimeters 30 inches 
peck 8.809 767 5 liters 8 quarts, dry 
pennyweight 1.555 173 84 grams 24 grains 
pint, dry (US) 0.550 610 47 liters 0.5 quarts, dry 
pint, liquid (US) 0.473 176 473 liters 0.5 quarts, liquid 
point (typographical) 0.351 459 8 millimeters 0.013 837 inches 
pound, avdp 453.592 37 grams 16 ounces, avdp 
pound, troy 373.241 721 6 grams 12 ounces, troy 
quart, dry (US) 1.101 221 liters 2 pints, dry 
quart, liquid (US) 0.946 352 946 liters 2 pints, liquid 
quintal 100 kilograms 220.462 26 pounds, avdp. 
rod 5.029 2 meters 5.5 yards 
scruple 1.295 978 2 grams 20 grains 
section (US) 2.589 988 1 kilometers^2 1 mile^2, statute 
or 640 acres 
span 22.86 centimeters 9 inches 
stere 1 meter^3 1.307 95 yards^3 
tablespoon 14.786 76 milliliters 3 teaspoons 
teaspoon 4.928 922 milliliters 0.333 333 tablespoons 
ton, long or 
deadweight 1,016.046 909 kilograms 2,240 pounds, avdp. 
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 2,204.623 pounds, avdp. 
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 32,150.75 ounces, troy 
ton, register 2.831 684 7 meters^3 100 feet^3 
ton, short 907.184 74 kilograms 2,000 pounds, avdp. 
township (US) 93.239 572 kilometers^2 36 miles^2, statute 
yard 0.914 4 meters 3 feet 
yard^2 0.836 127 36 meters^2 9 feet^2 
yard^3 0.764 554 86 meters^3 27 feet^3 
yard^3 764.554 857 984 liters 201.974 gallons 



Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names 

This list indicates where various names, including all United States 
Foreign Service Posts, alternate names, former names, and political or 
geographical portions of larger entities, can be found in The World Fact-
book. Spellings are not necessarily those approved by the United States 
Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names are included in 
parentheses; additional information is included in brackets. 

Name Entry in The World Factbook 

Abidjan [US Embassy] Cote d'Ivoire 

Abu Dhabi [US Embassy] United Arab Emirates 

Abuja [US Embassy Branch Office] Nigeria 

Acapulco [US Consular Agency] Mexico 

Accra [US Embassy] Ghana 

Adamstown Pitcairn Islands 

Adana [US Consulate] Turkey 

Addis Ababa [US Embassy] Ethiopia 

Adelie Land (Terre Adelie) Antarctica 
[claimed by France] 

Aden Yemen 

Aden, Gulf of Indian Ocean 

Admiralty Islands Papua New Guinea 

Adriatic Sea Atlantic Ocean 

Aegean Islands Greece 

Aegean Sea Atlantic Ocean 

Afars and Issas, French Territory Djibouti 
of the (F.T.A.I.) 

Agalega Islands Mauritius 

Agana Guam 

Aland Islands Finland 

Alaska United States 

Alaska, Gulf of Pacific Ocean 

Aldabra Islands Seychelles 

Alderney Guernsey 

Aleutian Islands United States 

Alexander Island Antarctica 

Alexandria [US Consulate General Egypt 
closed in September 1993] 

Algiers [US Embassy] Algeria 

Alhucemas, Penon de Spain 

Alma-Ata (see Almaty) Kazakhstan 

Almaty (Alma-Ata) [US Embassy] Kazakhstan 

Alofi Niue 

Alphonse Island Seychelles 

Amami Strait Pacific Ocean 

Amindivi Islands India 

Amirante Isles Seychelles 

Amman [US Embassy] Jordan 

Amsterdam [US Consulate General] Netherlands 

Amsterdam Island (Ile Amsterdam) French Southern and Antarctic Lands 

Amundsen Sea Pacific Ocean 

Amur China; Russia 

Andaman Islands India 

Andaman Sea Indian Ocean 

Andorra la Vella Andorra 

Anegada Passage Atlantic Ocean 

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Sudan 

Anjouan Comoros 

Ankara [US Embassy] Turkey 

Annobon Equatorial Guinea 

Antananarivo [US Embassy] Madagascar 

Antipodes Islands New Zealand 

Antwerp [European Logistical Belgium 
Support Office] 

Aozou Strip Chad 

Apia [US Embassy] Western Samoa 

Aqaba, Gulf of Indian Ocean 

Arabian Sea Indian Ocean 

Arafura Sea Pacific Ocean 

Argun China; Russia 

Ascension Island Saint Helena 

Ashgabat [US Embassy] Turkmenistan 

Ashkhabad (see Ashgabat) Turkmenistan 

Asmara [US Embassy] Eritrea 

Asmera (see Asmara) Eritrea 

Assumption Island Seychelles 

Asuncion [US Embassy] Paraguay 

Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Islands 

Atacama Chile 

Athens [US Embassy] Greece 

Attu United States 

Auckland [US Consulate General] New Zealand 

Auckland Islands New Zealand 

Australes Iles (Iles Tubuai) French Polynesia 

Avarua Cook Islands 

Axel Heiberg Island Canada 

Azores Portugal 

Azov, Sea of Atlantic Ocean 

Bab el Mandeb Indian Ocean 

Babuyan Channel Pacific Ocean 

Babuyan Islands Philippines 

Baffin Bay Arctic Ocean 

Baffin Island Canada 

Baghdad [US Embassy temporarily Iraq 
suspended; US Interests Section 
located in Poland's embassy in 
Baghdad] 

Baku [US Embassy] Azerbaijan 

Baky (Baku) Azerbaijan 

Balabac Strait Pacific Ocean 

Balearic Islands Spain 

Balearic Sea (Iberian Sea) Atlantic Ocean 

Bali Sea Indian Ocean 

Balintang Channel Pacific Ocean 

Balintang Islands Philippines 

Balleny Islands Antarctica 

Balochistan Pakistan 

Baltic Sea Atlantic Ocean 

Bamako [US Embassy] Mali 

Banaba (Ocean Island) Kiribati 

Bandar Seri Begawan [US Embassy] Brunei 

Banda Sea Pacific Ocean 

Bangkok [US Embassy] Thailand 

Bangui [US Embassy] Central African Republic 

Banjul [US Embassy] Gambia, The 

Banks Island Canada 

Banks Islands (Iles Banks) Vanuatu 

Barcelona [US Consulate General] Spain 

Barents Sea Arctic Ocean 

Barranquilla [US Consulate] Colombia 

Bashi Channel Pacific Ocean 

Basilan Strait Pacific Ocean 

Bass Strait Pacific Ocean 

Basse-Terre Guadeloupe 

Basseterre Saint Kitts and Nevis 

Batan Islands Philippines 

Basutoland Lesotho 

Bavaria (Bayern) Germany 

Beagle Channel Atlantic Ocean 

Bear Island (Bjornoya) Svalbard 

Beaufort Sea Arctic Ocean 

Bechuanaland Botswana 

Beijing [US Embassy] China 

Beirut [US Embassy] Lebanon 

Belau (see Palu) Pacific Islands, 
Trust Territory of the 

Belem [US Consular Agency] Brazil 

Belep Islands (Iles Belep) New Caledonia 

Belfast [US Consulate General] United Kingdom 

Belgian Congo Zaire 

Belgrade [US Embassy; US does not Serbia and Montenegro 
maintain full diplomatic relations 
with Serbia and Montenegro] 

Belize City [US Embassy] Belize 

Belle Isle, Strait of Atlantic Ocean 

Bellingshausen Sea Pacific Ocean 

Belmopan Belize 

Belorussia Belarus 

Bengal, Bay of Indian Ocean 

Bering Sea Pacific Ocean 

Bering Strait Pacific Ocean 

Berkner Island Antarctica 

Berlin [US Branch Office] Germany 

Berlin, East Germany 

Berlin, West Germany 

Bern [US Embassy] Switzerland 

Bessarabia Romania; Moldova 

Bijagos, Arquipelago dos Guinea-Bissau 

Bikini Atoll Marshall Islands 

Bilbao [US Consulate] Spain 

Bioko Equatorial Guinea 

Biscay, Bay of Atlantic Ocean 

Bishkek [US Embassy] Kyrgyzstan 

Bishop Rock United Kingdom 

Bismarck Archipelago Papua New Guinea 

Bismarck Sea Pacific Ocean 

Bissau [US Embassy] Guinea-Bissau 

Bjornoya (Bear Island) Svalbard 

Black Rock Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 

Black Sea Atlantic Ocean 

Bloemfontein South Africa 

Boa Vista Cape Verde 

Bogota [US Embassy] Colombia 

Bombay [US Consulate General] India 

Bonaire Netherlands Antilles 

Bonifacio, Strait of Atlantic Ocean 

Bonin Islands Japan 

Bonn [US Embassy] Germany 

Bophuthatswana South Africa 

Bora-Bora French Polynesia 

Bordeaux [US Consulate General] France 

Borneo Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia 

Bornholm Denmark 

Bosporus Atlantic Ocean 

Bothnia, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean 

Bougainville Island Papua New Guinea 

Bougainville Strait Pacific Ocean 

Bounty Islands New Zealand 

Brasilia [US Embassy] Brazil 

Bratislava [US Embassy] Slovakia 

Brazzaville [US Embassy] Congo 

Bridgetown [US Embassy] Barbados 

Brisbane [US Consulate] Australia 

British East Africa Kenya 

British Guiana Guyana 

British Honduras Belize 

British Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 

British Somaliland Somalia 

Brussels [US Embassy, US Mission Belgium 
to European Union, US Mission to 
the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization (USNATO)] 

Bucharest [US Embassy] Romania 

Budapest [US Embassy] Hungary 

Buenos Aires [US Embassy] Argentina 

Bujumbura [US Embassy] Burundi 

Burnt Pine Norfolk Island 

Byelorussia Belarus 

Cabinda Angola 

Cabot Strait Atlantic Ocean 

Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 

Cairo [US Embassy] Egypt 

Calcutta [US Consulate General] India 

Calgary [US Consulate General] Canada 

California, Gulf of Pacific Ocean 

Campbell Island New Zealand 

Canal Zone Panama 

Canary Islands Spain 

Canberra [US Embassy] Australia 

Canton (Guangzhou) China 

Canton Island Kiribati 

Cape Town [US Consulate General] South Africa 

Caracas [US Embassy] Venezuela 

Cargados Carajos Shoals Mauritius 

Caroline Islands Micronesia, Federated States of; 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory 
of the 

Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean 

Carpentaria, Gulf of Pacific Ocean 

Casablanca [US Consulate General] Morocco 

Castries Saint Lucia 

Cato Island Australia 

Cayenne French Guiana 

Cebu [US Consulate General] Philippines 

Celebes Indonesia 

Celebes Sea Pacific Ocean 

Celtic Sea Atlantic Ocean 

Central African Empire Central African Republic 

Ceuta Spain 

Ceylon Sri Lanka 

Chafarinas, Islas Spain 

Chagos Archipelago (Oil Islands) British Indian Ocean Territory 

Channel Islands Guernsey; Jersey 

Charlotte Amalie Virgin Islands 

Chatham Islands New Zealand 

Cheju-do Korea, South 

Cheju Strait Pacific Ocean 

Chengdu [US Consulate General] China 

Chesterfield Islands New Caledonia 
(Iles Chesterfield) 

Chiang Mai [US Consulate General] Thailand 

Chihli, Gulf of (see Bo Hai) Pacific Ocean 

China, People's Republic of China 

China, Republic of Taiwan 

Chisinau [US Embassy] Moldova 

Choiseul Solomon Islands 

Christmas Island [Indian Ocean] Australia 

Christmas Island [Pacific Ocean] Kiribati 
(Kiritimati) 

Chukchi Sea Arctic Ocean 

Ciskei South Africa 

Ciudad Juarez [US Consulate General] Mexico 

Coco, Isla del Costa Rica 

Cocos Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands 

Colombo [US Embassy] Sri Lanka 

Colon, Archipielago de Ecuador 
(Galapagos Islands) 

Commander Islands Russia 
(Komandorskiye Ostrova) 

Conakry [US Embassy] Guinea 

Congo (Brazzaville) Congo 

Congo (Kinshasa) Zaire 

Congo (Leopoldville) Zaire 

Con Son Islands Vietnam 

Cook Strait Pacific Ocean 

Copenhagen [US Embassy] Denmark 

Coral Sea Pacific Ocean 

Corn Islands (Islas del Maiz) Nicaragua 

Corsica France 

Cosmoledo Group Seychelles 

Cotonou [US Embassy] Benin 

Crete Greece 

Crooked Island Passage Atlantic Ocean 

Crozet Islands (Iles Crozet) French Southern and Antarctic Lands 

Curacao [US Consulate General] Netherlands Antilles 

Czechoslovakia Czech Republic; Slovakia 

Dahomey Benin 

Daito Islands Japan 

Dakar [US Embassy] Senegal 

Daman (Damao) India 

Damascus [US Embassy] Syria 

Danger Atoll Cook Islands 

Danish Straits Atlantic Ocean 

Danzig (Gdansk) Poland 

Dao Bach Long Vi Vietnam 

Dardanelles Atlantic Ocean 

Dar es Salaam [US Embassy] Tanzania 

Davis Strait Atlantic Ocean 

Deception Island Antarctica 

Denmark Strait Atlantic Ocean 

D'Entrecasteaux Islands Papua New Guinea 

Devon Island Canada 

Dhahran [US Consulate General] Saudi Arabia 

Dhaka [US Embassy] Bangladesh 

Diego Garcia British Indian Ocean Territory 

Diego Ramirez Chile 

Diomede Islands Russia [Big Diomede]; United States 
[Little Diomede] 

Diu India 

Djibouti [US Embassy] Djibouti 

Dodecanese Greece 

Dodoma Tanzania 

Doha [US Embassy] Qatar 

Douala [US Consulate closed in Cameroon 
September 1993] 

Douglas Man, Isle of 

Dover, Strait of Atlantic Ocean 

Drake Passage Atlantic Ocean 

Dubai (see Dubayy) United Arab Emirates 

Dubayy [US Consulate General] United Arab Emirates 

Dublin [US Embassy] Ireland 

Durban [US Consulate General] South Africa 

Dushanbe [Embassy] Tajikistan 

Dutch East Indies Indonesia 

Dutch Guiana Suriname 

East China Sea Pacific Ocean 

Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) Chile 

Eastern Channel (East Korea Strait Pacific Ocean 
or Tsushima Strait) 

East Germany (German Democratic Germany 
Republic) 

East Korea Strait (Eastern Channel Pacific Ocean 
or Tsushima Strait) 

East Pakistan Bangladesh 

East Siberian Sea Arctic Ocean 

East Timor (Portuguese Timor) Indonesia 

Edinburgh [US Consulate General] United Kingdom 

Elba Italy 

Ellef Ringnes Island Canada 

Ellesmere Island Canada 

Ellice Islands Tuvalu 

Elobey, Islas de Equatorial Guinea 

Enderbury Island Kiribati 

Enewetak Atoll (Eniwetok Atoll) Marshall Islands 

England United Kingdom 

English Channel Atlantic Ocean 

Eniwetok Atoll Marshall Islands 

Epirus, Northern Albania; Greece 

Essequibo [claimed by Venezuela] Guyana 

Etorofu Russia [de facto] 

Farquhar Group Seychelles 

Fernando de Noronha Brazil 

Fernando Po (Bioko) Equatorial Guinea 

Finland, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean 

Florence [US Consulate General] Italy 

Florida, Straits of Atlantic Ocean 

Formosa Taiwan 

Formosa Strait (Taiwan Strait) Pacific Ocean 

Fortaleza [US Consular Agency] Brazil 

Fort-de-France [US Consulate General] Martinique 

Frankfurt am Main [US Germany 
Consulate General] 

Franz Josef Land Russia 

Freetown [US Embassy] Sierra Leone 

French Cameroon Cameroon 

French Indochina Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam 

French Guinea Guinea 

French Sudan Mali 

French Territory of the Afars Djibouti 
and Issas (F.T.A.I.) 

French Togo Togo 

Friendly Islands Tonga 

Frunze (Bishkek) Kyrgyzstan 

Fukuoka [US Consulate] Japan 

Funafuti Tuvalu 

Fundy, Bay of Atlantic Ocean 

Futuna Islands (Hoorn Islands) Wallis and Futuna 

Gaborone [US Embassy] Botswana 

Galapagos Islands (Archipielago Ecuador 
de Colon) 

Galleons Passage Atlantic Ocean 

Gambier Islands (Iles Gambier) French Polynesia 

Gaspar Strait Pacific Ocean 

Geneva [Branch Office of the Switzerland 
US Embassy, US Mission to European 
Office of the UN and Other 
International Organizations] 

Genoa [US Consulate General closed Italy 
in June 1993] 

George Town [US Consular Agency] Cayman Islands 

Georgetown [US Embassy] Guyana 

German Democratic Republic Germany 
(East Germany) 

German Federal Republic of Germany 
(West Germany) 

Gibraltar, Strait of Atlantic Ocean 

Gilbert Islands Kiribati 

Goa India 

Gold Coast Ghana 

Golan Heights Syria 

Good Hope, Cape of South Africa 

Goteborg Sweden 

Gotland Sweden 

Gough Island Saint Helena 

Grand Banks Atlantic Ocean 

Grand Cayman Cayman Islands 

Grand Turk [US Consular Agency] Turks and Caicos Islands 

Great Australian Bight Indian Ocean 

Great Belt (Store Baelt) Atlantic Ocean 

Great Britain United Kingdom 

Great Channel Indian Ocean 

Greater Sunda Islands Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia 

Green Islands Papua New Guinea 

Greenland Sea Arctic Ocean 

Grenadines, Northern Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 

Grenadines, Southern Grenada 

Grytviken Georgia 

Guadalajara [US Consulate General] Mexico 

Guadalcanal Solomon Islands 

Guadalupe, Isla de Mexico 

Guangzhou [US Consulate General] China 

Guantanamo Bay [US Naval Base] Cuba 

Guatemala [US Embassy] Guatemala 

Gubal, Strait of Indian Ocean 

Guinea, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean 

Guayaquil [US Consulate General] Ecuador 

Ha'apai Group Tonga 

Habomai Islands Russia [de facto] 

Hague, The [US Embassy] Netherlands 

Hainan Dao China 

Halifax [US Consulate General] Canada 

Halmahera Indonesia