(con't 5)

well-educated population, and a diverse industrial base, continues to
experience severe difficulties in moving from its old centrally
planned economy to a modern market economy. President YEL'TSIN's
government has made some progress toward a market economy by freeing
most prices, slashing defense spending, unifying foreign exchange
rates, and launching an ambitious privatization program. Yet much of
the old order persists and YEL'TSIN faces formidable opposition to
further measures such as the reduction of subsidies to old-line
industries. Output continues to fall although the mix is gradually
becoming more responsive to Russia's needs. According to Russian
official data, GDP declined by 12% in 1993 compared with 19% in 1992.
Industrial output in 1993 fell 16% with all major sectors taking a
hit. Agricultural production, meanwhile, was down 6%. The grain
harvest totalled 99 million tons - some 8 million tons less than in
1992. Unemployment climbed in 1993 but remained low by Western
standards. The official number of unemployed rose from 578,000 at the
beginning of 1993 to about 1 million - or roughly 1.4% of the work
force - by yearend. According to the Russian labor minister, the
actual number of unemployed probably was closer to 4 million.
Government fears of large-scale unemployment continued to hamper
industrial restructuring efforts. According to official statistics,
average real wages remained flat. Nonetheless, a substantial portion
of the population, particularly the elderly and people in remote
areas, finds its well-being steadily shrinking. The disparity in
incomes between the rich and poor continued to rise in 1993, primarily
reflecting the high earnings of enterprise managers and persons
employed in the emerging private sector. The government tried to
narrow the income gap by raising the wages of budget-funded workers -
mainly teachers and health care specialists. Official data may
overstate hardships, because many Russians supplement their income by
moonlighting or by bartering goods and services, activities that often
go unreported. Russia made good progress on privatization in 1993
despite active opposition from key cabinet members, hard-line
legislators, and antireform regional leaders. By yearend, for example,
roughly 35% of Russia's medium and large state enterprises had been
auctioned, while the number of private farms in Russia increased by
86,000, reaching a total of 170,000. As a result, about 6% of
agricultural land now has been privatized. Financial stabilization
continued to remain a challenge for the government. Moscow tightened
financial policies in early 1993 - including postponing planned budget
spending - and succeeded in reducing monthly inflation from 27% in
January to 20% in May and June. In the summer, however, the government
relaxed austerity measures in the face of mounting pressure from
industry and agriculture, sparking a new round of inflation; the
monthly inflation rate jumped to 25% in August. In response, Moscow
announced a package of measures designed to curb government spending
and inflation. It included eliminating bread subsidies, delaying
payment obligations, raising interest rates, and phasing out
concessionary Central Bank credits to enterprises and regions. The
measures met with some success; the monthly inflation rate declined to
13% in December. According to official statistics, Russia's 1993 trade
with nations outside the former Soviet Union produced a $16 billion
surplus, up from $6 billion in 1992. Moscow arrested the steep drop in
exports that it had been suffering as a result of ruptured ties with
former trading partners, output declines, and erratic efforts to move
to world prices. Foreign sales - comprised largely of oil, natural
gas, and other raw materials - grew slightly. Imports were down by 15%
or so as a result of new import taxes and Moscow's reluctance to
increase its debt burden by purchasing grain and other goods with
foreign credits. Russian trade with other former Soviet republics
continued to decline and yielded a surplus of some $5 billion. At the
same time, Russia paid only a fraction of the roughly $20 billion in
debt coming due in 1993, and by mid-year, Russia's foreign debt had
amounted to $81.5 billion. While Moscow reached agreement to
restructure debts with Paris Club official creditors in April 1993,
Moscow's refusal to waive its right to sovereign immunity kept Russia
and its bank creditors from agreeing to restructure Moscow's
commercial loans. Capital flight continued to be a serious problem in
1993, with billions of dollars in assets owned by Russians being
parked abroad at yearend. Russia's capital stock continues to
deteriorate because of insufficient maintenance and new construction.
The capital stock on average is twice the age of capital stock in the
West. Many years will pass before Russia can take full advantage of
its natural resources and its human assets.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $775.4 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Russian statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-12% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,190 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
21% per month (average 1993); 13% per month (December 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
1.4% (1 January 1994; official data)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$43 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products,
metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military
manufactures
partners: 
Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba
Imports: 
$27 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, chemicals, consumer goods, grain, meat,
sugar, semifinished metal products
partners: 
Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba
External debt: 
$81.5 billion (mid-year 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -16% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
213,000,000 KW
production: 
956 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,782 kWh (1 January 1992)
Industries: 
complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal,
oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from
rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; ship-
building; road and rail transportation equipment; communications
equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction
equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment;
medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables
Agriculture: 
grain, sugar beet, sunflower seeds, meat, milk, vegetables, fruits;
because of its northern location does not grow citrus, cotton, tea,
and other warm climate products
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic
consumption; government has active eradication program; used as
transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to
Western Europe and Latin America
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1990-93), $13 billion; other
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1988-93), $115 billion 
Currency: 
1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks
Exchange rates: 
rubles per US$1 - 1,247 (27 December 1993), 415 (24 December 1992);
nominal exchange rate still deteriorating but real exchange rate
strengthening
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Russia, Communications

Railroads: 
158,100 km all 1.520-meter broad gauge; 86,800 km in common carrier
service, of which 48,900 km are diesel traction and 37,900 km are
electric traction; 71,300 km serves specific industry and is not
available for common carrier use (30 June 1993)
Highways: 
total: 
893,000 km 
paved and gravel: 
677,000 km 
unpaved: 
216,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
total navigable routes in general use 100,000 km; routes with
navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet 95,900 km; of which
routes with night navigational aids 60,400 km; man-made navigable
routes 16,900 km (30 June 1993)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural gas 140,000
km (30 June 1993)
Ports: 
coastal - St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Petropavlovsk,
Arkhangel'sk, Novorossiysk, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Kholmsk, Korsakov,
Magadan, Tiksi, Tuapse, Vanino, Vostochnyy, Vyborg; inland -
Astrakhan', Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan', Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Samara,
Moscow, Rostov, Volgograd
Merchant marine: 
867 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,084,988 GRT/11,124,929 DWT,
barge carrier 2, bulk cargo 26, cargo 454, chemical tanker 9,
combination bulk 28, combination ore/oil 16, container 82,
multi-function large load carrier 3, oil tanker 125, passenger 6,
passenger cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 74,
short-sea passenger 18, specialized tanker 2 
Airports: 
total: 
2,550 
usable: 
964 
with permanent-surface runways: 
565 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
19 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
275 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
426 
Telecommunications: 
Russia is enlisting foreign help, by means of joint ventures, to speed
up the modernization of its telecommunications system; NMT-450 analog
cellular telephone networks are operational and growing in Moscow and
St. Petersburg; expanded access to international E-mail service
available via Sprint network; intercity fiberoptic cable installation
remains limited; the inadequacy of Russian telecommunications is a
severe handicap to the economy, especially with respect to
international connections; total installed telephones 24,400,000, of
which in urban areas 20,900,000 and in rural areas 3,500,000; of
these, total installed in homes 15,400,000; total pay phones for long
distant calls 34,100; telephone density is about 164 telephones per
1,000 persons (in 1992, only 661,000 new telephones were installed
compared with 855,000 in 1991 and in 1992 the number of unsatisfied
applications for telephones reached 11,000,000); international traffic
is handled by an inadequate system of satellites, land lines,
microwave radio relay and outdated submarine cables; this traffic
passes through the international gateway switch in Moscow which
carries most of the international traffic for the other countries of
the Commonwealth of Independent States; a new Russian Raduga satellite
will link Moscow and St. Petersburg with Rome from whence calls will
be relayed to destinations in Europe and overseas; satellite ground
stations - INTELSAT, Intersputnik, Eutelsat (Moscow), INMARSAT,
Orbita; broadcast stations - 1,050 AM/FM/SW (reach 98.6% of
population), 7,183 TV; receiving sets - 54,200,000 TVs, 48,800,000
radio receivers, 74,300,000 radio receivers with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion

@Russia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Strategic Rocket
Forces, Command and General Support, Security Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 37,706,825; fit for military service 29,623,429; reach
military age (18) annually 1,098,307 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Rwanda, Geography

Location: 
Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
26,340 sq km 
land area: 
24,950 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 893 km, Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km, Zaire
217 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January);
mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain: 
mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west
Natural resources: 
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), natural gas,
hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
29% 
permanent crops: 
11% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
10% 
other: 
32% 
Irrigated land: 
40 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; predominantly rural population

@Rwanda, People

Population: 
8,373,963 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
the demographic estimates were prepared before civil strife, starting
in April 1994, set in motion substantial and continuing population
changes
Population growth rate: 
2.78% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
49.17 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
21.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
118.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
40.25 years 
male: 
39.33 years 
female: 
41.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
8.19 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Rwandan(s) 
adjective: 
Rwandan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and
other 25% 
Languages: 
Kinyarwanda (official), French (official), Kiswahili used in
commercial centers
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
50% 
male: 
64% 
female: 
37% 
Labor force: 
3.6 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: 
49% of population of working age (1985)

@Rwanda, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Rwanda 
conventional short form: 
Rwanda 
local long form: 
Republika y'u Rwanda 
local short form: 
Rwanda 
Digraph: 
RW
Type: 
republic; presidential system
note: 
a new, interim government formed in August 1992 to last until peace
accord; political parties are working to form a multiethical
broad-based transitonal government to lead them to elections in 1995
Capital: 
Kigali 
Administrative divisions: 
10 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture in French; plural -
NA, singular - prefegitura in Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu,
Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri
Independence: 
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 July (1962) 
Constitution: 
18 June 1991
Legal system: 
based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Interim President Dr. Theodore SINDIKUBWABO (since 8 April 1994,
following the death of President Juvenal HABYARIMANA on 6 April 1994)
the last election was held 19 December 1988 (next planned for 1995);
results - the late President Juvenal HABYARIMANA was reelected
head of government: 
Prime Minister Jean KAMBANDA, appointed by President SINDIKUBWABWO 8
April 1994 following the assassination of Agatha UWILINGIYIMANA on 7
April 1994 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Development Council: 
(Conseil National de Developpement) elections last held 19 December
1988 (new elections to be held in 1995); results - MRND was the only
party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of Cassation and the
Council of State in joint session)
Political parties and leaders: 
Republican National Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND);
significant independent parties include: Democratic Republican
Movement (MDR); Liberal Party (PL); Democratic and Socialist Party
(PSD); Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR); Party for
Democracy in Rwanda (PADER); Christian Democratic Party (PDL)
note: 
formerly a one-party state, Rwanda legalized independent parties in
mid-1991; since then, at least 10 new political parties have
registered 
Other political or pressure groups: 
Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF), Alexis KANYARENGWE, Chairman (since
1990); Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA), the RPF military wing, Maj. Gen.
Paul KAGAME, commander
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA 
chancery: 
1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 232-2882 
FAX: 
(202) 232-4544 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
embassy: 
Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali 
mailing address: 
B. P. 28, Kigali 
telephone: 
[250] 75601 through 75603 
FAX: 
[250] 72128 
note: 
embassy closed on 10 April 1994 and personnel withdrawn because of
severe civil strife and consequent danger for foreign nationals
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with
a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which
has a plain yellow band

@Rwanda, Economy

Overview: 
Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea
make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is
limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created
problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing only
17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of
agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains dependent on
coffee/tea exports and foreign aid. Weak international prices since
1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to
decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in
October 1990. Ethnic-based insurgency in 1990-93 devastated wide areas
of the north and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. A peace
accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended most of the fighting, but massive
resumption of civil warfare in April 1994 in the capital city Kigali
has been taking thousands of lives and severely damaging short-term
economic prospects
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$350 million 
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$66.6 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
coffee 63%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
partners: 
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US
Imports: 
$259.5 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel,
petroleum products, cement and construction material
partners: 
US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan
External debt: 
$845 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2.2% (1991); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
30,000 kW
production: 
130 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
15 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin,
cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production,
soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Agriculture: 
accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the labor force; cash
crops - coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums);
main food crops - bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising;
self-sufficiency declining; country imports foodstuffs as farm
production fails to keep up with a 2.8% annual growth in population
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $58 million 
note: 
in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment Program with
the IMF; since September 1991, the EC has given $46 million and the US
$25 million in support of this program (1993)
Currency: 
1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 145.45 (December 1993), 133.35 (1992),
125.14 (1991), 82.60 (1990), 79.98 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Rwanda, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
4,885 km 
paved: 
460 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 1,725 km; unimproved earth 2,700 km 
Inland waterways: 
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telephone system does not provide service to the general public but is
intended for business and government use; the capital, Kigali, is
connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay;
the remainder of the network depends on wire and high frequency radio;
international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring
countries and satellite communications to more distant countries;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE
station in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service); broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV

@Rwanda, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (including Air Wing), Gendarmerie 
note: 
Rwanda plans to demobilize and reorganize with RPF elements during
1994
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,733,246; fit for military service 883,291 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 1.6% of GDP (1988 est.)


@Saint Helena

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Saint Helena, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1,920 km west of Angola,
about two-thirds of the way between South America and Africa
Map references: 
Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
410 sq km 
land area: 
410 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale
Island, and Tristan da Cunha
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
60 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds
Terrain: 
rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains
Natural resources: 
fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns,
no minerals 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
83% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial (the remains were taken
to Paris in 1840); harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown
anywhere else in the world

@Saint Helena, People

Population: 
6,741 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.31% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
9.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
37.24 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.75 years 
male: 
72.68 years 
female: 
76.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.14 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Saint Helenian(s) 
adjective: 
Saint Helenian 
Ethnic divisions: 
NA
Religions: 
Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
2,516 
by occupation: 
professional, technical, and related workers 8.7%, managerial,
administrative, and clerical 12.8%, sales people 8.1%, farmer,
fishermen, etc. 5.4%, craftspersons, production process workers 14.7%,
others 50.3% (1987)

@Saint Helena, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Saint Helena 
Digraph: 
SH
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Jamestown 
Administrative divisions: 
1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*; Ascension*, Saint Helena,
Tristan da Cunha*
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen, 10 June 1989 (second
Saturday in June) 
Constitution: 
1 January 1989
Legal system: 
NA 
Suffrage: 
NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Governor A. N. HOOLE (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Council: 
elections last held October 1984 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected) number of
seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Saint Helena Labor Party; Saint Helena Progressive Party
note: 
both political parties inactive since 1976
Member of: 
ICFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the
shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

@Saint Helena, Economy

Overview: 
The economy depends primarily on financial assistance from the UK. The
local population earns some income from fishing, the raising of
livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, a
large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment
overseas.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
-1.1% (1986)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$3.2 million 
expenditures: 
$2.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1984 est.)
Exports: 
$23,900 (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: 
fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), handicrafts
partners: 
South Africa, UK
Imports: 
$2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: 
food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials,
motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
partners: 
UK, South Africa
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
9,800 kW
production: 
10 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,390 kWh (1989)
Industries: 
crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing
Agriculture: 
maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being developed;
crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1992-93), $13.5 million 
Currency: 
1 Saint Helenian pound (#S) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Saint Helenian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6033
(1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989);
note - the Saint Helenian pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Saint Helena, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA (mainland 107 km, Ascension NA, Tristan da Cunha NA)
paved: 
169.7 km (mainland 87 km, Ascension 80 km, Tristan da Cunha 2.70 km)
unpaved: 
NA (mainland 20 km earth roads, Ascension NA, Tristan da Cunha NA)
Ports: 
Jamestown (Saint Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
1,500 radio receivers; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 550
telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to Ascension, then
into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks; major coaxial
submarine cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at
Ascension; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Saint Helena, Defense Forces
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way
between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
269 sq km 
land area: 
269 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
135 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Terrain: 
volcanic with mountainous interiors
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
22% 
permanent crops: 
17% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
17% 
other: 
41% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, People

Population: 
40,671 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.72% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
23.7 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
19.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
66.11 years 
male: 
63.14 years 
female: 
69.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.6 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s) 
adjective: 
Kittsian, Nevisian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black African 
Religions: 
Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
20,000 (1981)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis 
conventional short form: 
Saint Kitts and Nevis 
former: 
Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis 
Digraph: 
SC
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Basseterre 
Administrative divisions: 
14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint
George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward,
Saint John Capesterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint
Paul Capesterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint
Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point
Independence: 
19 September 1983 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 19 September (1983) 
Constitution: 
19 September 1983
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since 19 September 1983,
previously Governor General of the Associated State since NA November
1981) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS (since 19 September 1983,
previously Premier of the Associated State since NA February 1980);
Deputy Prime Minister Sydney Earl MORRIS (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general in consultation with the
prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 29 November 1993 (next to be held by 21 March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total, 11
elected) PAM 4, SKNLP 4, NRP 1, CCM 2
Judicial branch: 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's Action Movement (PAM), Dr. Kennedy SIMMONDS; Saint Kitts and
Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS; Nevis Reformation Party
(NRP), Simeon DANIEL; Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
INTERPOL, LORCS, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of Mission), Charge
d'Affaires ad interim Aubrey Eric HART 
chancery: 
Suite 608, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037 
telephone: 
(202) 833-3550 
FAX: 
(202) 833-3553 
US diplomatic representation: 
no official presence since the Charge d'Affaires resides in Saint
John's (Antigua and Barbuda)
Flag: 
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band
bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in
yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Economy

Overview: 
The economy has historically depended on the growing and processing of
sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In recent years,
tourism and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed larger roles.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $163 million (1992)
National product real growth rate: 
4.1% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$4,000 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.9% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
12.2% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$85.7 million 
expenditures: 
$85.8 million, including capital expenditures of $42.4 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$32.4 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
sugar, clothing, electronics, postage stamps
partners: 
US 53%, UK 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 5%, OECS 5% (1988)
Imports: 
$100 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, intermediate manufactures, machinery, fuels
partners: 
US 36%, UK 17%, Trinidad and Tobago 6%, Canada 3%, Japan 3%, OECS 4%
(1988)
External debt: 
$43.3 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 11.8% (1988 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
15,800 kW
production: 
45 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,120 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear,
beverages
Agriculture: 
accounts for 7% of GDP; cash crop - sugarcane; subsistence crops -
rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fishing potential not fully
exploited; most food imported
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $10.7 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $67
million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Communications

Railroads: 
58 km 0.760-meter gauge on Saint Kitts for sugarcane
Highways: 
total: 
300 km 
paved: 
125 km 
unpaved: 
otherwise improved 125 km; unimproved earth 50 km 
Ports: 
Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and international link
via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin; 2,400 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

@Saint Kitts and Nevis, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Saint Lucia, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about two-thirds of the way
between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
620 sq km 
land area: 
610 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
158 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January
to April, rainy season from May to August
Terrain: 
volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys
Natural resources: 
forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal
potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
20% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
13% 
other: 
54% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Whaling

@Saint Lucia, People

Population: 
145,090 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.52% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
23.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-12.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.36 years 
male: 
67.06 years 
female: 
71.83 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.5 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Saint Lucian(s) 
adjective: 
Saint Lucian 
Ethnic divisions: 
African descent 90.3%, mixed 5.5%, East Indian 3.2%, Caucasian 0.8% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3% 
Languages: 
English (official), French patois 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1980)
total population: 
67% 
male: 
65% 
female: 
69% 
Labor force: 
43,800 
by occupation: 
agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and commerce 17.7% (1983
est.)

@Saint Lucia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Saint Lucia 
Digraph: 
ST
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Castries 
Administrative divisions: 
11 quarters; Anse La Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros
Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux Fort
Independence: 
22 February 1979 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 22 February (1979) 
Constitution: 
22 February 1979
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10 October 1988) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since 3 May 1982); Vice
President George MALLET (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
consists of an 11-member body, 6 appointed on the advice of the prime
minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 2 after
consultation with religious, economic, and social groups
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 27 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) UWP 11, SLP
6
Judicial branch: 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
United Workers' Party (UWP), John COMPTON; Saint Lucia Labor Party
(SLP), Julian HUNTE; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George ODLUM
Member of: 
ACCT (associate), ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS 
chancery: 
Suite 309, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 30037 
telephone: 
(202) 463-7378 or 7379 
FAX: 
(202) 887-5746 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados)
Flag: 
blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper
edges of the arrowhead have a white border

@Saint Lucia, Economy

Overview: 
Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average annual growth
rate of almost 5% because of strong agricultural and tourist sectors.
Saint Lucia also possesses an expanding industrial base supported by
foreign investment in manufacturing and other activities, such as data
processing. The economy, however, remains vulnerable because the
important agricultural sector is dominated by banana production, which
is subject to periodic droughts and tropical storms. The economy
exhibited relatively strong growth in 1992-93 based on a recovery of
the agricultural and manufacturing sectors and continued growth in
construction and tourism.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $433 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$121 million 
expenditures: 
$127 million, including capital expenditures of $104 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$122.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
bananas 60%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil
partners: 
UK 56%, US 22%, CARICOM 19% (1991)
Imports: 
$276 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation equipment 21%,
food and live animals, chemicals, fuels
partners: 
US 34%, CARICOM 17%, UK 14%, Japan 7%, Canada 4% (1991)
External debt: 
$96.4 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
32,500 kW
production: 
112 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
740 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated
cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 14% of GDP and 43% of labor force; crops - bananas,
coconuts, vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa; imports food
for the tourist industry
Illicit drugs: 
transit country for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $120 million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

@Saint Lucia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
760 km 
paved: 
500 km 
unpaved: 
otherwise improved 260 km 
Ports: 
Castries, Vieux Fort
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fully automatic telephone system; 9,500 telephones; direct microwave
link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; interisland
troposcatter link to Barbados; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV
(cable)

@Saint Lucia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Header
Affiliation: 
(territorial collectivity of France) 

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Geography

Location: 
Northern North America, in the North Atlantic Ocean, 25 km south of
Newfoundland (Canada)
Map references: 
North America 
Area: 
total area: 
242 sq km 
land area: 
242 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon
groups
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
120 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate: 
cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
Terrain: 
mostly barren rock
Natural resources: 
fish, deepwater ports 
Land use: 
arable land: 
13% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
83% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
vegetation scanty

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, People

Population: 
6,704 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.78% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
11.72 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.6 years 
male: 
73.99 years 
female: 
77.55 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.7 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) 
adjective: 
French 
Ethnic divisions: 
Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 98% 
Languages: 
French 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
2,850 (1988)
by occupation: 
NA 

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon 
conventional short form: 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 
local long form: 
Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon 
local short form: 
Saint-Pierre et Miquelon 
Digraph: 
SB
Type: 
territorial collectivity of France 
Capital: 
Saint-Pierre 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence: 
none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French
control since 1763)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
Commissioner of the Republic Yves HENRY (since NA December 1993);
President of the General Council Marc PLANTE-GENEST (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
General Council: 
elections last held September-October 1988 (next to be held NA
September 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19
total) Socialist and other left-wing parties 13, UDF and right-wing
parties 6
French Senate: 
elections last held NA September 1986 (next to be held NA September
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PS 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA June
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) UDF 1;
note - Saint Pierre and Miquelon elects 1 member each to the French
Senate and the French National Assembly who are voting members
Judicial branch: 
Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Socialist Party (PS), Albert PEN; Union for French Democracy
(UDF/CDS), Gerard GRIGNON
Member of: 
FZ, WFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Economy

Overview: 
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing
and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of
Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the
number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over the
years. In March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish
quotas for Saint Pierre's trawlers fishing in Canadian and
Canadian-claimed waters for three years. The agreement settles a
longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish exports to a
halt. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports come
primarily from Canada and France.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $65 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$10,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
9.6% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$18.3 million 
expenditures: 
$18.3 million, including capital expenditures of $5.5 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$30 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners: 
US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal (1990)
Imports: 
$82 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building
materials
partners: 
Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,000 kW
production: 
25 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,840 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Agriculture: 
vegetables, cattle, sheep, pigs for local consumption; fish catch of
20,500 metric tons (1989)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $500 million 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
120 km 
paved: 
60 km 
unpaved: 
earth 60 km (1985)
Ports: 
Saint Pierre
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
3,601 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 FM, no TV; radio
communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in
French domestic satellite system

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea about three-fourths of the way
between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
340 sq km 
land area: 
340 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
84 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to
November)
Terrain: 
volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint
Vincent
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
38% 
permanent crops: 
12% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
41% 
other: 
3% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure
yachts and other effluents
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution, Whaling
Note: 
some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by Grenada

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, People

Population: 
115,437 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.77% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
20.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-7.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.28 years 
male: 
70.77 years 
female: 
73.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.08 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s) 
adjective: 
Saint Vincentian or Vincentian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black African descent, white, East Indian, Carib Indian 
Religions: 
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist 
Languages: 
English, French patois 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
96% 
male: 
96% 
female: 
96% 
Labor force: 
67,000 (1984 est.)
by occupation: 
NA

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 
Digraph: 
VC
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Kingstown 
Administrative divisions: 
6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint
George, Saint Patrick
Independence: 
27 October 1979 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 October (1979) 
Constitution: 
27 October 1979
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General David JACK (since 29 September 1989) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984); Deputy Prime
Minister Allan C. CRUICKSHANK (since NA); note - governor general
appoints leader of the majority party to position of prime minister
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 21 February 1994 (next to be held NA July 1999);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total; 15 elected
representatives and 6 appointed senators) NDP 10, MNU 2, SVLP 3
Judicial branch: 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son) MITCHELL; Saint Vincent Labor
Party (SVLP), Stanley JOHN; United People's Movement (UPM), Adrian
SAUNDERS; Movement for National Unity (MNU), Ralph GONSALVES; National
Reform Party (NRP), Joel MIGUEL
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Kingsley C.A. LAYNE 
chancery: 
1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 102, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 462-7806 or 7846 
FAX: 
(202) 462-7807 
US diplomatic representation: 
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados)
Flag: 
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and
green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V
pattern

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most important
sector of the economy. The services sector, based mostly on a growing
tourist industry, is also important. The government has been
relatively unsuccessful at introducing new industries, and high
unemployment rates of 35%-40% continue.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $215 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
35%-40% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$62 million 
expenditures: 
$67 million, including capital expenditures of $21 million (1990 est.)
Exports: 
$77.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, tennis racquets
partners: 
UK 54%, CARICOM 34%, US 10%
Imports: 
$118.6 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers,
minerals and fuels
partners: 
US 36%, CARICOM 21%, UK 18%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%
External debt: 
$62.6 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0% (1989); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
16,600 kW
production: 
64 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
555 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch
Agriculture: 
accounts for 15% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides bulk of
exports; products - bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices; small
numbers of cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish catch used locally
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $81
million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,000 km 
paved: 
300 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 400 km; unimproved earth 300 km 
Ports: 
Kingstown
Merchant marine: 
555 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,575,652 GRT/9,262,250 DWT,
bulk 96, cargo 280, chemical tanker 13, combination bulk 12,
combination ore/oil 2, container 31, liquefied gas 7, livestock
carrier 1, multi-function large load carrier 1, oil tanker 56,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 19,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 26, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker
1, vehicle carrier 1 
note: 
China owns 5 ships, Croatia owns 58, Russia owns 16; a flag of
convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
islandwide fully automatic telephone system; 6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF
interisland links from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the
Grenadines and Barbados; new SHF links to Grenada and Saint Lucia;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV (cable)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force, Coast Guard 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@San Marino, Geography

Location: 
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
60 sq km 
land area: 
60 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 39 km, Italy 39 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain: 
rugged mountains
Natural resources: 
building stone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
17% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
83% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
international agreements: 
NA 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See
and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino, People

Population: 
24,091 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.96% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.17 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
5.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
81.23 years 
male: 
77.17 years 
female: 
85.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.53 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Sammarinese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Sammarinese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Sammarinese, Italian 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
Italian 
Literacy: 
age 14 and over can read and write (1976)
total population: 
96% 
male: 
96% 
female: 
95% 
Labor force: 
4,300 (est.)
by occupation: 
NA 

@San Marino, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of San Marino 
conventional short form: 
San Marino 
local long form: 
Repubblica di San Marino 
local short form: 
San Marino 
Digraph: 
SM
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
San Marino 
Administrative divisions: 
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo
Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino,
San Marino, Serravalle
Independence: 
301 AD (by tradition)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September 
Constitution: 
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of
a constitution
Legal system: 
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
co-chiefs of state: 
Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI and Captain Regent Fausto MULARONI
(for the period 1 April 1994-30 September 1994) real executive power
is wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the
secretary of state for internal affairs
head of government: 
Secretary of State Gabriele GATTI (since July 1986) 
cabinet: 
Congress of State; elected by the Council for the duration of its
term
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Great and General Council: 
(Consiglio Grande e Generale) elections last held 30 May 1993 (next
to be held by NA May 1998); results - DCS 41.4%, PSS 23.7%, PDP 18.6%,
ADP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats - (60 total) DCS 26, PSS 14, PDP 11,
ADP 4, MD 3, RC 2
Judicial branch: 
Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Pier Marino MENICUCCI, Luigi
LONFERNINI; Democratic Progressive Party (PDP) formerly San Marino
Communist Party (PSS), Stefano MACINA; San Marino Socialist Party
(PSS), Dr. Emma ROSSI, Antonio Lazzaro VOLPINARI; Democratic Movement
(MD), Emilio Della BALDA; Popular Democratic Alliance (ADP); Communist
Refoundation (RC), Guiseppe AMICHI, Renato FABBRI
Member of: 
CE, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
honorary consulate(s) general: 
Washington and New York 
honorary consulate(s): 
Detroit 
US diplomatic representation: 
no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence (Italy)
is accredited to San Marino
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the
national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has
a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath,
below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

@San Marino, Economy

Overview: 
The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1991 more than 3.1
million tourists visited San Marino, 2.7 million of whom were
Italians. The key industries are wearing apparel, electronics, and
ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per
capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those
of Italy.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $370 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$16,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6.2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
3% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$275 million 
expenditures: 
$275 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity trade
consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood,
chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide
variety of consumer manufactures
Imports: 
see exports
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for 42% of workforce
Electricity: 
supplied by Italy
Industries: 
wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourism
Agriculture: 
employs 3% of labor force; products - wheat, grapes, maize, olives,
meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses; depends on
Italy for food imports
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its own coins
Exchange rates: 
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@San Marino, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
104 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Telecommunications: 
automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system;
11,700 telephones; broadcast services from Italy; microwave and cable
links into Italian networks; no communication satellite facilities

@San Marino, Defense Forces

Branches: 
public security or police force 
Defense expenditures: 
$3.7 million (1992 est.), 1% of GDP


@Sao Tome and Principe, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, in the Atlantic Ocean, 340 km off the coast of Gabon
straddling the equator
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
960 sq km 
land area: 
960 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
209 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain: 
volcanic, mountainous
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
20% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
75% 
other: 
3% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Sao Tome and Principe, People

Population: 
136,780 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.63% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
35.2 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.88 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
63.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
63.33 years 
male: 
61.48 years 
female: 
65.24 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.52 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Sao Tomean(s) 
adjective: 
Sao Tomean 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves), forros
(descendents of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from
Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais
born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Religions: 
Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist 
Languages: 
Portuguese (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 
57% 
male: 
73% 
female: 
42% 
Labor force: 
21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in subsistence agriculture
and fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled workers;
56% of population of working age (1983)

@Sao Tome and Principe, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe 
conventional short form: 
Sao Tome and Principe 
local long form: 
Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe 
local short form: 
Sao Tome e Principe 
Digraph: 
TP
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Sao Tome 
Administrative divisions: 
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Principe, Sao Tome
Independence: 
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 12 July (1975) 
Constitution: 
new constitution approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990
Legal system: 
based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991); election last held 3
March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Miguel TROVOADA
was elected without opposition in Sao Tome's first multiparty
presidential election
head of government: 
Prime Minister Noberto Jose D'Alva COSTA ALEGRE (since 16 May 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the proposal of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National People's Assembly: 
(Assembleia Popular Nacional) elections last held 20 January 1991
(next to be held NA January 1996); results - PCD-GR 54.4%, MLSTP
30.5%, CODO 5.2%, FDC 1.5%, other 8.4%; seats - (55 total) PCD-GR 33,
MLSTP 21, CODO 1; note - this was the first multiparty election in Sao
Tome and Principe
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group (PCD-GR), Daniel
Lima Dos Santos DAIO, secretary general; Movement for the Liberation
of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP), Carlos da GRACA; Christian
Democratic Front (FDC), Alphonse Dos SANTOS; Democratic Opposition
Coalition (CODO), leader NA; other small parties
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Sao Tome and Principe has no embassy in the US, but does have a
Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos
AUGUSTO Ferreira, located at 122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New
York, NY 10168, telephone (212) 697-4211
US diplomatic representation: 
ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a
nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and
green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the
center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the
hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Sao Tome and Principe, Economy

Overview: 
The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the country gained
independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa
production has gradually deteriorated because of drought and
mismanagement, so that by 1987 output had fallen to less than 50% of
its former levels. As a result, a shortage of cocoa for export has
created a serious balance-of-payments problem. Production of less
important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm kernels, has also
declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of exports by a
ratio of 4:1. The emphasis on cocoa production at the expense of other
food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import 90% of food needs. It
also has to import all fuels and most manufactured goods. Over the
years, Sao Tome has been unable to service its external debt, which
amounts to roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable potential
exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has
taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also
implemented a Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to restructure the
economy and reschedule external debt service payments in cooperation
with the International Development Association and Western lenders.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $50 million (1990)
National product real growth rate: 
1.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$450 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
27% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$10.2 million 
expenditures: 
$36.8 million, including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$5.4 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
cocoa 78%, copra, coffee, palm oil
partners: 
Netherlands, Germany, China, Portugal
Imports: 
$31.5 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and electrical equipment 44%, food products 18%, petroleum
11%
partners: 
Portugal, Japan, Spain, France, Angola
External debt: 
$163.6 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1% (1991); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,000 kW
production: 
10 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
80 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries, shrimp processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 25% of GDP; dominant sector of economy, primary source of
exports; cash crops - cocoa (85%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee;
food products - bananas, papaya, beans, poultry, fish; not
self-sufficient in food grain and meat
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $8 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $89
million 
Currency: 
1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
dobras (Db) per US$1 - 129.59 (1 July 1993), 230 (1992), 260.0
(November 1991), 122.48 (December 1988), 72.827 (1987), 36.993 (1986)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Sao Tome and Principe, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
300 km 
paved: 
200 km 
unpaved: 
100 km 
note: 
roads on Principe are mostly unpaved and in need of repair
Ports: 
Sao Tome, Santo Antonio
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,096 GRT/1,105 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
minimal system; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Sao Tome and Principe, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 32,560; fit for military service 17,136 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Saudi Arabia, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,960,582 sq km 
land area: 
1,960,582 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land boundaries: 
total 4,415 km, Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676
km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km 
Coastline: 
2,640 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
18 nm
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
large section of boundary with Yemen not defined; status of boundary
with UAE not final; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim
islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate: 
harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature
Terrain: 
mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
39% 
forest and woodland: 
1% 
other: 
59% 
Irrigated land: 
4,350 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of
perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the
development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal
pollution from oil spills
natural hazards: 
frequent sand and dust storms
international agreements: 
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great
leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and
Suez Canal

@Saudi Arabia, People

Population: 
18,196,783 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
the population figure is consistent with a 3.24% growth rate; a 1992
census gives the number of Saudi citizens as 12,304,835 and the number
of residents who are not citizens as 4,624,459
Population growth rate: 
3.24% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
38.25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.91 years 
male: 
66.25 years 
female: 
69.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.67 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Saudi(s) 
adjective: 
Saudi or Saudi Arabian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10% 
Religions: 
Muslim 100% 
Languages: 
Arabic 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
62% 
male: 
73% 
female: 
48% 
Labor force: 
5 million-6 million
by occupation: 
government 34%, industry and oil 28%, services 22%, agriculture 16%

@Saudi Arabia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
conventional short form: 
Saudi Arabia 
local long form: 
Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah 
local short form: 
Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah 
Digraph: 
SA
Type: 
monarchy 
Capital: 
Riyadh 
Administrative divisions: 
14 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash
Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash
Sharqiyah, Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
Independence: 
23 September 1932 (unification)
National holiday: 
Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932) 
Constitution: 
none; governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law)
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced;
commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June
1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd
al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the
throne 13 June 1982) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; mostly made up of the royal family appointed by
the king
Legislative branch: 
a consultative council comprised of 60 members and a chairman who are
appointed by the King for a term of four years
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Council of Justice 
Political parties and leaders: 
none allowed
Member of: 
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer),
OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan Abd al-Aziz Al Saud 
chancery: 
601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 
telephone: 
(202) 342-3800 
consulate(s) general: 
Houston, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires C. David Welch 
embassy: 
Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh 
mailing address: 
American Embassy, Unit 61307, Riyadh; International Mail: P. O. Box
94309, Riyadh 11693; or APO AE 09803-1307 
telephone: 
[966] (1) 488-3800 
FAX: 
[966] (1) 482-4364 
consulate(s) general: 
Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah) 
Flag: 
green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There
is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white
horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the
traditional color of Islam

@Saudi Arabia, Economy

Overview: 
The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35%
of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest
reserves of petroleum in the world, ranks as the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the
government intends to bring its budget, which has been in deficit
since 1983, back into balance, and to encourage private economic
activity. Roughly four million foreign workers play an important role
in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and banking sectors. For
about a decade, Saudi Arabia's domestic and international outlays have
outstripped its income, and the government has cut its foreign
assistance and is beginning to rein in domestic programs.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $194 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$11,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
6.5% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$39 billion 
expenditures: 
$50 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$42.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum and petroleum products 92%
partners: 
US 21%, Japan 18%, Singapore 6%, France 6%, Korea 5%
Imports: 
$26 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, motor vehicles,
textiles
partners: 
US 18%, UK 12%, Japan 10%, Germany 5%, France 5%
External debt: 
$18.9 billion (December 1989 est., includes short-term trade credits)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 20% (1991 est.); accounts for 46% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
28,554,000 kW
production: 
63 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,690 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals,
cement, two small steel-rolling mills, construction, fertilizer,
plastics
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; subsidized by
government; products - wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus
fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching self-sufficiency in
food
Illicit drugs: 
death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin and
cocaine
Economic aid: 
donor: 
pledged bilateral aid (1979-89), $64.7 billion; pledged $100 million
in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon
Currency: 
1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalah
Exchange rates: 
Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since late 1986),
3.7033 (1986)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Saudi Arabia, Communications

Railroads: 
1390 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 448 km are double tracked
Highways: 
total: 
74,000 km 
paved: 
35,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 39,000 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas 2,200 km
(includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)
Ports: 
Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl, Yanbu' al Bahr,
Yanbu' al Sinaiyah
Merchant marine: 
74 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 865,343 GRT/1,240,874 DWT, bulk
1, cargo 11, chemical tanker 4, container 3, liquefied gas 1,
livestock carrier 5, oil tanker 23, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 6,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 1
Airports: 
total: 
215 
usable: 
195 
with permanent-surface runways: 
71 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
14 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
38 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
105 
Telecommunications: 
modern system with extensive microwave and coaxial and fiber optic
cable systems; 1,624,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 43 AM, 13
FM, 80 TV; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar,
UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine
cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; earth stations - 3 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT

@Saudi Arabia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard,
Coast Guard, Frontier Forces, Special Security Force, Public Security
Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 5,682,036; fit for military service 3,140,464; reach
military age (17) annually 147,420 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $16.5 billion, 13% of GDP (1993 budget)


@Senegal, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
196,190 sq km 
land area: 
192,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries: 
total 2,640 km, The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338
km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km 
Coastline: 
531 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of the boundary with The Gambia is indefinite; Senegal
and Guinea-Bissau signed an agreement resolving their maritime
boundary in 1993; boundary with Mauritania
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has strong
southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry
harmattan wind
Terrain: 
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Natural resources: 
fish, phosphates, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
27% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
30% 
forest and woodland: 
31% 
other: 
12% 
Irrigated land: 
1,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Marine Dumping
Note: 
The Gambia is almost an enclave

@Senegal, People

Population: 
8,730,508 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.11% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.15 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
75.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
56.58 years 
male: 
55.12 years 
female: 
58.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.09 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Senegalese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Senegalese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola 9%, Mandingo
9%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 2% 
Religions: 
Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman
Catholic)
Languages: 
French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
38% 
male: 
52% 
female: 
25% 
Labor force: 
2.509 million (77% are engaged in subsistence farming; 175,000 wage
earners)
by occupation: 
private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%
note: 
52% of population of working age (1985)

@Senegal, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Senegal 
conventional short form: 
Senegal 
local long form: 
Republique du Senegal 
local short form: 
Senegal 
Digraph: 
SG
Type: 
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital: 
Dakar 
Administrative divisions: 
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick,
Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence: 
20 August 1960 (from France; The Gambia and Senegal signed an
agreement on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose
confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
dissolved on 30 September 1989)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 4 April (1960) 
Constitution: 
3 March 1963, last revised in 1991
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting
office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981); election last held 21
February 1993 (next to be held February 2000); results - Abdou DIOUF
(PS) 58.4%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 32.03%, other 9.57%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in consultation
with the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held NA May 1998); results
- PS 70%, PDS 23%, other 7%; seats - (120 total) PS 84, PDS 27, LD-MPT
3, Let Us Unite Senegal 3, PIT 2, UDS-R 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Socialist Party (PS), President Abdou DIOUF; Senegalese Democratic
Party (PDS), Abdoulaye WADE; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement
(LD-MPT), Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY; Independent Labor Party (PIT), Amath
DANSOKHO; Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal (UDS-R), Mamadou
Puritain FALL; other small uninfluential parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
students; teachers; labor; Muslim Brotherhoods
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC,
PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMUR, UNTAC, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK 
chancery: 
2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-0540 or 0541 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mark JOHNSON 
embassy: 
Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar 
mailing address: 
B. P. 49, Dakar 
telephone: 
[221] 23-42-96 or 23-34-24 
FAX: 
[221] 22-29-91 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with
a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Senegal, Economy

Overview: 
After 14 years of mixed compliance with IMF and World Bank economic
reform programs, Senegal finds its economy remains hostage to negative
economic forces. Declining terms of trade, weather-related setbacks,
and relentless growth in population have held back overall growth and
left per capita incomes stagnant, if not diminished. The economy
continues to rely on exports of fish, peanuts, and phosphates for hard
currency earnings. A 50% devaluation of the African franc in January
1994 is likely to lead to substantial increases in local currency
prices for producers that may spur improved production. A sheltered
import-substitution sector, comprising textiles, shoes, and other
light manufacturing, will remain plagued, however, by high labor,
transportation, and energy costs. Public finances face a decade-long
trend in declining tax revenues, making the government increasingly
dependent on official development assistance from bilateral donors.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.2% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
-1.8% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $269 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$904 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
fish, ground nuts, petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
partners: 
France, other EC members, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods, petroleum
partners: 
France, other EC, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Algeria, China, Japan
External debt: 
$2.9 billion (1990)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.9% (1991); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
215,000 kW
production: 
760 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
100 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, petroleum
refining, building materials
Agriculture: 
accounts for 20% of GDP; major products - peanuts (cash crop), millet,
corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated
two-thirds self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 354,000 metric tons
in 1990
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Europe and
North America
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $551 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.23
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $295 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning 12
January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc
from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Senegal, Communications

Railroads: 
1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km double track
Dakar to Thies
Highways: 
total: 
14,007 km 
paved: 
3,777 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, improved earth 10,230 km 
Inland waterways: 
897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 112 km on the Saloum
Ports: 
Dakar, Kaolack, Foundiougne, Ziguinchor
Merchant marine: 
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,995 GRT/3,775 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
26 
usable: 
20 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
16 
Telecommunications: 
above-average urban system, using microwave and cable; broadcast
stations - 8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Senegal, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,951,370; fit for military service 1,018,802; reach
military age (18) annually 94,973 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 2% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Serbia and Montenegro

Header
Note: 
Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint
independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as
a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor
republics represents its continuation

@Serbia and Montenegro, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
102,350 sq km 
land area: 
102,136 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Kentucky
note: 
Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 sq km making it
slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 sq
km and a land area of 13,724 sq km making it slightly larger than
Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
total 2,246 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia; 173 km with
Motenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km
with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia
(south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km 
note: 
the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km
Coastline: 
199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern Serbia -
Muslims seeking autonomy; disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina and
Croatia over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo
seeks independence from Serbian Republic
Climate: 
in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers
with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and
Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast,
hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy
snowfall inland
Terrain: 
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east,
limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and
hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off
the coast; home of largest lake in former Yugoslavia, Lake Scutari
Natural resources: 
oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite,
chrome 
Land use: 
arable land: 
30% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
25% 
other: 
20% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
coastal water pollution from sewage outlets, especially in
tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and
other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped
into the Sava which flows into the Danube
natural hazards: 
subject to destructive earthquakes
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey
and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

@Serbia and Montenegro, People

Population: 
total: 
10,759,897 (July 1994 est.) 
Montenegro: 
666,583 (July 1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
10,093,314 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
Montenegro: 
0.79% (1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
0.54% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
Montenegro: 
13.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
14.35 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
Montenegro: 
5.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
8.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
Montenegro: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
Montenegro: 
10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
21.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
Montenegro: 
*** No data for this item ***
total population: 
79.44 years 
male: 
76.57 years 
female: 
82.5 years (1994 est.)
Serbia: 
*** No data for this item ***
total population: 
73.39 years 
male: 
70.9 years 
female: 
76.07 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
Montenegro: 
1.74 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Serbia: 
2.06 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s) 
adjective: 
Serbian and Montenegrin 
Ethnic divisions: 
Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13% 
Religions: 
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11% 
Languages: 
Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
2,640,909 
by occupation: 
industry, mining 40%, agriculture 5% (1990)

@Serbia and Montenegro, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Serbia and Montenegro 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Srbija-Crna Gora 
Digraph: 
Serbia: 
SR
Montenegro: 
MW
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Belgrade 
Administrative divisions: 
2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina); and 2 autonomous
provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Independence: 
11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as
self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia - SFRY)
National holiday: 
NA
Constitution: 
27 April 1992
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is
president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990); Momir BULATOVIC is
president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990); Federal Assembly
elected Zoran LILIC on 25 June 1993
head of government: 
Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Asim TELACEVIC (since NA
March 1993), Zeljko SIMIC (since NA 1993) 
cabinet: 
Federal Executive Council 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Federal Assembly
Chamber of Republics: 
elections last held 31 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total; 20 Serbian, 20
Montenegrin)
Chamber of Citizens: 
elections last held 31 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of votes by party NA; seats (138 total; 108 Serbian, 30
Montenegrin) - SPS 73, SRS 33, DPSCG 23, SK-PJ 2, DZVM 2, independents
2, vacant 3
Judicial branch: 
Savezni Sud (Federal Court), Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Serbian Socialist Party (SPS; former Communist Party), Slobodan
MILOSEVIC; Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Vojislav SESELJ; Serbian
Renewal Movement (SPO), Vuk DRASKOVIC, president; Democratic Party
(DS), Zoran DJINDJIC; Democratic Party of Serbia, Vojlslav KOSTUNICA;
Democratic Party of Socialists (DPSCG), Momir BULATOVIC, president;
People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Novak KILIBARDA; Liberal Alliance
of Montenegro, Slavko PEROVIC; Democratic Community of Vojvodina
Hungarians (DZVM), Agoston ANDRAS; League of Communists-Movement for
Yugoslavia (SK-PJ), Dragan ATANASOVSKI; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo
(LDK), Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president
Other political or pressure groups: 
Serbian Democratic Movement (DEPOS; coalition of opposition parties)
Diplomatic representation in US: 
US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic
relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia continues to function in the US
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rudolf V. PERINA 
embassy: 
address NA, Belgrade 
mailing address: 
American Embassy Box 5070, Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5070 
telephone: 
[38] (11) 645-655 
FAX: 
[38] (1) 645-221 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red

@Serbia and Montenegro, Economy

Overview: 
The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation has been followed by
bloody ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and
the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Serbia and
Montenegro faces major economic problems; output has dropped sharply,
particularly in 1993. First, like the other former Yugoslav republics,
it depended on its sister republics for large amounts of foodstuffs,
energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide varieties in climate, mineral
resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuate
this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating
much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup
of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial
plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical
assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic
difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic
situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a
communist government that is primarily interested in political and
military mastery, not economic reform. A further complication is the
imposition of economic sanctions by the UN.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $10 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
hyperinflation (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
more than 60% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 29%, manufactured goods 28.5%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 13.5%, chemicals 11%, food and
live animals 9%, raw materials 6%, fuels and lubricants 2%, beverages
and tobacco 1%
partners: 
prior to the imposition of sanctions by the UN Security Council trade
partners were principally the other former Yugoslav republics; Italy,
Germany, other EC, the FSU countries, East European countries, US
Imports: 
$6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 26%, fuels and lubricants 18%,
manufactured goods 16%, chemicals 12.5%, food and live animals 11%,
miscellaneous manufactured items 8%, raw materials, including coking
coal for the steel industry 7%, beverages, tobacco, and edible oils
1.5%
partners: 
prior to the imposition of sanctions by the UN Security Council the
trade partners were principally the other former Yugoslav republics;
the FSU countries, EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East
European countries, US
External debt: 
$4.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -42% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
8,850,000 kW
production: 
42 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,950 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles
and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy
(steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth,
cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone),
consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances),
electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Agriculture: 
the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production
of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and
chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive
beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a
well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit,
grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and
cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces fruits, vegetables,
tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of
Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has
only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a
Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes,
and rice
Illicit drugs: 
NA
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras
Exchange rates: 
Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 1,100,000 (15 June 1993), 28.230
(December 1991), 15.162 (1990), 15.528 (1989), 0.701 (1988), 0.176
(1987)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Serbia and Montenegro, Communications

Railroads: 
NA
Highways: 
total: 
46,019 km 
paved: 
26,949 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 10,373 km; earth 8,697 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
NA km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km 
Ports: 
coastal - Bar; inland - Belgrade
Merchant marine: 
bulk 19, bulk 2, cargo 16, combination ore/oil 1, conbination
tanker/ore carrier 1, container 5, passenger ship 1 
Montenegro: 
total 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 804,156 GRT/1,368,813 DWT
(controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners)
Serbia: 
total 3 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,631 GRT/451,843 DWT
(controlled by Serbian beneficial owners)
note: 
most under Maltese flag, all under the flag of Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag
Airports: 
total: 
55 
usable: 
51 
with permanent-surface runways: 
18 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
11 
Telecommunications: 
700,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, 9 FM, 18 TV; 2,015,000
radios; 1,000,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT

@Serbia and Montenegro, Defense Forces

Branches: 
People's Army - Ground Forces (internal and border troops), Naval
Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial
Defense Force, Civil Defense 
Manpower availability: 
Montenegro: 
males age 15-49 179,868; fit for military service 146,158; reach
military age (19) annually 5,399 (1994 est.)
Serbia: 
males age 15-49 2,546,717; fit for military service 2,048,921; reach
military age (19) annually 80,937 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
245 billion dinars, 4%-6% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the prevailing exchange
rate could produce misleading results


@Seychelles, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa in the western Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
455 sq km 
land area: 
455 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
491 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims Tromelin Island
Climate: 
tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late
May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to
May)
Terrain: 
Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are
coral, flat, elevated reefs
Natural resources: 
fish, copra, cinnamon trees 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
18% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
18% 
other: 
60% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
no fresh water, catchments collect rain water
natural hazards: 
lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short
droughts possible
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
Note: 
40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles, People

Population: 
72,113 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.84% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
21.88 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.67 years 
male: 
66.05 years 
female: 
73.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.23 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Seychellois (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Seychelles 
Ethnic divisions: 
Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2% 
Languages: 
English (official), French (official), Creole 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population: 
58% 
male: 
56% 
female: 
60% 
Labor force: 
27,700 (1985)
by occupation: 
industry and commerce 31%, services 21%, government 20%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985)
note: 
57% of population of working age (1983)

@Seychelles, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Seychelles 
conventional short form: 
Seychelles 
Digraph: 
SE
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Victoria 
Administrative divisions: 
23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile,
Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon,
Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe Island),
Grand' Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont
Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis,
Takamaka
Independence: 
29 June 1976 (from UK)
National holiday: 
National Day, 18 June (1993) ( adoption of new constitution)
Constitution: 
18 June 1993 
Legal system: 
based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage: 
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); election last held
20- 23 July 1993; results - President France Albert RENE reelected by
59.5% of votes, MANCHAM (PS party) 36.72%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
People's Assembly (Assemblee du Peuple): 
elections last held 20-23 July 1993; results - SPPF 82%, DP 15%, UO
3%; seats - (33 total, 22 elected) SPPF 22
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party - Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF), France
Albert RENE; Democratic Party (DP), Sir James MANCHAM; United
Opposition (UO) is a coalition of the following parties: Seychelles
Party (PS), Wavel RAMKALAWAN; Seychelles Democratic Movement (MSPD),
Jacques HONDOUL; Seychelles Liberal Party (SLP), Ogilvie BERLOUIS;; 
Other political or pressure groups: 
trade unions; Roman Catholic Church
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Marc Michael Rogers MARENGO 
chancery: 
(temporary) 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY 10017 
telephone: 
(212) 687-9766 or 9767 
FAX: 
(212) 922-9177 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Matthew F. MATTINGLY 
embassy: 
4th Floor, Victoria House, Box 251, Victoria, Mahe 
mailing address: 
Box 148, Unit 62501, Victoria, Seychelles; APO AE 09815-2501 
telephone: 
(248) 25256 
FAX: 
(248) 25189 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green; the
white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

@Seychelles, Economy

Overview: 
In this small, open, tropical island economy, the tourist industry
employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of
hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has encouraged
foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At
the same time, the government has moved to reduce the high dependence
on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and
small-scale manufacturing.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $407 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,900 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
9% (1987)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$172 million 
expenditures: 
$181 million, including capital expenditures of $48 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$47 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products (re-exports)
partners: 
UK 54% France 23%, Reunion 14%, (1991)
Imports: 
$192 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, food, petroleum products, tobacco, beverages,
machinery and transportation equipment
partners: 
South Africa 13%, Singapore 12%, UK 12% (1991)
External debt: 
$201 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.3% (1991); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
30,000 kW
production: 
80 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,160 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, coir rope
factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage
Agriculture: 
accounts for 5% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming; cash crops -
coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products - sweet potatoes, cassava,
bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported;
expansion of tuna fishing under way
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1978-89), $315
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $60 million 
Currency: 
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 5.2681 (January 1994), 5.1815
(1993), 5.1220 (1992), 5.2893 (1991), 5.3369 (1990), 5.6457 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Seychelles, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
260 km 
paved: 
160 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, earth 100 km 
Ports: 
Victoria
Merchant marine: 
1 refrigerated cargo (over 1,000 GRT) totaling 1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
14 
usable: 
14 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
direct radio communications with adjacent islands and African coastal
countries; 13,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

@Seychelles, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, National Guard, Marines, Coast Guard, Presidential Protection
Unit, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 19,399; fit for military service 9,900 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $12 million, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)


@Sierra Leone, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea and
Liberia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
71,740 sq km 
land area: 
71,620 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries: 
total 958 km, Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km 
Coastline: 
402 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter
dry season (December to April)
Terrain: 
coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau,
mountains in east
Natural resources: 
diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
25% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
31% 
forest and woodland: 
29% 
other: 
13% 
Irrigated land: 
340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of
timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture
have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war
depleting natural resources
natural hazards: 
dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (November to May)
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
ratified - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Sierra Leone, People

Population: 
4,630,037 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.62% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.06 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
18.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
141.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
46.4 years 
male: 
43.58 years 
female: 
49.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.96 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Sierra Leonean(s) 
adjective: 
Sierra Leonean 
Ethnic divisions: 
13 native African tribes 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 39%),
Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1% 
Religions: 
Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10% 
Languages: 
English (official; regular use limited to literate minority), Mende
principal vernacular in the south, Temne principal vernacular in the
north, Krio the language of the re-settled ex-slave population of the
Freetown area and is lingua franca
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write English, Merde, Temne, or Arabic
(1990 est.)
total population: 
21% 
male: 
31% 
female: 
11% 
Labor force: 
1.369 million (1981 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981 est.)
note: 
only about 65,000 wage earners (1985); 55% of population of working
age

@Sierra Leone, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Sierra Leone 
conventional short form: 
Sierra Leone 
Digraph: 
SL
Type: 
military government 
Capital: 
Freetown 
Administrative divisions: 
3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*
Independence: 
27 April 1961 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Republic Day, 27 April (1961) 
Constitution: 
1 October 1991; suspended following 19 April 1992 coup
Legal system: 
based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Chairman of the Supreme Council of State Capt. Valentine E. M.
STRASSER (since 29 April 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Secretaries; responsible to the NPRC
Legislative branch: 
unicameral House of Representatives (suspended after coup of 29 April
1992); Chairman STRASSER promises multi-party elections sometime in
1995
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders: 
status of existing political parties is unknown following 29 April
1992 coup
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Thomas Kahota KARGBO 
chancery: 
1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 939-9261 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Lauralee M. PETERS 
embassy: 
Walpole and Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[232] (22) 226-481 
FAX: 
[232] (22) 225-471 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light
blue

@Sierra Leone, Economy

Overview: 
The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed.
Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating about
one-third of GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working
population. Manufacturing, which accounts for roughly 10% of GDP,
consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light
manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining provides an
important source of hard currency. In 1990-93, the government, with
the support of the IMF and the World Bank, has made substantial
progress toward structural reform and better fiscal management. The
government readily met all IMF/WB targets in December 1993. The budget
deficit had been dramatically reduced; the government workforce had
been cut by 25%; large amounts of domestic debt had been retired;
arrears to the IMF, World Bank, and other creditors had been reduced.
On the negative side, continued incursions by the Liberian rebels,
bandits, and army deserters in southern and eastern Sierra Leone have
severely strained the economy and threaten economically critical
regions of the country.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.5 billion (FY93 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
35% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$68 million 
expenditures: 
$118 million, including capital expenditures of $28 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$149 million (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities: 
rutile 51%, bauxite 19%, diamonds 15%, coffee 5%
partners: 
US, UK, Belgium, Germany, other Western Europe
Imports: 
$131 million (c.i.f., FY92)
commodities: 
foodstuffs 33%, machinery and equipment 19%, fuels 16%
partners: 
US, EC countries, Japan, China, Nigeria
External debt: 
$633 million (FY92 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1.2% (FY91); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
85,000 kW
production: 
185 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
45 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale manufacturing
(beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery
Agriculture: 
accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the labor force;
largely subsistence farming; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, palm kernels;
harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs; annual fish
catch averages 53,000 metric tons
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $848
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $101 million 
Currency: 
1 leone (Le) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
leones (Le) per US$1 - 578.17 (January 1994), 567.46 (1993), 499.44
(1992), 295.34 (1991), 144.9275 (1990), 58.1395 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Sierra Leone, Communications

Railroads: 
84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a limited basis
because the mine at Marampa is closed
Highways: 
total: 
7,400 km 
paved: 
1,150 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel 490 km; improved earth 5,760 km 
Inland waterways: 
800 km; 600 km navigable year round
Ports: 
Freetown, Pepel, Bonthe
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (over 1,000 GRT) totaling 5,592 GRT/9,107 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
11 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
marginal telephone and telegraph service; national microwave radio
relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Sierra Leone, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Police, Security Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,006,280; fit for military service 487,158 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $6 million, 0.7% of GDP (1988 est.)


@Singapore, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
632.6 sq km 
land area: 
622.6 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
193 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
12 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
two islands in dispute with Malaysia
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons;
thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)
Terrain: 
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment
area and nature preserve
Natural resources: 
fish, deepwater ports 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
7% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
5% 
other: 
84% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
industrial pollution; limited water supply; limited land availability
presents waste disposal problems
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

@Singapore, People

Population: 
2,859,142 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.12% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.95 years 
male: 
73.17 years 
female: 
78.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.88 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Singaporean(s) 
adjective: 
Singapore 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3% 
Religions: 
Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist,
Confucianist 
Languages: 
Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official),
English (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
88% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
84% 
Labor force: 
1,485,800 
by occupation: 
financial, business, and other services 30.2%, manufacturing 28.4%,
commerce 22.0%, construction 9.0%, other 10.4% (1990)

@Singapore, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Singapore 
conventional short form: 
Singapore 
Digraph: 
SN
Type: 
republic within Commonwealth 
Capital: 
Singapore 
Administrative divisions: 
none
Independence: 
9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
National holiday: 
National Day, 9 August (1965) 
Constitution: 
3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore
Constitution
Legal system: 
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President ONG Teng Cheong (since 1 September 1993) election last held
28 August 1993 (next to be held NA August 1997); results - President
ONG was elected with 59% of the vote in the country's first popular
election for president
head of government: 
Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime
Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held 31 August 1991 (next to be held 31 August 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total) PAP 77, SDP
3, WP 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
government: 
People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary general
opposition: 
Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; Singapore Democratic Party
(SDP), CHIAM See Tong; National Solidarity Party (NSP), leader NA;
Barisan Sosialis (BS, Socialist Front), leader NA
Member of: 
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, COCOM (cooperating), CP, ESCAP, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNIKOM,
UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Sellapan Rama NATHAN 
chancery: 
1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 667-7555 
FAX: 
(202) 265-7915 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
embassy: 
30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617 
mailing address: 
FPO AP 96534 
telephone: 
[65] 338-0251 
FAX: 
[65] 338-5010 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side
of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion
is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed
stars arranged in a circle

@Singapore, Economy

Overview: 
Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and
manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links
derived from its entrepot history. The economy registered nearly 10%
growth in 1993 while stemming inflation. The construction and
financial services industries and manufacturers of computer-related
components have led economic growth. Rising labor costs continue to be
a threat to Singapore's competitiveness, but there are indications
that productivity is keeping up. In applied technology, per capita
output, investment, and labor discipline, Singapore has key attributes
of a developed country.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $42.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
9.9% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$15,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.4% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
2.7% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$11.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$10.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.9 billion (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$61.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum products,
telecommunications equipment
partners: 
US 21%, Malaysia 12%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 8%, Thailand 6% (1992)
Imports: 
$66.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: 
Japan 21%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%, Saudi Arabia 5%, Taiwan 4%
External debt: 
$0; Singapore is a net creditor
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
4,860,000 kW
production: 
18 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,420 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber
processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship
repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology
Agriculture: 
occupies a position of minor importance in the economy;
self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food;
major crops - rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables
Illicit drugs: 
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western
Europe, and the Third World; also a major money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1
billion 
Currency: 
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.6032 (January 1994), 1.6158
(1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Singapore, Communications

Railroads: 
38 km of 1.000-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
2,644 km (1985)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Singapore
Merchant marine: 
533 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,656,067 GRT/17,009,400 DWT,
bulk 87, cargo 125, chemical tanker 14, combination bulk 3,
combination ore/oil 8, container 80, liquefied gas 4, livestock
carrier 1, oil tanker 179, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 20 
note: 
many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned
Airports: 
total: 
10 
usable: 
10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and
television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to Malaysia
(Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT

@Singapore, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 857,824; fit for military service 630,055 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 6% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Slovakia, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between Hungary and Poland
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
48,845 sq km 
land area: 
48,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries: 
total 1,355 km, Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km,
Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary; unresolved property issues with
Czech Republic over redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal
property
Climate: 
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: 
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the
south
Natural resources: 
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and
manganese ore; salt
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA% 
permanent crops: 
NA% 
meadows and pastures: 
NA% 
forest and woodland: 
NA% 
other: 
NA% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
landlocked

@Slovakia, People

Population: 
5,403,505 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.53% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.81 years 
male: 
68.66 years 
female: 
77.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.96 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Slovak(s) 
adjective: 
Slovak 
Ethnic divisions: 
Slovak 85.6%, Hungarian 10.8%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992 census figures
underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could reach 500,000 or
more), Czech 1.1%, Ruthenian 15,000, Ukrainian 13,000, Moravian 6,000,
German 5,000, Polish 3,000
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%,
other 17.5% 
Languages: 
Slovak (official), Hungarian 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
2.484 million 
by occupation: 
industry 33.2%, agriculture 12.2%, construction 10.3%, communication
and other 44.3% (1990)

@Slovakia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Slovak Republic 
conventional short form: 
Slovakia 
local long form: 
Slovenska Republika 
local short form: 
Slovensko 
Digraph: 
LO
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Bratislava 
Administrative divisions: 
4 departments (kraje, singular - Kraj) Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky,
Stredoslovensky, Vychodoslovensky
Independence: 
1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, August 29 (1944) 
Constitution: 
ratified 1 September 1992; fully effective 1 January 1993
Legal system: 
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the
obligations of Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Michal KOVAC (since 8 February 1993); election last held 8
February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - Michal KOVAC
elected by the National Council
head of government: 
Prime Minister Jozef MORAVCIK (since 16 March 1994) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Council (Narodni Rada): 
elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held 31
September-1October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (150 total) Movement for a Democratic Slovakia 55, Party of the
Democratic Left 28, Christian Democratic Movement 18, Slovak National
Party 9, National Democratic Party 5, Hungarian Christian Democratic
Movement/Coexistence 14, Democratic Union of Slovakia 16, independents
5
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Vladimir MECIAR, chairman; Party
of the Democratic Left, Peter WEISS, chairman; Christian Democratic
Movement, Jan CARNOGURSKY; Slovak National Party, Jan SLOTA, chairman;
Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, Vojtech BUGAR; National
Democratic Party - New Alternative, Ludovit CERNAK, chairman;
Democratic Union of Slovakia, Jozef MORAVCIK, chairman; Coexistence
Movement, Miklos DURAY, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
Green Party; Social Democratic Party in Slovakia; Freedom Party;
Slovak Christian Union; Hungarian Civic Party
Member of: 
BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN (as of 8 January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Bravislav LICHARDUS 
chancery: 
(temporary) Suite 330, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 965-5161 
FAX: 
(202) 965-5166 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassdor Theodore RUSSELL 
embassy: 
Hviezdoslavovo Namesite 4, 81102 Bratislava 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[42] (7) 330-861 
FAX: 
[42] (7) 335-439 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist
side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

@Slovakia, Economy

Overview: 
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent states - the
Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated the
task of moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The old
Czechoslovakia, even though highly industrialized by East European
standards, suffered from an aging capital plant, lagging technology,
and a deficiency in energy and many raw materials. In January 1991,
approximately one year after the end of communist control of Eastern
Europe, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic launched a sweeping
program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and controlled
economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and
the setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost
in inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a
whole inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992
in Slovakia, inflation slowed to an estimated 8.7% and the estimated
fall in GDP was a more moderate 7%. In 1993 GDP fell roughly 5%, with
the disruptions from the separation from the Czech lands probably
accounting for half the decline; exports to the Czech Republic fell
about 35%. Bratislava adopted an austerity program in June and
devalued its currency 10% in July. In 1993, inflation rose an
estimated 23%, unemployment topped 14%, and the budget deficit
exceeded the IMF target of $485 million by over $200 million. By
yearend 1993 Bratislava estimated that 29% of GDP was being produced
in the private sector. The forecast for 1994 is gloomy; Bratislava
optimistically projects no growth in GDP, 17% unemployment, a $425
million budget deficit, and 12% inflation. At best, if Slovakia stays
on track with the IMF, GDP could fall by only 2-3% in 1994 and
unemployment could be held under 18%, but a currency devaluation will
likely drive inflation above 15%.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $31 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
23% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
14.4% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$4.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$5.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$5.13 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment; chemicals; fuels, minerals, and
metals; agricultural products
partners: 
Czech Republic, CIS republics, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary,
Italy, France, US, UK
Imports: 
$5.95 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment; fuels and lubricants; manufactured
goods; raw materials; chemicals; agricultural products
partners: 
Czech Republic, CIS republics, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland,
Hungary, UK, Italy
External debt: 
$3.2 billion hard currency indebtedness (31 December 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -13.5% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,800,000 kW
production: 
24 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,550 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
brown coal mining, chemicals, metal-working, consumer appliances,
fertilizer, plastics, armaments
Agriculture: 
largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and
livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops,
fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western
Europe
Economic aid: 
donor: 
the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid
to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency: 
1 koruna (Sk) = 100 halierov
Exchange rates: 
koruny (Sk) per US$1 - 32.9 (December 1993), 28.59 (December 1992),
28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989); note - values
before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rate
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Slovakia, Communications

Railroads: 
3,669 km total (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
17,650 km (1990)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Inland waterways: 
NA km
Pipelines: 
petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km 
Ports: 
maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia
(Rijeka), Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal
river ports are Komarno on the Danube and Bratislava on the Danube
Merchant marine: 
total 19 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 309,502 GRT/521,997 DWT, bulk
13, cargo 6 
note: 
most under the flag of Saint Vincent
Airports: 
total: 
46 
usable: 
32 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
18 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
NA

@Slovakia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,426,290; fit for military service 1,095,604; reach
military age (18) annually 48,695 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
8.2 billion koruny, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results


@Slovenia, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Austria and Croatia
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
20,296 sq km 
land area: 
20,296 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
total 1,045 km, Austria 262 km, Croatia 501 km, Italy 199 km, Hungary
83 km 
Coastline: 
32 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
dispute with Croatia over fishing rights in the Adriatic and over some
border areas; the border issue is currently under negotiation
Climate: 
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to
hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain: 
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region
adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to
the east
Natural resources: 
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
45% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; heavy metals
and toxic chemicals along coastal waters; forest damage near Koper
from air pollution originating at metallurgical and chemical plants
natural hazards: 
subject to flooding and earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Slovenia, People

Population: 
1,972,227 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.23% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.36 years 
male: 
70.49 years 
female: 
78.44 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.67 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Slovene(s) 
adjective: 
Slovenian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 96% (including 2% Uniate), Muslim 1%, other 3% 
Languages: 
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 7%, other 2% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
786,036 
by occupation: 
agriculture 2%, manufacturing and mining 46%

@Slovenia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Slovenia 
conventional short form: 
Slovenia 
local long form: 
Republika Slovenije 
local short form: 
Slovenija 
Digraph: 
SI
Type: 
emerging democracy 
Capital: 
Ljubljana 
Administrative divisions: 
60 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina) Ajdovscina, Brezice,
Celje, Cerknica, Crnomelj, Dravograd, Gornja Radgona, Grosuplje,
Hrastnik Lasko, Idrija, Ilirska Bistrica, Izola, Jesenice, Kamnik,
Kocevje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija,
Ljubljana-Bezigrad, Ljubljana-Center, Ljubljana-Moste-Polje,
Ljubljana-Siska, Ljubljana-Vic-Rudnik, Ljutomer, Logatec, Maribor,
Metlika, Mozirje, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ormoz,
Pesnica, Piran, Postojna, Ptuj, Radlje Ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne Na
Koroskem, Ribnica, Ruse, Sentjur Pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skofja
Loka, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje
Pri Jelsah, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Velenje, Vrhnika,
Zagorje Ob Savi, Zalec
Independence: 
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: 
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991) 
Constitution: 
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990); election last held 6
December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Milan KUCAN
reelected by direct popular vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Lojze PETERLE (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly
State Assembly: 
elections last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (total 90) LDS 22, SKD 15,
United List (former Communists and allies) 14, Slovene National Party
12, SLS 10, Democratic Party 6, ZS 5, SDSS 4, Hungarian minority 1,
Italian minority 1
State Council: 
will become operational after next election in 1996; in the election
of 6 December 1992 40 members were elected to represent local and
socioeconomic interests
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Slovene Christian Democrats (SKD), Lozje PETERLE, chairman; Liberal
Democratic (LDS), Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman; Social-Democratic Party of
Slovenia (SDSS), Joze PUCNIK, chairman; Socialist Party of Slovenia
(SSS), Viktor ZAKELJ, chairman; Greens of Slovenia (ZS), Dusan PLUT,
chairman; National Democratic, Rajko PIRNAT, chairman; Democratic
Peoples Party, Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman; Reformed Socialists (former
Communist Party), Ciril RIBICIC, chairman; United List (former
Communists and allies); Slovene National Party, leader NA; Democratic
Party, Igor BAVCAR; Slovene People's Party (SLS), Ivan OMAN
note: 
parties have changed as of the December 1992 elections
Other political or pressure groups: 
none
Member of: 
CCC, CE, CEI, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ernest PETRIC 
chancery: 
1525 New Hampshir Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 667-5363 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador E. Allan WENDT 
embassy: 
P.O. Box 254, Prazakova 4, 61000 Ljubljana 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[386] (61) 301-427/472/485 
FAX: 
[386] (61) 301-401 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red with the
Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav in white against a
blue background at the center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines
depicting seas and rivers, and around it, there are three six-sided
stars arranged in an inverted triangle); the seal is located in the
upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands

@Slovenia, Economy

Overview: 
Slovenia was by far the most prosperous of the former Yugoslav
republics, with a per capita income more than twice the Yugoslav
average, indeed not far below the levels in neighboring Austria and
Italy. Because of its strong ties to Western Europe and the small
scale of damage during its brief fight for independence from
Yugoslavia, Slovenia has the brightest prospects among the former
Yugoslav republics for economic recovery over the next few years. The
dissolution of Yugoslavia, however, has led to severe short-term
dislocations in production, employment, and trade ties. For example,
overall industrial production has fallen 26% since 1990; particularly
hard hit have been the iron and steel, machine-building, chemical, and
textile industries. Meanwhile, the continued fighting in other former
Yugoslav republics has led to further destruction of long-established
trade channels and to an influx of tens of thousands of Croatian and
Bosnian refugees. The key program for breaking up and privatizing
major industrial firms was established in late 1992. Despite slow
progress in privatization Slovenia has reasonable prospects for an
upturn in 1994. Bright spots for encouraging Western investors are
Slovenia's comparatively well-educated work force, its developed
infrastructure, and its Western business attitudes, but instability in
Croatia is a deterrent. Slovenia in absolute terms is a small economy,
and a little Western investment would go a long way.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$7,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
22.9% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
15.5% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 38%, other manufactured goods 44%,
chemicals 9%, food and live animals 4.6%, raw materials 3%, beverages
and tobacco less than 1% (1992)
partners: 
Germany 27%, Croatia 14%, Italy 13%, France 9% (1992)
Imports: 
$5.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 35%, other manufactured goods 26.7%,
chemicals 14.5%, raw materials 9.4%, fuels and lubricants 7%, food and
live animals 6% (1992)
partners: 
Germany 23%, Croatia 14%, Italy 14%, France 8%, Austria 8% (1992)
External debt: 
$1.9 billion 
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2.8% (1993); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,900,000 kW
production: 
10 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,090 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and
rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including
military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood
products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Agriculture: 
accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by stock breeding (sheep and cattle)
and dairy farming; main crops - potatoes, hops, hemp, flax; an export
surplus in these commodities; Slovenia must import many other
agricultural products and has a negative overall trade balance in this
sector
Illicit drugs: 
NA
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins
Exchange rates: 
tolars (SIT) per US$1 - 112 (June 1993), 28 (January 1992)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Slovenia, Communications

Railroads: 
1,200 km, 1.435 m gauge (1991)
Highways: 
total: 
14,553 km 
paved: 
10,525 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 4,028 km 
Inland waterways: 
NA
Pipelines: 
crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km 
Ports: 
coastal - Koper
Merchant marine: 
19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 309,502 GRT/521,997 DWT
controlled by Slovenian owners, bulk 13, cargo 6 
note: 
most under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships
remain under the Slovenian flag
Airports: 
total: 
14 
usable: 
13 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
130,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 7 TV; 370,000
radios; 330,000 TVs

@Slovenia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Slovene Defense Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 513,885; fit for military service 411,619; reach
military age (19) annually 15,157 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
13.5 billion tolars, 4.5% of GDP (1993); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@Solomon Islands, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Melanesia, just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
28,450 sq km 
land area: 
27,540 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
5,313 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather
Terrain: 
mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls
Natural resources: 
fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickel 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
93% 
other: 
4% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; limited arable land
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons, but they are rarely destructive; geologically
active region with frequent earth tremors
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

@Solomon Islands, People

Population: 
385,811 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.43% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
38.93 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.48 years 
male: 
68.05 years 
female: 
73.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.73 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Solomon Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Solomon Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%, European 0.8%,
Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4% 
Religions: 
Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other
Protestant 5% 
Languages: 
Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca, English
spoken by 1%-2% of population
note: 
120 indigenous languages
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
23,448 economically active
by occupation: 
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 32.4%, services 25%, construction,
manufacturing, and mining 7.0%, commerce, transport, and finance 4.7%
(1984)

@Solomon Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Solomon Islands 
former: 
British Solomon Islands 
Digraph: 
BP
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Honiara 
Administrative divisions: 
7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel,
Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western
Independence: 
7 July 1978 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 7 July (1978) 
Constitution: 
7 July 1978
Legal system: 
common law
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as
governor general since 7 July 1988) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Francis Billy HILLY (since June 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Francis SAEMALA (since June 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister from members of parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Parliament: 
elections last held NA May 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) National Unity Group
21, PAP 8, National Action Party 6, LP 4, UP 3, Christian Fellowship
2, NFP 1, independents 2
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's Alliance Party (PAP); United Party (UP), leader NA; Solomon
Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU; Nationalist Front
for Progress (NFP), Andrew NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU;
National Action Party, leader NA; Christian Fellowship, leader NA;
National Unity Group, Solomon MAMALONI
Member of: 
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC,
SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); ambassador traditionally resides in Honiara (Solomon
Islands)
US diplomatic representation: 
embassy closed July 1993; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is
accredited to the Solomon Islands
Flag: 
divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white
five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is
green

@Solomon Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The bulk of the population depend on subsistence agriculture, fishing,
and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most manufactured
goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in
undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold.
The economy suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986 that caused
widespread damage to the infrastructure. In 1993, the government was
working with the IMF to develop a structural adjustment program to
address the country's fiscal deficit.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $900 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.8% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,500 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
13% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$48 million 
expenditures: 
$107 million, including capital expenditures of $45 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$84 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
fish 46%, timber 31%, palm oil 5%, cocoa, copra
partners: 
Japan 39%, UK 23%, Thailand 9%, Australia 5%, US 2% (1991)
Imports: 
$110 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
plant and machinery manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuel
partners: 
Australia 34%, Japan 16%, Singapore 14%, NZ 9%
External debt: 
$128 million (1988 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -3.8% (1991 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
21,000 kW
production: 
39 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
115 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
copra, fish (tuna)
Agriculture: 
including fishing and forestry, accounts for 31% of GDP; mostly
subsistence farming; cash crops - cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm
kernels, timber; other products - rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit,
cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains; 90% of the total
fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $250 million 
Currency: 
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 3.2383 (November 1993),
2.9281 (1992), 2.7148 (1991), 2.5288 (1990), 2.2932 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Solomon Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,300 km 
paved: 
30 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 290 km; earth 980 km 
note: 
in addition, there are 800 km of private logging and plantation roads
of varied construction (1982)
Ports: 
Honiara, Ringi Cove
Airports: 
total: 
31 
usable: 
30 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Solomon Islands, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Police Force 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Somalia, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern Indian Ocean, south of the
Arabian Peninsula
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
637,660 sq km 
land area: 
627,340 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km 
Coastline: 
3,025 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden
Climate: 
desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest
monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods
(tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain: 
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Natural resources: 
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum,
bauxite, copper, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
46% 
forest and woodland: 
14% 
other: 
38% 
Irrigated land: 
1,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
use of contaminated water contributes to health problems;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab
el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

@Somalia, People

Population: 
6,666,873 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.24% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
13.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
125.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
54.75 years 
male: 
54.49 years 
female: 
55.01 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
7.25 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Somali(s) 
adjective: 
Somali 
Ethnic divisions: 
Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000, Europeans 3,000, Asians 800
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 
Languages: 
Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
24% 
male: 
36% 
female: 
14% 
Labor force: 
2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
by occupation: 
pastoral nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading, fishing,
handicrafts, and other 30%
note: 
53% of population of working age (1985)

@Somalia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Somalia 
former: 
Somali Republic 
Digraph: 
SO
Type: 
none 
Capital: 
Mogadishu 
Administrative divisions: 
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir,
Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose,
Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool,
Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence: 
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became
independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which
became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1
July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)
National holiday: 
NA
Constitution: 
25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
Somalia has no functioning government; presidential elections last
held 23 December 1986 (next to be held NA); results - President SIAD
was reelected without opposition
Legislative branch: 
unicameral People's Assembly
People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga): 
elections last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA); results -
SRSP was the only party; seats - (177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171;
note - the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen.
Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the provisional government has
promised that a democratically elected government will be established
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (non-functioning)
Political parties and leaders: 
the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the former regime on 27
January 1991; formerly the only party was the Somali Revolutionary
Socialist Party (SRSP), headed by former President and Commander in
Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre
Other political or pressure groups: 
numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991
US diplomatic representation: 
the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in
January 1991; United States Liaison Office (USLO) opened in December
1992
Flag: 
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design
based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust
territory)

@Somalia, Economy

Overview: 
One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has
few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by
the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with
livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export
earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for
their livelihoods make up more than half of the population. Crop
production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work
force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are
grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on
the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10%
of GDP. Greatly increased political turmoil in 1991-93 has resulted in
a substantial drop in output, with widespread famine.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
210% (1989)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$58 million (1990 est.)
commodities: 
bananas, live animals, fish, hides
partners: 
Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)
Imports: 
$249 million (1990 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
partners: 
US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)
External debt: 
$1.9 billion (1989)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0% (1990); accounts for 4% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
former 75,000 kW is almost completely shut down by the destruction of
the civil war; UN, relief organizations, and foreign military units in
Somalia use their own portable power systems
production: 
NA
consumption per capita: 
NA
Industries: 
a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum
refining; probably shut down by the widespread destruction during the
civil war
Agriculture: 
dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats);
crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not
self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil
strife; fishing potential largely unexploited
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $336 million 
Currency: 
1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200
(December 1992), 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Somalia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
22,500 km 
paved: 
2,700 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 3,000 km; improved, stabilized earth 16,800 km (1992)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 15 km 
Ports: 
Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Bender Cassim (Boosaaso)
Merchant marine: 
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,554 GRT/6,892 DWT, cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
76 
usable: 
59 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
24 
Telecommunications: 
the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or
dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend
on their own private systems (1993)

@Somalia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
NA
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,630,864; fit for military service 915,368 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@South Africa, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, at the extreme southern tip of the continent
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,219,912 sq km 
land area: 
1,219,912 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
note: 
includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward
Island)
Land boundaries: 
total 4,750 km, Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km,
Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km 
Coastline: 
2,798 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
the dispute with Namibia over Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands has
been resolved and these territories were transferred to Namibian
sovereignty on 1 March 1994; Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom
Climate: 
mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrain: 
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Natural resources: 
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium,
salt, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
65% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
21% 
Irrigated land: 
11,280 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water
conservation and control measures; growth in water usage threatens to
outpace supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban
discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: 
subject to prolonged droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note: 
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely
surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa, People

Population: 
43,930,631 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.62% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
33.58 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate:
0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.11 years 
male: 
62.37 years 
female: 
67.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.37 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
South African(s) 
adjective: 
South African 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6% 
Religions: 
Christian (most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of blacks), Hindu
(60% of Indians), Muslim 2% 
Languages: 
eleven official languages, including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele,
Pedi, Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
76% 
male: 
78% 
female: 
75% 
Labor force: 
13.4 million economically active (1990)
by occupation: 
services 35%, agriculture 30%, industry 20%, mining 9%, other 6%

@South Africa, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of South Africa 
conventional short form: 
South Africa 
Abbreviation: 
RSA 
Digraph: 
SF
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein
(judicial)
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Eastern Transvaal, Kwa Zulu/Natal, Northern
Cape, Northern Transvaal, Northwest, Orange Free State,
Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging, Western Cape
note: 
previously the administrative divisions consisted of 4 provinces;
Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; there were 10 homelands not
recognized by the US - 4 independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei,
Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele,
KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa)
Independence: 
31 May 1910 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Republic Day, 31 May (1910) 
Constitution: 
27 April 1994 (interim constitution, replacing the constitution of 3
September 1984)
Legal system: 
based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Executive President Nelson MANDELA (since 10 May 1994); Deputy
Executive President Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 10 May 1994); Deputy
Executive President Thabo MBEKI (since 10 May 1994) 
note: 
any political party that wins 20% or more of the National Assembly
votes in a general election is entitled to name a Deputy Executive
President
cabinet: 
Cabinet appointed by the Executive President
Legislative branch: 
bicameral
National Assembly: 
elections held 26-29 April 1994 (next to be held NA); results - ANC
62.6%, NP 20.4%, IFP 10.5%, FF 2.2%, DP 1.7%, PAC 1.2%, ACDP 0.5%,
other 0.9%; seats - (400 total) ANC 252, NP 82, IFP 43, FF 9, DP 7,
PAC 5, ACDP 2
Senate: 
the Senate is composed of members who are nominated by the nine
provincial parliaments (which are elected in parallel with the
National Assembly) and has special powers to protect regional
interests, including the right to limited self-determination for
ethnic minorities; seats - (90 total) ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3
note: 
when the National Assembly meets in joint session with the Senate to
consider the provisions of the Constitution, the combined group is
referred to as the Constitutional Assembly
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
African National Congress (ANC), Cyril RAMAPHOSA; National Party (NP),
Frederik W. DE KLERK, president; Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP),
Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president; Freedom Front (FF), Constand VILJOEN,
president; Democratic Party (DP); Pan Africanist Congress (PAC),
Clarence MAKWETU, president; African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP)
note: 
in addition to these seven parties which won seats in the National
Assembly, twelve other parties won votes in the national elections in
April 1994
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA;; 
Member of: 
BIS, CCC, ECA, GATT, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO (suspended), ICC, IDA,
IFC, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU (suspended), LORCS, OAU, SACU, UN,
UNCTAD, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO (suspended), ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Harry Heinz SCHWARZ 
chancery: 
3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 232-4400 
consulate(s) general: 
Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Princeton N. LYMAN 
embassy: 
877 Pretorius St., Arcadia 0083 
mailing address: 
P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001 
telephone: 
[27] (12) 342-1048 
FAX: 
[27] (12) 342-2244 or 2299 
consulate(s) general: 
Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg 
Flag: 
two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a
central green band which splits into a horozontal Y, the arms of which
end at the corners of the hoist side, embracing a black isoceles
triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the
red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by
narrow white stripes
note: 
prior to 26 April 1994 the flag was actually four flags in one - three
miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of the
former flag of the Netherlands, which has three equal horizontal bands
of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are a vertically
hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal flag of
the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old
Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

@South Africa, Economy

Overview: 
Many of the white one-seventh of the South African population enjoy
incomes, material comforts, and health and educational standards equal
to those of Western Europe. In contrast, most of the remaining
population suffers from the poverty patterns of the Third World,
including unemployment and lack of job skills. The main strength of
the economy lies in its rich mineral resources, which provide
two-thirds of exports. Economic developments for the remainder of the
1990s will be driven largely by the new government's attempts to
improve black living conditions and to set the country on an
aggressive export-led growth path. The shrinking economy in recent
years has absorbed less than 5% of the more than 300,000 workers
entering the labor force annually. Local economists estimate that the
economy must grow between 5% and 6% in real terms annually to absorb
all of the new entrants.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $171 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
50% (1994 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$26.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$34 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (FY94
est.)
Exports: 
$24.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
gold 27%, other minerals and metals 20-25%, food 5%, chemicals 3%
partners: 
Italy, Japan, US, Germany, UK, other EC countries, Hong Kong
Imports: 
$18.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%, oil, textiles,
scientific instruments
partners: 
Germany, US, Japan, UK, Italy
External debt: 
$17 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 40% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
46,000,000 kW
production: 
180 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,100 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium),
automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel,
chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force; diversified
agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products - cattle, poultry,
sheep, wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment center of heroin and cocaine; cocaine consumption on the
rise
Economic aid: 
many aid packages for the new government are still being prepared;
current aid pledges include US $600 million over 3 years; UK $150
million over 3 years; Australia $21 million over 3 years
Currency: 
1 rand (R) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
rand (R) per US$1 - 3.4551 (March 1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992),
2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@South Africa, Communications

Railroads: 
20,638 km route distance total; 20,324 km of 1.067-meter gauge
trackage (counts double and multiple tracking as single track); 314 km
of 610 mm gauge; substantial electrification of 1.067 meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
188,309 km 
paved: 
54,013 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 134,296 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas 322 km 
Ports: 
Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha, Mosselbaai
Merchant marine: 
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 213,273 GRT/201,043 DWT,
container 4, vehicle carrier 1 
Airports: 
total: 
886 
usable: 
718 
with permanent-surface runways: 
140 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
213 
Telecommunications: 
the system is the best developed, most modern, and has the highest
capacity in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines,
coaxial cables, radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and
radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town,
Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria; over 4,500,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 286 FM, 67 TV; 1 submarine
cable; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@South Africa, Defense Forces

Branches: 
the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) includes Army, Navy,
Air Force, and Medical Services of the former South Africa, the armed
forces of the former homelands, and the ANC and PAC military
components; the initial strength of the SANDF has been set at about
100,000 active duty members with plans to reduce it to about 40,000 by
1997; it is manned mostly by nonwhites, but the higher officer grades
are held by whites; the South African Police (SAP) have incorporated
the police forces of the former homelands since the elections of 1994;
a National Peacekeeping Force (NPKF) to ensure peaceful proceedures
during the 1994 elections was established briefly from the military
components of the principal political factions, but was dissolved on 2
June 1994, following the elections.
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 10,557,346; fit for military service 6,437,240; reach
military age (18) annually 431,832 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, about 2.5% of GDP (FY93
budget)


@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southern South America, in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the south
Argentine coast, southeast of the Falkland Islands
Map references: 
Antarctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
4,066 sq km 
land area: 
4,066 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Rhode Island
note: 
includes Shag Rocks, Clerke Rocks, Bird Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
NA km
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate: 
variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year, interspersed
with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow
Terrain: 
most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and
mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic
origin with some active volcanoes
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse
vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide
good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on
South Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to
approach the South Sandwich Islands

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, People

Population: 
no indigenous population; there is a small military garrison on South
Georgia, and the British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on
Bird Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 
conventional short form: 
none 
Digraph: 
SX
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison town
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982) 
Constitution: 
3 October 1985
Legal system: 
English common law
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Commissioner David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992; resident at
Stanley, Falkland Islands) 
Legislative branch: 
no elections
Judicial branch: 
none

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Economy

Overview: 
Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential
source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands
receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.
Budget: 
revenues: 
$291,777 
expenditures: 
$451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
900 kW
production: 
2 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
NA (1992)

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Grytviken on South Georgia
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
coastal radio station at Grytviken; no broadcast stations

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Spain, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Portugal and France
Map references: 
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
504,750 sq km 
land area: 
499,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
note: 
includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco -
Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera
Land boundaries: 
total 1,903.2 km, Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km,
Portugal 1,214 km 
Coastline: 
4,964 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal
enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the
islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas
Climate: 
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy
along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool
along coast
Terrain: 
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees
in north
Natural resources: 
coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum,
zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
31% 
permanent crops: 
10% 
meadows and pastures: 
21% 
forest and woodland: 
31% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
33,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from untreated sewage and effluents
from the offshore production of oil and gas; air pollution;
deforestation; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen
Oxides, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain, People

Population: 
39,302,665 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.25% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.05 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.82 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.71 years 
male: 
74.45 years 
female: 
81.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.4 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Spaniard(s) 
adjective: 
Spanish 
Ethnic divisions: 
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1% 
Languages: 
Castilian Spanish, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
95% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
14.621 million 
by occupation: 
services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture 14%, construction 9% (1988)

@Spain, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Spain 
conventional short form: 
Spain 
local short form: 
Espana 
Digraph: 
SP
Type: 
parliamentary monarchy 
Capital: 
Madrid 
Administrative divisions: 
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad
autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria,
Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencia,
Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia,
Navarra, Pais Vasco
note: 
there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco
(Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown
Independence: 
1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)
National holiday: 
National Day, 12 October 
Constitution: 
6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Legal system: 
civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez (since 2 December 1982); Deputy
Prime Minister Narcis SERRA y Serra (since 13 March 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; designated by the prime minister
Council of State: 
is the supreme consultative organ of the government
Legislative branch: 
bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes
Generales)
Senate (Senado): 
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held by NA June 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (255 total) PSOE 117,
PP 107, CiU 15, PNV 5, IU 2, other 9
Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados): 
elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held by NA June 1997);
results by percent of party NA; seats - (350 total) PSOE 159, PP 141,
IU 18, CiU 17, PNV 5, CN 4, HB 2, other 4
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo) 
Political parties and leaders: 
principal national parties, from right to left: 
Popular Party (PP), Jose Maria AZNAR; Social Democratic Center (CDS),
Rafael Calvo ORTEGA; Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe
GONZALEZ Marquez, secretary general; Socialist Democracy Party (DS),
Ricardo Garcia DAMBORENEA; Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio
ANGUITA; United Left (IU) a coalition of parties including the PCE, a
branch of the PSOE, and other small parties, Julio ANGUITA
chief regional parties: 
Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi PUJOL Saley and Miguel ROCA in
Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier ARZALLUS and Jose
Antonio ARDANZA; Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos GARAICOETXEA Urizza;
Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon IDIGORAS and Inaki ESNAOLA; Basque
Socialist Party (PSE), coalition of the PSE, EE and PSOE, Jose Maria
BANEGAS and Jon LARRINAGA; Andalusian Progress Party (PA), Pedro
PACHECO; Canarian Coalition (CN), Dimas MARTIN; Catalan Republican
Left, Angel COLOM; Galician Coalition, Senen BERNARDEZ; Aragonese
Regionalist Party (PAR), Jose Maria MUR Bernad; Valencian Union (UV),
Vicente GONZALEZ Lizondo, Manuel CAMPILLOS Martinez
Other political or pressure groups: 
on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the
First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to
oppose the government; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977)
include the Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the
Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT), and the smaller independent
Workers Syndical Union (USO); business and landowning interests; the
Catholic Church; Opus Dei; university students
Member of: 
AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
CSCE, EBRD, AfDB, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-8, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, MTRC, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jaime De OJEDA y Eiseley 
chancery: 
2700 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 265-0190 or 0191 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard N. GARDNER 
embassy: 
Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid 
mailing address: 
APO AE 09642 
telephone: 
[34] (1) 577-4000 
FAX: 
[34] (1) 577-5735 
consulate(s) general: 
Barcelona 
consulate(s): 
Bilbao 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red
with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band;
the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of
Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on
either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain, Economy

Overview: 
After the economic boom of 1986-90, the Spanish economy fell into
recession along with the economies of other EU member states. Real GDP
barely grew in 1992 and declined by approximately 1% in 1993.
Unemployment, now nearly one-fourth of the workforce, and the sharp
downturn in business investment have contributed to sagging domestic
demand. Devaluation of the peseta since September 1992 has made
Spanish exports more competitive, but an export-led recovery in 1994
will depend largely on economic recovery in Spain's major market - the
other EU nations. A solid recovery will also require appropriate
domestic policy actions, including controlling the budget deficit and
wage increases, reforming labor market regulations, and possibly
loosening monetary policy another notch. Foreign investors,
principally from other EU countries, have invested over $60 billion in
Spain since 1986. Despite the recession, inflation remained at about
5% in 1993. The main source of inflationary pressure is the fiscal
deficit.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $498 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$12,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
22% (yearend 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$97.7 billion 
expenditures: 
$128 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$72.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods, foodstuffs,
machinery
partners: 
EC 71.2%, US 4.8%, other developed countries 7.9% (1992)
Imports: 
$92.5 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished goods, foodstuffs,
consumer goods, chemicals
partners: 
EC 60.7%, US 7.4%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle East 5.9%
(1992)
External debt: 
$90 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1.7% (1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
46,600,000 kW
production: 
157 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,000 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals
and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine
tools, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products -
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit,
beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish
catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations
Illicit drugs: 
key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine and North
African hashish entering the European market
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-79), $545
million 
note: 
not currently a recipient
Currency: 
1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 136.6 (May 1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Spain, Communications

Railroads: 
15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 12,691 km
(all 1,668-mm gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and 2,295 km double track);
FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km
(predominantly 1,000-mm gauge, 441 km electrified); privately owned
railways operate 918 km (predominantly 1,000-mm gauge, 512 km
electrified, and 56 km double track)
Highways: 
total: 
318,022 km (1988)
paved: 
178,092 km (including 2,142 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
139,930 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,045 km, but of minor economic importance
Pipelines: 
crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas 1,666 km 
Ports: 
Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena,
Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo, Puerto de Gijon,
Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Mahon, Malaga,
Melilla, Rota, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto, Tarragona, Valencia,
Vigo, and 175 minor ports
Merchant marine: 
192 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,328,730 GRT/2,213,671 DWT,
bulk 21, cargo 55, chemical tanker 14, container 11, liquefied gas 5,
oil tanker 29, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 33, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier
Airports: 
total: 
105 
usable: 
99 
with permanent-surface runways: 
60 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
22 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
26 
Telecommunications: 
generally adequate, modern facilities; 15,350,464 telephones;
broadcast stations - 190 AM, 406 (134 repeaters) FM, 100 (1,297
repeaters) TV; 22 coaxial submarine cables; 2 communications satellite
earth stations operating in INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian
Ocean); MARECS, INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems; tropospheric links

@Spain, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National Police, Coastal
Civil Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 10,377,990; fit for military service 8,396,405; reach
military age (20) annually 337,764 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $5.8 billion, 1.3% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Spratly Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, in the South China Sea, between Vietnam and the
Philippines
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
NA sq km but less than 5 km2
land area: 
less than 5 sq km 
comparative area: 
NA
note: 
includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over
the South China Sea
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
926 km 
Maritime claims: 
NA
International disputes: 
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam;
parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984,
Brunei established an exclusive economic zone, which encompasses
Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
flat
Natural resources: 
fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the
central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard; includes
numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

@Spratly Islands, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered garrisons

@Spratly Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Spratly Islands 
Digraph: 
PG

@Spratly Islands, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing. The proximity to
nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests the
potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region is largely
unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of potential reserves;
commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.
Industries: 
none

@Spratly Islands, Communications

Ports: 
no natural harbors
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 

@Spratly Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
about 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by China, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam


@Sri Lanka, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, 29 km southeast of India across the Palk Strait in the
Indian Ocean
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
65,610 sq km 
land area: 
64,740 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,340 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest
monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: 
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Natural resources: 
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay 
Land use: 
arable land: 
16% 
permanent crops: 
17% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
37% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
5,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by
poaching; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased
pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes
and sewage runoff
natural hazards: 
occasional cyclones and tornadoes
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

@Sri Lanka, People

Population: 
18,129,850 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed
Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil
civilians have fled the island; as of late 1992, nearly 115,000 were
housed in refugee camps in south India, another 95,000 lived outside
the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought political
asylum in the West
Population growth rate: 
1.18% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
18.51 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.77 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
21.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.9 years 
male: 
69.37 years 
female: 
74.55 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.12 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Sri Lankan(s) 
adjective: 
Sri Lankan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1% 
Religions: 
Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8% 
Languages: 
Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national
language) 18% 
note: 
English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about 10% of
the population
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
88% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
84% 
Labor force: 
6.6 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 45.9%, mining and manufacturing 13.3%, trade and transport
12.4%, services and other 28.4% (1985 est.)

@Sri Lanka, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 
conventional short form: 
Sri Lanka 
former: 
Ceylon 
Digraph: 
CE
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Colombo 
Administrative divisions: 
8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western,
Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western
Independence: 
4 February 1948 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948) 
Constitution: 
adopted 16 August 1978
Legal system: 
a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim,
Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA (since 7 May 1993); election last
held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1994); results -
Ranasinghe PREMADASA (UNP) 50%, Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE (SLFP) 45%,
other 5%; note - following the assassination of President PREMADASA on
1 May 1993, Prime Minister WIJETUNGA became acting president; on 7 May
1993, he was confirmed by a vote of Parliament to finish out the term
of the assassinated president
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president in consultation with the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held 15 February 1989 (next to be held by NA February
1995); results - UNP 51%, SLFP 32%, SLMC 4%, TULF 3%, USA 3%, EROS 3%,
MEP 1%, other 3%; seats - (225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, other 33
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
United National Party (UNP), Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA; Sri Lanka
Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress
(SLMC), M. H. M. ASHRAFF; All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), C. G.
Kumar PONNAMBALAM; People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath
Peramuna), Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF),
M. SIVASITHAMBARAM; New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja
Party), Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA; Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP,
or Lanka Sama Samaja Party), Colin R. DE SILVA; Sri Lanka People's
Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party), Ossie ABEYGUNASEKERA;
Communist Party, K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N.
SHANMUGATHASAN; Democratic United National Front (DUNF), G. M.
PREMACHANDRA; Eelam People's Democratic Party (EPDP), Douglas
DEVANANDA; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), leader NA;
Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRL), Suresh
PREMACHANDRAN; Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS),
Shankar RAJI; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE),
Dharmalingam SIDARTHAN; Liberal Party (LP), Chanaka AMARATUNGA; Ceylon
Workers Congress (CLDC), S. THONDAMAN; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim
parties, represented in either parliament or provincial councils
note: 
the United Socialist Alliance (USA), which was formed in 1987 and
included the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B, was defunct as of 1993,
following the formation of the People's Alliance Party (PEP)
Other political or pressure groups: 
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil
separatist groups; other radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups; Buddhist
clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; labor unions
Member of: 
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ananda W.P. GURUGE 
chancery: 
2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-4025 through 4028 
FAX: 
(202) 232-7181 
consulate(s): 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Teresita C. SCHAFFER 
embassy: 
210 Galle Road, Colombo 3 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 106, Colombo 
telephone: 
[94] (1) 44-80-07 
FAX: 
[94] (1) 57-42-64 
Flag: 
yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal
vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a
large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there
is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a
border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two
panels

@Sri Lanka, Economy

Overview: 
Industry - dominated by the fast-growing apparel industry - has
surpassed agriculture as the main source of export earnings and
accounts for over 16% of GDP. The economy has been plagued by high
rates of unemployment since the late 1970s. Economic growth, which has
been depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in 1991-93 as domestic
conditions began to improve and conditions for foreign investment
brightened.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
15% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1993)
Exports: 
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
garments and textiles, teas, gems, petroleum products, coconuts,
rubber, other agricultural products, marine products, graphite
partners: 
US 33.4%, Germany, UK, Netherlands, Japan, France, Singapore (1992)
Imports: 
$3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
food and beverages, textiles and textile materials, petroleum and
petroleum products, machinery and equipment
partners: 
Japan, India, US 4.3%, UK, Singapore, Germany, Hong King, Taiwan,
South Korea (1991)
External debt: 
$5.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7% (1991 est.); accounts for 16.5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,300,000 kW
production: 
3.6 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
200 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural
commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco
Agriculture: 
accounts for one-fourth of GDP and nearly half of labor force; most
important staple crop is paddy rice; other field crops - sugarcane,
grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops - tea, rubber,
coconuts; animal products - milk, eggs, hides, meat; not
self-sufficient in rice production
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $5.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $369 million 
Currency: 
1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 49.672 (January 1994), 48.322
(1993), 43.687 (1992), 41.372 (1991), 40.063 (1990), 36.047 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Sri Lanka, Communications

Railroads: 
1,948 km total (1990); all 1.868-meter broad gauge; 102 km double
track; no electrification; government owned
Highways: 
total: 
75,263 km 
paved: 
mostly bituminous treated 27,637 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel 32,887 km; improved, unimproved earth 14,739 km 
Inland waterways: 
430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft
Pipelines: 
crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)
Ports: 
Colombo, Trincomalee
Merchant marine: 
26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,115 GRT/453,609 DWT, bulk 2,
cargo 12, container 1, oil tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 8 
Airports: 
total: 
14 
usable: 
13 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
very inadequate domestic service, good international service; 114,000
telephones (1982); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 5 FM, 5 TV; submarine
cables extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

@Sri Lanka, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,906,666; fit for military service 3,825,774; reach
military age (18) annually 178,213 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $417 million, 3.5% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Sudan, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, along the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,505,810 sq km 
land area: 
2.376 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries: 
total 7,687 km, Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km,
Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya
383 km, Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km 
Coastline: 
853 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
18 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with
international boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt does not
coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
a barren area of 20,580 sq km, the dispute over this area escalated in
1993, this area continues to be in dispute
Climate: 
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to
October)
Terrain: 
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west
Natural resources: 
small reserves of petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc,
tungsten, mica, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
24% 
forest and woodland: 
20% 
other: 
51% 
Irrigated land: 
18,900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
contaminated water supplies present human health risks; wildlife
populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: 
dust storms
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity
Note: 
largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

@Sudan, People

Population: 
29,419,798 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.36% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
41.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
79.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
54.27 years 
male: 
53.4 years 
female: 
55.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.09 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Sudanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Sudanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5%
(mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages: 
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic,
Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English 
note: 
program of Arabization in process
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
27% 
male: 
43% 
female: 
12% 
Labor force: 
6.5 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government 6%
note: 
labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment (1983
est.); 52% of population of working age (1985)

@Sudan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of the Sudan 
conventional short form: 
Sudan 
local long form: 
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan 
local short form: 
As-Sudan 
former: 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 
Digraph: 
SU
Type: 
ruling military junta - Revolutionary Command Council - dissolved on
16 October 1993 and government civilianized
Capital: 
Khartoum 
Administrative divisions: 
9 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al
Wusta*, Al Istiwa'iyah*, Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*,
Bahr al Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan
Independence: 
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 January (1956) 
Constitution: 
12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim
constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June
1989
Legal system: 
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991,
the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in
the northern states; the council is still studying criminal provisions
under Islamic law; Islamic law applies to all residents of the six
northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious
courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
Chief of State and Head of Government: 
President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October
1993); prior to 16 October 1993, BASHIR served concurrently as Chief
of State, Chairman of the RCC, Prime Minister, and Minister of Defence
(since 30 June 1989); Vice President Major General al-Zubayr Muhammad
SALIH (since 19 October 1993); note - upon its dissolution on 16
October 1993, the RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved
to the President and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's
appointed legislative body
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president; note - on 30 October 1993
President BASHIR announced a new, predominantly civilian cabinet,
consisting of 20 federal ministers, most of whom retained their
previous cabinet positions
note: 
Lt. Gen. BASHIR's government is dominated by members of Sudan's
National Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political organization formed
from the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader Hasan al-TURABI
controls Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies
Legislative branch: 
appointed 300-member Transitional National Assembly; officially
assumes all legislative authority for Sudan until the eventual,
unspecified resumption of national elections
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts 
Political parties and leaders: 
none; banned following 30 June 1989 coup
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Islamic Front, Hasan al-TURABI
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ahmad SULAYMAN 
chancery: 
2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 338-8565 through 8570 
FAX: 
(202) 667-2406 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Donald K. PETTERSON 
embassy: 
Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif, Khartoum 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO AE 09829 
telephone: 
74700 or 74611 
FAX: 
Telex 22619 AMEM SD 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a
green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

@Sudan, Economy

Overview: 
Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse
weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances from abroad, and
counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated by
governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new
investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are
agriculture and trading, with most private industrial investment
predating 1980. The economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80%
of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items.
Sluggish economic performance over the past decade, attributable
largely to declining annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita
income and consumption. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages
continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary
Fund took the unusual step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because
of its nonpayment of arrearages to the Fund. The government
implemented a comprehensive economic reform program in 1992 that
included slashing the fiscal deficit, liberalizing foreign exchange
regulations, and lifting most price controls, but it had backtracked
on most reforms by mid-1993 because of its fear of generating a
domestic backlash. The government's failure to pursue economic reform,
its continued prosecution of the civil war, and its growing
international isolation have led to a further deterioration of the
non-agricultural sectors of the economy during 1993. Agriculture, on
the other hand, after several disappointing years, enjoyed favorable
growing conditions in 1993, and its strong performance produced an
overall growth rate in GNP of about 7%.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita: 
$750 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
105% (FY93 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
30% (FY93 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$374.4 million 
expenditures: 
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $214 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$350 million (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts
partners: 
Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US
3% (FY88)
Imports: 
$1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and
equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles
partners: 
Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern Europe 3%
(FY88)
External debt: 
$17 billion (June 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.8% (FY93 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP (FY92)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
610,000 kW
production: 
905 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
40 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling,
shoes, petroleum refining
Agriculture: 
accounts for 35% of GDP and 80% of labor force; water shortages;
two-thirds of land area suitable for raising crops and livestock;
major products - cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic,
sheep; marginally self-sufficient in most foods
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $588 million 
Currency: 
1 Sudanese pound (#Sd) = 100 piastres
Exchange rates: 
official rate - Sudanese pounds (#Sd) per US$1 - 215 (January 1994),
333.3 (December 1993), 90.1 (March 1992), 5.4288 (1991), 4.5004 (fixed
rate since 1987); note - the commercial rate is 300 (January 1994)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Sudan, Communications

Railroads: 
5,516 km total; 4,800 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km 1.6096-meter-gauge
plantation line
Highways: 
total: 
20,703 km 
paved: 
bituminous treated 2,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 4,000 km; improved earth 2,304 km; unimproved earth 12,399 km 
Inland waterways: 
5,310 km navigable
Pipelines: 
refined products 815 km 
Ports: 
Port Sudan, Sawakin
Merchant marine: 
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 89,842 GRT/122,379 DWT, cargo 8,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 
Airports: 
total: 
70 
usable: 
58 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
29 
Telecommunications: 
large, well-equipped system by African standards, but barely adequate
and poorly maintained by modern standards; consists of microwave radio
relay, cable, radio communications, troposcatter, and a domestic
satellite system with 14 stations; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 3 TV;
satellite earth stations for international traffic - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT

@Sudan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,640,123; fit for military service 4,080,715; reach
military age (18) annually 305,885 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $339 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Suriname, Geography

Location: 
Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
French Guiana and Guyana
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
163,270 sq km 
land area: 
161,470 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries: 
total 1,707 km, Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km 
Coastline: 
386 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and Riviere
Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa Rivier); claims area in Guyana
between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Koetari Rivers (all
headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Natural resources: 
timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp, bauxite, iron ore, and
small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
97% 
other: 
3% 
Irrigated land: 
590 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna which
for the most part is not threatened because of the lack of
development; relatively small population most of which lives along the
coast

@Suriname, People

Population: 
422,840 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.57% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
31.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.45 years 
male: 
66.94 years 
female: 
72.08 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Surinamer(s) 
adjective: 
Surinamese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Hindustani (East Indian) 37%, Creole (black and mixed) 31%, Javanese
15.3%, Bush black 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese 1.7%, Europeans 1%,
other 1.1% 
Religions: 
Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant 25.2%
(predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5% 
Languages: 
Dutch (official), English widely spoken, Sranan Tongo (Surinamese,
sometimes called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles and much of
the younger population and is lingua franca among others, Hindi
Suriname Hindustani (a variant of Bhoqpuri), Javanese 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
95% 
male: 
95% 
female: 
95% 
Labor force: 
104,000 (1984)
by occupation: 
NA

@Suriname, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Suriname 
conventional short form: 
Suriname 
local long form: 
Republiek Suriname 
local short form: 
Suriname 
former: 
Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana 
Digraph: 
NS
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Paramaribo 
Administrative divisions: 
10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo,
Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca,
Sipaliwini, Wanica
Independence: 
25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 25 November (1975) 
Constitution: 
ratified 30 September 1987
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Ronald R. VENETIAAN (since 16 September 1991); Vice
President and Prime Minister Jules R. AJODHIA (since 16 September
1991); election last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held NA May
1996); results - elected by the National Assembly - Ronald VENETIAAN
(NF) 80% (645 votes), Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115 votes), Hans
PRADE (DA '91) 6% (49 votes)
cabinet: 
Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president from members of the
National Assembly
note: 
Commander in Chief of the National Army maintains significant power
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 25 May 1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results
- percent of vote NA; seats - (51 total) NF 30, NDP 10, DA '91 9,
Independent 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
The New Front (NF), a coalition of four parties (NPS, VHP, KTPI, SPA),
leader Ronald R. VENETIAAN; Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath
LACHMON; National Party of Suriname (NPS), Ronald VENETIAAN; Party of
National Unity and Solidarity (KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; Suriname Labor
Party (SPA) Fred DERBY; Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91), Winston
JESSURUN, a coalition of four parties (AF, HPP, Pendawa Lima, BEP)
formed in January 1991; Alternative Forum (AF), Gerard BRUNINGS,
Winston JESSURUN; Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Panalal PARMESSAR;
Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics (BEP), Caprino ALLENDY;
Pendawa Lima, Marsha JAMIN; National Democratic Party (NDP), Desire
BOUTERSE; Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union (PALU), Ir
Iwan KROLIS, chairman; 
Other political or pressure groups: 
Surinamese Liberation Army (SLA), Ronnie BRUNSWIJK, Johan "Castro"
WALLY; Union for Liberation and Democracy, Kofi AFONGPONG; Mandela
Bushnegro Liberation Movement, Leendert ADAMS; Tucayana Amazonica,
Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO
Member of: 
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT 
chancery: 
Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 244-7488 or 7490 through 7492 
FAX: 
(202) 244-5878 
consulate(s) general: 
Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Roger R. GAMBLE 
embassy: 
Dr. Sophie Redmonstraat 129, Paramaribo 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo 
telephone: 
[597] 472900, 477881, or 476459 
FAX: 
[597] 410025 
Flag: 
five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red
(quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band

@Suriname, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which accounts for
15% of GDP and about 70% of export earnings. The economy has been in
trouble since the Dutch ended development aid in 1982. A drop in world
bauxite prices which started in the late 1970s and continued until
late 1986 was followed by the outbreak of a guerrilla insurgency in
the interior that crippled the important bauxite sector. Although the
insurgency has since ebbed and the bauxite sector recovered,
Paramaribo has failed to initiate the economic reforms necessary to
stabilize the economy or win renewed Dutch aid disbursements. High
inflation, high unemployment, widespread black market activity, and
hard currency shortfalls continue to mark the economy.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.17 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
109% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
16.5% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$466 million 
expenditures: 
$716 million, including capital expenditures of $123 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$290 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
alumina, aluminum, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
partners: 
Norway 33%, Netherlands 26%, US 13%, Japan 6%, Brazil 6%, UK 3% (1992)
Imports: 
$250 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
partners: 
US 42%, Netherlands 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 10%, Brazil 5% (1992)
External debt: 
$180 million (March 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -5% (1991 est.); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
458,000 kW
production: 
2.018 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,920 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumbering, food
processing, fishing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 10.4% of GDP and 25% of export earnings; paddy rice
planted on 85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm output;
other products - bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts,
beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of increasing importance;
self-sufficient in most foods
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
billion 
Currency: 
1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1 - 1.7850 (fixed
rate); parallel rate 109 (January 1994)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year
@Suriname, Communications

Railroads: 
166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned, and 80 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track
Highways: 
total: 
8,300 km 
paved: 
500 km 
unpaved: 
bauxite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 5,400 km; sand, clay
2,400 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing vessels with
drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the principal waterways
Ports: 
Paramaribo, Moengo, Nieuw Nickerie
Merchant marine: 
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT, cargo 2,
container 1 
Airports: 
total: 
46 
usable: 
38 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
international facilities good; domestic microwave system; 27,500
telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Suriname, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Army (including Navy which is company-size, small Air Force
element), Civil Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 113,963; fit for military service 67,648 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Svalbard

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Norway) 

@Svalbard, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe in the Arctic Ocean where the Arctic
Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet, 445 km
north of Norway
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
62,049 sq km 
land area: 
62,049 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than West Virginia
note: 
includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
3,587 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 
4 nm
International disputes: 
focus of maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway
and Russia
Climate: 
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold
winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of
Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain: 
wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast
clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Natural resources: 
coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for
coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the
northeastern coast inaccessible
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main
islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

@Svalbard, People

Population: 
3,018 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-3.5% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
NA
Death rate: 
NA
Net migration rate: 
NA
Infant mortality rate: 
NA
Life expectancy at birth: 
NA
Total fertility rate: 
NA
Ethnic divisions: 
Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)
Languages: 
Russian, Norwegian 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA 

@Svalbard, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Svalbard 
Digraph: 
SV
Type: 
territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo,
through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen;
by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway
Capital: 
Longyearbyen 
Independence: 
none (territory of Norway)
National holiday: 
NA 
Legal system: 
NA 
Executive branch: 
Chief of State: 
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991) 
Head of Government: 
Governor Odd BLOMDAL (since NA); Assistant Governor Jan-Atle HANSEN
(since NA September 1993) 
Member of: 
none 
Flag: 
the flag of Norway is used

@Svalbard, Economy

Overview: 
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9
February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights
to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although
US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the
only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements
on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned
coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the
island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the
local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear,
fox, and walrus.
Budget: 
revenues: 
$13.3 million 
expenditures: 
$13.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
21,000 kW
production: 
45 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
13,860 kWh (1992)
Currency: 
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941
(1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)

@Svalbard, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
limited facilities - Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
5 meteorological/radio stations; local telephone service; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 (2 repeaters) FM, 1 TV; satellite communication
with Norwegian mainland

@Svalbard, Defense Forces

Note: 
demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)


@Swaziland, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
17,360 sq km 
land area: 
17,200 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
total 535 km, Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Swaziland wants to reincorporate territory along the South African
border; Mbabane has asked South Africa to open negotiations on border
adjustments
Climate: 
varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain: 
mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Natural resources: 
asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and
diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
67% 
forest and woodland: 
6% 
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
limited access to safe drinking water presents human health risks;
wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting;
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

@Swaziland, People

Population: 
936,369 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.21% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.07 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
93.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
56.39 years 
male: 
52.4 years 
female: 
60.5 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.13 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Swazi(s) 
adjective: 
Swazi 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 97%, European 3% 
Religions: 
Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40% 
Languages: 
English (official; government business conducted in English), siSwati
(official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 
67% 
male: 
70% 
female: 
65% 
Labor force: 
probably less than 100,000 
by occupation: 
private sector about 65%, public sector 35%

@Swaziland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Swaziland 
conventional short form: 
Swaziland 
Digraph: 
WZ
Type: 
monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Capital: 
Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)
Administrative divisions: 
4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence: 
6 September 1968 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968) 
Constitution: 
none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973;
a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been
formally presented to the people
Legal system: 
based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi
traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Prince Jameson Mbilini DLAMINI (since 12 November 1993)
cabinet: 
Cabinet; designated by the monarch
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament is advisory and consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly; the 30 members of the
Senate are appointed - 10 by the House of Assembly and 20 by the king;
the members of the House are elected by popular vote; last election
held in October 1993
Judicial branch: 
High Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA,
SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA 
chancery: 
3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 362-6683 or 6685 
FAX: 
(202) 244-8059 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John SPROTT 
embassy: 
Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 199, Mbabane 
telephone: 
[268] 46441 through 46445 
FAX: 
[268] 45959 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large
black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with
feather tassels, all placed horizontally

@Swaziland, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies more
than 60% of the population and contributes nearly 25% to GDP.
Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing factories,
accounts for another quarter of GDP. Mining has declined in importance
in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in 1978,
and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar
and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency.
Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique,
Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives
90% of its imports and to which it sends about half of its exports.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$342 million 
expenditures: 
$410 million, including capital expenditures of $130 million (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$632 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
sugar, edible concentrates, wood pulp, canned fruit, citrus
partners: 
South Africa 50% (est.), EC countries, Canada
Imports: 
$734 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum products,
foodstuffs, chemicals
partners: 
South Africa 90% (est.), Switzerland, UK
External debt: 
$240 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.6% (1991); accounts for 40% of GDP (1989)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
60,000 kW
production: 
198 million kWh (1991)
consumption per capita: 
180 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar
Agriculture: 
accounts for 23% of GDP and over 60% of labor force; mostly
subsistence agriculture; cash crops - sugarcane, cotton, maize,
tobacco, rice, citrus fruit, pineapples; other crops and livestock -
corn, sorghum, peanuts, cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in
grain
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
bilateral aid (1991) $35 million of which US disbursements $12
million, UK disbursements $6 million, and Denmark $2 million;
multilateral aid (1991) $24 million of which EC disbursements $8
million
Currency: 
1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
emalangeni (E) per US$1 -3.4551 (March 1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497
(1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989); note - the Swazi
emalangeni is at par with the South African rand
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Swaziland, Communications

Railroads: 
297 km (plus 71 km disused), 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
2,853 km 
paved: 
510 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 1,230 km; improved earth 1,113
km 
Airports: 
total: 
23 
usable: 
21 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity
microwave links; 17,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 6 FM,
10 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Swaziland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 204,608; fit for military service 118,380 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, NA% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Sweden, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between
Norway and Finland
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
449,964 sq km 
land area: 
410,928 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries: 
total 2,205 km, Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km 
Coastline: 
3,218 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy
summers; subarctic in north
Terrain: 
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Natural resources: 
zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower
potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
2% 
forest and woodland: 
64% 
other: 
27% 
Irrigated land: 
1,120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the
Baltic Sea
natural hazards: 
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of
Bothnia, can interfere with navigation
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

@Sweden, People

Population: 
8,778,461 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.52% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.25 years 
male: 
75.47 years 
female: 
81.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Swede(s) 
adjective: 
Swedish 
Ethnic divisions: 
white, Lapp (Sami), foreign born or first-generation immigrants 12%
(Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other
3.5% (1987)
Languages: 
Swedish 
note: 
small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native
languages
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
4.552 million (84% unionized,1992)
by occupation: 
community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining and
manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%, banking,
insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%, agriculture,
fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)

@Sweden, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Sweden 
conventional short form: 
Sweden 
local long form: 
Konungariket Sverige 
local short form: 
Sverige 
Digraph: 
SW
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Stockholm 
Administrative divisions: 
24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan,
Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan,
Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan,
Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan,
Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan,
Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan,
Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan
Independence: 
6 June 1809 (constitutional monarchy established)
National holiday: 
Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June 
Constitution: 
1 January 1975
Legal system: 
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess
VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July
1977) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Carl BILDT (since 3 October 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister Bengt WESTERBERG (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
parliament (Riksdag): 
elections last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held NA September
1994); results - Social Democratic Party 37.6%, Moderate Party
(conservative) 21.9%, Liberal People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%,
Christian Democrats 7.1%, New Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist)
4.5%, Green Party 3.4%, other 1.2%; seats - (349 total) Social
Democratic 138, Moderate Party (conservative) 80, Liberal People's
Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New Democracy 25,
Left Party (Communist) 16; note - the Green Party has no seats in the
Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen) 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling four-party coalition consists of Moderate Party (conservative),
Carl BILDT; Liberal People's Party, Bengt WESTERBERG; Center Party,
Olof JOHANSSON; and the Christian Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON;
Social Democratic Party, Ingvar CARLSSON; New Democracy Party, Harriet
COLLIANDER; Left Party (VP; Communist), Gudrun SCHYMAN; Communist
Workers' Party, Rolf HAGEL; Green Party, no formal leader
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-6, G-8, G-9,
G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTRC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Carl Henrik LILJEGREN 
chancery: 
Suites 1200 and 715, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: 
(202) 944-5600 
FAX: 
(202) 342-1319 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Thomas SIEBERT 
embassy: 
Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[46] (8) 783-5300 
FAX: 
[46] (8) 661-1964 
Flag: 
blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style
of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Sweden, Economy

Overview: 
Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I
through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of
living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive
welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent
internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force.
Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an
economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned
firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the
engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. In the last
few years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been
clouded by inflation, growing unemployment, and a gradual loss of
competitiveness in international markets. Although Prime Minister
BILDT's center-right minority coalition had hoped to charge ahead with
free-market-oriented reforms, a skyrocketing budget deficit - almost
14% of GDP in FY94 projections - and record unemployment have
forestalled many of the plans. Unemployment in 1993 is estimated at
around 8% with another 5% in job training. Continued heavy foreign
exchange speculation forced the government to cooperate in late 1992
with the opposition Social Democrats on two crisis packages - one a
severe austerity pact and the other a program to spur industrial
competitiveness - which basically set economic policy through 1997. In
November 1992, Sweden broke its tie to the EC's ECU, and the krona has
since depreciated about 25% against the dollar. The government hopes
the boost in export competitiveness from the depreciation will help
lift Sweden out of its 3-year recession. To curb the budget deficit
and bolster confidence in the economy, BILDT continues to propose cuts
in welfare benefits, subsidies, defense, and foreign aid. Sweden
continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of the EU in
preparation for scheduled membership by early 1995, which will help to
broaden European economic unity.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $153.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-2.7% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$17,600 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.4% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
8.2% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$45.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$73.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94)
Exports: 
$49.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and
steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners: 
EC 55.8% (Germany 15%, UK 9.7%, Denmark 7.2%, France 5.8%), EFTA 17.4%
(Norway 8.4%, Finland 5.1%), US 8.2%, Central and Eastern Europe 2.5%
(1992)
Imports: 
$42.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor
vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners: 
EC 53.6% (Germany 17.9%, UK 6.3%, Denmark 7.5%, France 4.9%), EFTA
(Norway 6.6%, Finland 6%), US 8.4%, Central and Eastern Europe 3%
(1992)
External debt: 
$19.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0.8% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
39,716,000 kW
production: 
142.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
16,560 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone
parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods,
motor vehicles
Agriculture: 
animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting
for 37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar beets, potatoes;
100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes; Sweden is about 50%
self-sufficient in most products; farming accounted for 1.2% of GDP
and 1.9% of jobs in 1990
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for narcotics shipped via the CIS and Baltic
states for the European market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3 billion 
Currency: 
1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 8.1255 (January 1994), 7.834 (1993),
5.8238 (1992), 6.0475 (1991) 5.9188 (1990), 6.4469 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Sweden, Communications

Railroads: 
12,084 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ) 11,202 km - 10,819 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double
track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service;
privately-owned railways 882 km - 511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
(332 km electrified) and 371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)
Highways: 
total: 
205,000 km 
paved: 
69,754 km (including 936 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
gravel 45,900 km; unimproved earth 38,060 km; NA 51,286 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges
Pipelines: 
natural gas 84 km 
Ports: 
Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo, Stockholm;
numerous secondary and minor ports
Merchant marine: 
161 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,049,554 GRT/2,516,350 DWT,
bulk 10, cargo 24, chemical tanker 25, combination ore/oil 1,
container 2, oil tanker 30, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 39, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker
4, vehicle carrier 13 
Airports: 
total: 
252 
usable: 
248 
with permanent-surface runways: 
138 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
11 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
94 
Telecommunications: 
excellent domestic and international facilities; 8,200,000 telephones;
mainly coaxial and multiconductor cables carry long-distance network;
parallel microwave network carries primarily radio, TV and some
telephone channels; automatic system; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 360
(mostly repeaters) FM, 880 (mostly repeaters) TV; 5 submarine coaxial
cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
EUTELSAT

@Sweden, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,146,145; fit for military service 1,874,787; reach
military age (19) annually 55,262 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion, 2.6% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Switzerland, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between France and Austria
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
41,290 sq km 
land area: 
39,770 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
total 1,852 km, Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km,
Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy
winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
Terrain: 
mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central
plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
Natural resources: 
hydropower potential, timber, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
40% 
forest and woodland: 
26% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
250 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from vehicle emissions and open air burning; acid rain;
water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss
of biodiversity
natural hazards: 
subject to avalanches, landslides, flash floods
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea
Note: 
landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with
southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest
elevations in Europe

@Switzerland, People

Population: 
7,040,119 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.7% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.17 years 
male: 
74.8 years 
female: 
81.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.6 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Swiss (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Swiss 
Ethnic divisions: 
total population: 
German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6% 
Swiss nationals: 
German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)
Languages: 
German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4% 
note: 
figures for Swiss nationals only -
German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1% 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
3.31 million (904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
by occupation: 
services 50%, industry and crafts 33%, government 10%, agriculture and
forestry 6%, other 1% (1989)

@Switzerland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Swiss Confederation 
conventional short form: 
Switzerland 
local long form: 
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German) Confederation Suisse
(French) Confederazione Svizzera (Italian) 
local short form: 
Schweiz (German) Suisse (French) Svizzera (Italian) 
Digraph: 
SZ
Type: 
federal republic 
Capital: 
Bern 
Administrative divisions: 
26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular -
cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German); Aargau,
Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve,
Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden,
Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau,
Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich
Independence: 
1 August 1291 
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August
(1291) 
Constitution: 
29 May 1874
Legal system: 
civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general
obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Otto STICH (1994 calendar year; presidency rotates
annually); Vice President Kaspar VILLIGER (term runs concurrently with
that of president) 
cabinet: 
Federal Council (German - Bundesrat, French - Censeil Federal, Italian
- Consiglio Federale); elected by the Federal Assembly from own
members
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Federal Assembly (German - Bundesversammlung, French -
Assemblee Federale, Italian - Assemblea Federale)
Council of States: 
(German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats, Italian - Consiglio
degli Stati) elections last held throughout 1991 (next to be held NA
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total) FDP
18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3, LdU 1, Ticino League 1
National Council: 
(German - Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio
Nazionale) elections last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA
October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200
total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD
5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other 2
Judicial branch: 
Federal Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno HUNZIKER, president; Social
Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut HUBACHER, chairman; Christian
Democratic People's Party (CVP), Eva SEGMULLER-WEBER, chairman; Swiss
People's Party (SVP), Hans UHLMANN, president; Green Party (GPS),
Peter SCHMID, president; Automobile Party (AP), DREYER; Alliance of
Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz JAEGER, president; Swiss
Democratic Party (SD), NA; Evangelical People's Party (EVP), Max
DUNKI, president; Workers' Party (PdA; Communist), Jean SPIELMANN,
general secretary; Ticino League, leader NA; Liberal Party (LPS),
Gilbert COUTAU, president
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM
(cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTRC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN (observer),
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Carlo JAGMETTI 
chancery: 
2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 745-7900 
FAX: 
(202) 387-2564 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael C. POLT 
embassy: 
Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[41] (31) 357-7011 
FAX: 
[41] (31) 357-7344 
branch office: 
Geneva 
consulate(s) general: 
Zurich 
Flag: 
red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that
does not extend to the edges of the flag

@Switzerland, Economy

Overview: 
Switzerland's economy - one of the most prosperous and stable in the
world - is nonetheless undergoing a painful adjustment after both the
inflationary boom of the late-1980s and the electorate's rejection of
membership in the European Economic Area in 1992. The Swiss finally
emerged from a three-year recession in mid-1993 and posted a -0.6% GDP
growth for the year. After a three-year struggle with inflation, the
Swiss central bank's tight monetary policies have begun to pay off.
Inflation slowed to 3.3% in 1993 from about 4% in 1992 and is expected
to slow down further to 1.5% in 1994. Unemployment, however, will
continue to be a problem over the near term. Swiss unemployment
reached 5.1% in 1993 and will likely remain at that level through 1994
before declining in 1995. The voters' rejection of a referendum on
membership in the EEA, which was supported by most political,
business, and financial leaders has raised doubts that the country can
maintain its preeminent prosperity and leadership in commercial
banking in the twenty-first century. Despite these problems, Swiss per
capita output, general living standards, education and science, health
care, and diet remain unsurpassed in Europe. The country has few
natural resources except for the scenic natural beauty that has made
it a world leader in tourism. Management-labor relations remain
generally harmonious.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $149.1 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.6% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$21,300 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
5.1% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$23.7 billion 
expenditures: 
$26.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$63 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products,
foodstuffs, textiles and clothing
partners: 
Western Europe 63.1% (EC countries 56%, other 7.1%), US 8.8%, Japan
3.4%
Imports: 
$60.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment,
chemicals, textiles, construction materials
partners: 
Western Europe 79.2% (EC countries 72.3%, other 6.9%), US 6.4%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
17,710,000 kW
production: 
56 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,200 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments
Agriculture: 
dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient in food;
must import fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter),
grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat
Illicit drugs: 
money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion 
Currency: 
1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or
centesimi
Exchange rates: 
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.715 (January
1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990),
1.6359 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Switzerland, Communications

Railroads: 
4,418 km total; 3,073 km are government owned and 1,345 km are
nongovernment owned; the government network consists of 2,999 km
1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow gauge track;
1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment network
consists of 510 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, and 835 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 100% electrified
Highways: 
total: 
71,106 km 
paved: 
71,106 km (including 1,502 km of expressways)
Inland waterways: 
65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12
navigable lakes
Pipelines: 
crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km 
Ports: 
Basel (river port)
Merchant marine: 
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 337,455 GRT/592,213 DWT, bulk
10, cargo 4, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
2, specialized tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
70 
usable: 
69 
with permanent-surface runways: 
42 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
18 
Telecommunications: 
excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 5,890,000
telephones; extensive cable and microwave networks; broadcast stations
- 7 AM, 265 FM, 18 (1,322 repeaters) TV; communications satellite
earth station operating in the INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian
Ocean) system

@Switzerland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (Air Force is part of the Army), Frontier Guards, Fortification
Guards 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,853,075; fit for military service 1,589,288; reach
military age (20) annually 43,005 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $3.4 billion, 1.7% of GDP (1993)


@Syria, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Turkey and Lebanon
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
185,180 sq km 
land area: 
184,050 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than North Dakota
note: 
includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory
Land boundaries: 
total 2,253 km, Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375
km, Turkey 822 km 
Coastline: 
193 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
41 nm
territorial sea: 
35 nm
International disputes: 
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights is
Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with
Iraq over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water
development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
Syrian troops in northern Lebanon since October 1976
Climate: 
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild,
rainy winters (December to February) along coast
Terrain: 
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains
in west
Natural resources: 
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore,
rock salt, marble, gypsum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
28% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
46% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
20% 
Irrigated land: 
6,700 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water
pollution from dumping of untreated sewage and wastes from petroleum
refining; lack of safe drinking water
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification
Note: 
there are 40 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (April 1994)

@Syria, People

Population: 
14,886,672 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
in addition, there are 30,500 people living in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights--16,500 Arabs (15,000 Druze and 1,500 Alawites) and
14,000 Jewish settlers (1994 est.)
Population growth rate: 
3.74% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
42.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
66.46 years 
male: 
65.37 years 
female: 
67.61 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.65 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Syrian(s) 
adjective: 
Syrian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7% 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%,
Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus,
Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)
Languages: 
Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French
widely understood
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
64% 
male: 
78% 
female: 
51% 
Labor force: 
2.951 million (1989)
by occupation: 
miscellaneous and government services 36%, agriculture 32%, industry
and construction 32%; note - shortage of skilled labor (1984)

@Syria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Syrian Arab Republic 
conventional short form: 
Syria 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah 
local short form: 
Suriyah 
former: 
United Arab Republic (with Egypt) 
Digraph: 
SY
Type: 
republic under leftwing military regime since March 1963
Capital: 
Damascus 
Administrative divisions: 
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al
Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az
Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus
Independence: 
17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French
administration)
National holiday: 
National Day, 17 April (1946) 
Constitution: 
13 March 1973
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971 see note); Vice
Presidents 'Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM, Rif'at al-ASAD, and
Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984); election last held 2
December 1991 (next to be held December 1998); results - President
Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected for a fourth seven-year term with 99.98%
of the vote; note - President ASAD seized power in the November 1970
coup, assumed presidential powers 22 February 1971, and was confirmed
as president in the 12 March 1971 national elections
head of government: 
Prime Minister Mahmud ZU'BI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime
Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984); Deputy Prime
Minister Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981); Deputy Prime Minister
Rashid AKHTARINI (since 4 July 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab): 
elections last held 22-23 May 1990 (next to be held NA May 1994);
results - Ba'th 53.6%, ASU 3.2%, SCP 3.2%, Arab Socialist Unionist
Movement 2.8%, ASP 2%, Democratic Socialist Union Party 1.6%,
independents 33.6%; seats - (250 total) Ba'th 134, ASU 8, SCP 8, Arab
Socialist Unionist Movement 7, ASP 5, Democratic Socialist Union Party
4, independents 84; note - the People's Council was expanded to 250
seats total prior to the May 1990 election
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of
Cassation, State Security Courts 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Ba'th) Party; the
Progressive National is dominated by Ba'thists but includes
independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP);
Arab Socialist Union (ASU); Syrian Communist Party (SCP); Arab
Socialist Unionist Movement; and Democratic Socialist Union Party
Other political or pressure groups: 
non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence; Communist
party ineffective; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood
Member of: 
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Walid MUALEM 
chancery: 
2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 232-6313 
FAX: 
(202) 234-9548 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS 
embassy: 
Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street No. 2, Damascus 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 29, Damascus 
telephone: 
[963] (11) 332-814, 332-315, 714-108, 330-788 
FAX: 
[963] (11) 247-938 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two
small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band
and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription)
in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Syria, Economy

Overview: 
Syria's state-dominated Ba'thist economy has benefited from the Gulf
war of early 1991, increased oil production, good weather, and
economic deregulation. Economic growth averaged roughly 10% in
1990-93. The Gulf war provided Syria an aid windfall of nearly $5
billion dollars from Arab, European, and Japanese donors. These
inflows more than offset Damascus's war-related costs and will help
Syria cover some of its debt arrears, restore suspended credit lines,
and initiate selected military and civilian purchases. In 1992 the
government spurred economic development by loosening controls on
domestic and foreign investment while maintaining strict political
controls. For the long run, Syria's economy is still saddled with a
large number of poorly performing public sector firms, and industrial
productivity remains to be improved. Another major long-term concern
is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when its
vast dam and irrigation projects are completed by mid-decade.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $81.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
16.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
7.5% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$7.13 billion 
expenditures: 
$9.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $4 billion (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum 53%, textiles 22%, cotton, fruits and vegetables
partners: 
EC 48%, former CEMA countries 24%, Arab countries 18% (1991)
Imports: 
$4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs 21%, metal products 17%, machinery 15%
partners: 
EC 37%, former CEMA countries 15%, US and Canada 10% (1991)
External debt: 
$19.4 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 21% (1991); accounts for 19% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,205,000 kW
production: 
11.9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
830 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining,
petroleum
Agriculture: 
accounts for 30% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all major crops
(wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown mainly on
rain-watered land causing wide swings in production; animal products -
beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain or
livestock products
Illicit drugs: 
a transit country for Lebanese and Turkish refined cocaine going to
Europe and heroin and hashish bound for regional and Western markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
no US aid; aid from other countries (Western and Arab) totals $1.358
billion (1993 est.); no Ex-Im, OPEC programs in place; almost $5
billion in loans and grants from Arab and Western donors from 1990-92
as a result of Gulf war stance
Currency: 
1 Syrian pound (#S) = 100 piastres
Exchange rates: 
Syrian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 11.2 (official fixed rate), 26.6
(blended rate used by the UN and diplomatic missions), 42.0
(neighboring country rate - applies to most state enterprise imports),
46.0 - 53.0 (offshore rate) (yearend 1993)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Syria, Communications

Railroads: 
1,998 km total; 1,766 km standard gauge, 232 km 1.050-meter (narrow)
gauge
Highways: 
total: 
29,000 km 
paved: 
22,680 km (including 670 km of expressways) (1988)
unpaved: 
6,320 km 
Inland waterways: 
870 km; minimal economic importance
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,304 km; petroleum products 515 km 
Ports: 
Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas, Jablah
Merchant marine: 
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 151,519 GRT/243,910 DWT, bulk 7,
cargo 48, vehicle carrier 2 
Airports: 
total: 
104 
usable: 
100 
with permanent-surface runways: 
24 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
21 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital
upgrades, including fiber optic technology; 512,600 telephones (37
telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 9 AM, 1 FM, 17 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Intersputnik;
1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq,
Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey

@Syria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab
Air Defense Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 3,300,397; fit for military service 1,850,545; reach
military age (19) annually 155,569 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 6% of GDP (1992)


@Taiwan, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, off the southeastern coast of China, between Japan and
the Philippines
Map references: 
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
35,980 sq km 
land area: 
32,260 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland and Delaware combined
note: 
includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,448 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands
occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai)
claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate: 
tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to
August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
Terrain: 
eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling
plains in west
Natural resources: 
small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos 
Land use: 
arable land: 
24% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
55% 
other: 
15% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from industrial emissions, untreated sewage; air
pollution; contamination of drinking water supplies
natural hazards: 
subject to earthquakes and typhoons
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Marine Life Conservation

@Taiwan, People

Population: 
21,298,930 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.96% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.25 years 
male: 
72.01 years 
female: 
78.66 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Chinese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Chinese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2% 
Religions: 
mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other
2.5% 
Languages: 
Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
86% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
79% 
Labor force: 
7.9 million 
by occupation: 
industry and commerce 53%, services 22%, agriculture 15.6%, civil
administration 7% (1989)

@Taiwan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Taiwan 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
T'ai-wan 
Digraph: 
TW
Type: 
multiparty democratic regime; opposition political parties legalized
in March, 1989
Capital: 
Taipei 
Administrative divisions: 
some of the ruling party in Taipei claim to be the government of all
China; in keeping with that claim, the central administrative
divisions include 2 provinces (sheng, singular and plural) and 2
municipalities* (shih, singular and plural) - Fu-chien (some 20
offshore islands of Fujian Province including Quemoy and Matsu),
Kao-hsiung*, T'ai-pei*, and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan and the
Pescadores islands); the more commonly referenced administrative
divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties (hsien, singular
and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), and 2
special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua,
Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan,
Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung,
T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**,
T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the provincial capital is at
Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un
note: 
Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization
National holiday: 
National Day, 10 October (1911) (Anniversary of the Revolution)
Constitution: 
1 January 1947, amended in 1992, presently undergoing revision
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988); Vice President LI
Yuan-zu (since 20 May 1990) 
head of government: 
Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) LIEN Chan (since 23 February
1993); Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) HSU Li-teh
(since 23 February 1993) presidential election last held 21 March 1990
(next to be held NA March 1996); results - President LI Teng-hui was
reelected by the National Assembly; vice presidential election last
held 21 March 1990 (next election will probably be a direct popular
election and will be held NA March 1996); results - LI Yuan-zu was
elected by the National Assembly
cabinet: 
Executive Yuan; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Legislative Yuan and unicameral National Assembly
Legislative Yuan: 
elections last held 19 December 1992 (next to be held near the end of
1995); results - KMT 60%, DPP 31%, independents 9%; seats - (304
total, 161 elected) KMT 96, DPP 50, independents 15
National Assembly: 
elections - first National Assembly elected in November 1946 with a
supplementary election in December 1986; second and present National
Assembly elected in December 1991; seats - (403 total) KMT 318, DPP
75, other 10; (next election to be held in 1997)
Judicial branch: 
Judicial Yuan 
Political parties and leaders: 
Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist Party), LI Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic
Progressive Party (DPP); Chinese New Party (CNP); Labor Party (LP)
Other political or pressure groups: 
Taiwan independence movement, various environmental groups
note: 
debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the
mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization
and the increased representation of the opposition Democratic
Progressive Party in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on
the island's national identity; advocates of Taiwan independence, both
within the DPP and the ruling Kuomintang, oppose the ruling party's
traditional stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland
China; the aims of the Taiwan independence movement include
establishing a sovereign nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other
organizations supporting Taiwan independence include the World United
Formosans for Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation
Building
Member of: 
expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October
1971 and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated
subsidiary organs; expelled from IMF/World Bank group April/May 1980;
seeking to join GATT; attempting to retain membership in INTELSAT;
suspended from IAEA in 1972, but still allows IAEA controls over
extensive atomic development, APEC, AsDB, BCIE, ICC, IOC, COCOM
(cooperating), WCL 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of
the US are maintained through a private instrumentality, the
Coordination Council for North American Affairs (CCNAA) with
headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and 10 other US
cities
US diplomatic representation: 
unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan
are maintained through a private institution, the American Institute
in Taiwan (AIT), which has offices in Taipei at #7, Lane 134, Hsin Yi
Road, Section 3, telephone [886] (2) 709-2000, and in Kao-hsiung at #2
Chung Cheng 3d Road, telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, and
the American Trade Center at Room 3207 International Trade Building,
Taipei World Trade Center, 333 Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548,
telephone [886] (2) 720-1550
Flag: 
red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing
a white sun with 12 triangular rays

@Taiwan, Economy

Overview: 
Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable government
guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial government
ownership of some large banks and industrial firms. Real growth in GNP
has averaged about 9% a year during the past three decades. Export
growth has been even faster and has provided the impetus for
industrialization. Agriculture contributes about 4% to GDP, down from
35% in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13 among major trading
countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being
replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries.
Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand, Indonesia, the
Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The tightening of labor markets
has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and illegal.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $224 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$10,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
1.5% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$30.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$30.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$85 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
electrical machinery 19.7%, electronic products 19.6%, textiles 10.9%,
footwear 3.3%, foodstuffs 1.0%, plywood and wood products 0.9% (1993
est.)
partners: 
US 27.6%, Hong Kong 21.7%, EC countries 15.2%, Japan 10.5% (1993 est.)
Imports: 
$77.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment 15.7%, electronic products 15.6%, chemicals
9.8%, iron and steel 8.5%, crude oil 3.9%, foodstuffs 2.1% (1993 est.)
partners: 
Japan 30.1%, US 21.7%, EC countries 17.6% (1993 est.)
External debt: 
$620 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.6% (1993 est.); accounts for more than 40% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
18,382,000 kW
production: 
98.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,718 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food processing, plywood,
sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum refining
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4% of GNP and 16% of labor force (includes part-time
farmers); heavily subsidized sector; major crops - vegetables, rice,
fruit, tea; livestock - hogs, poultry, beef, milk; not self-sufficient
in wheat, soybeans, corn; fish catch increasing, reached 1.4 million
metric tons in 1988
Illicit drugs: 
an important heroin transit point; also a major drug money laundering
center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $500 million 
Currency: 
1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
New Taiwan dollars per US$1 - 26.6 (1993), 25.4 (1992), 25.748 (1991),
27.108 (1990), 26.407 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Taiwan, Communications

Railroads: 
about 4,600 km total track with 1,075 km common carrier lines and
3,525 km industrial lines; common carrier lines consist of the
1.067-meter gauge 708 km West Line and the 367 km East Line; a 98.25
km South Link Line connection was completed in late 1991; common
carrier lines owned by the government and operated by the Railway
Administration under Ministry of Communications; industrial lines
owned and operated by government enterprises
Highways: 
total: 
20,041 km 
paved: 
bituminous, concrete pavement 17,095 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel 2,371 km; graded earth 575 km 
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 615 km; natural gas 97 km 
Ports: 
Kao-hsiung, Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Su-ao, T'ai-tung
Merchant marine: 
212 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,910,453 GRT/9,098,315 DWT,
bulk 54, cargo 38, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 2, combination
ore/oil 2, container 85, oil tanker 17, passenger-cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
40 
usable: 
38 
with permanent-surface runways: 
36 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
16 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
best developed system in Asia outside of Japan; 7,800,000 telephones;
extensive microwave radio relay links on east and west coasts;
broadcast stations - 91 AM, 23 FM, 15 TV (13 repeaters); 8,620,000
radios; 6,386,000 TVs (5,680,000 color, 706,000 monochrome); satellite
earth stations - 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT;
submarine cable links to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam,
Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western
Europe

@Taiwan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Coastal Patrol and Defense
Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Military Police Command 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,205,707; fit for military service 4,806,456; reach
military age (19) annually 192,083 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $12.1 billion, 5% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)


@Tajikistan, Geography

Location: 
Central Asia, between Uzbekistan and China
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
143,100 sq km 
land area: 
142,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries: 
total 3,651 km, Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,161 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
boundary with China in dispute; territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan on
northern boundary in Isfara Valley area; Afghanistan's and other
foreign support to Tajik rebels based in northern Afghanistan
Climate: 
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar
in Pamir Mountains
Terrain: 
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in
north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Natural resources: 
significant hydropower potential, some petroleum, uranium, mercury,
brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
23% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
71% 
Irrigated land: 
6,940 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity;
industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; Tajikistan is part of the
basin of the shrinking Aral Sea which suffers from severe
overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated
pollution
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
landlocked

@Tajikistan, People

Population: 
5,995,469 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.67% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
34.79 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.71 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
62 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.76 years 
male: 
65.88 years 
female: 
71.79 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.62 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Tajik(s) 
adjective: 
Tajik 
Ethnic divisions: 
Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of
emigration), other 6.6% 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5% 
Languages: 
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
1.95 million (1992)
by occupation: 
agriculture and forestry 43%, government and services 24%, industry
14%, trade and communications 11%, construction 8% (1990)

@Tajikistan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Tajikistan 
conventional short form: 
Tajikistan 
local long form: 
Respublika i Tojikiston 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
TI
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Dushanbe 
Administrative divisions: 
2 oblasts (viloyotho, singular - viloyat) and one autonomous oblast*
(viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh -
formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa - formerly
Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobad (Khujand - formerly Leninabad)
note: 
the administrative center names are in parentheses
Independence: 
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
National Day, 9 September (1991) 
Constitution: 
a referendum on new constitution planned for June 1994
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Head of State and Assembly Chairman Emomili RAKHMONOV (since NA
November 1992); election last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held NA
September 1994); results - Rakhman NABIYEV, Communist Party 60%;
Davlat KHUDONAZAROV, Democratic Party, Islamic Rebirth Party and
Rastokhoz Party 30%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Abdujalil SAMADOV (since 27 December 993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
note: 
the presidency was abolished in November 1992, when RAKHMANOV became
head of state; a referendum on presidential or parliamentary system is
planned for June 1994
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme Soviet: 
elections last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held NA September
1994); results - Communist Party 99%, other 1%; seats - (230 total)
Communist Party 227, other 3
Judicial branch: 
Prosecutor General 
Political parties and leaders: 
Communist Party (Tajik Socialist Party - TSP), Shodi SHABDOLOV,
chairman; Tajik Democratic Party (TDP), Shodmon YUSUF; Islamic Revival
Party (IRP), Mohammed Sharif HIMOTZODA, Davat OUSMAN; Rastokhez
Movement, Tohir ABDUJABBAR; Lali Badakhshan Society, Atobek AMIRBEK
note: 
all the above-listed parties but the Communist Party were banned in
June 1993
Other political or pressure groups: 
Tajikistan Opposition Movement based in northern Afghanistan
Member of: 
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO,
WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
NA 
chancery: 
NA 
telephone: 
NA 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO 
embassy: 
Hotel October, 105A Rudaki Prospect, Dushanbe 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[7] (3772) 21-03-56 and 21-03-60 
Flag: 
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and
green; a crown surmounted by seven five-pointed stars is located in
the center of the white stripe

@Tajikistan, Economy

Overview: 
Tajikistan had the lowest per capita GDP in the former USSR, the
highest rate of population growth, and the lowest standard of living.
Its economy at the start of 1994 is producing at roughly the 1989
level and faces urgent reconstruction tasks from the 1992 civil war.
Tajikistan's economy was severely disrupted by the breakup of the
Soviet economy, which provided guaranteed trade relations and heavy
subsidies and in which specialized tasks were assigned to each
republic. Its economy is highly agricultural (43% of the work force);
it has specialized in growing cotton for export and must import a
large share of its food. Its industry (14% of the work force) produces
aluminum, hydropower, machinery, and household appliances. Nearly all
petroleum products must be imported. Constant political turmoil and
continued dominance of former Communist officials have slowed the
process of economic reform and brought near economic collapse while
limiting foreign assistance. Tajikistan is in the midst of a prolonged
monetary crisis in which it is attempting to continue to use the
Russian ruble as its currency while its neighbors have switched to new
independent currencies; Russia is unwilling to advance sufficient
rubles without attaching stringent reform conditions.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.9 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Tajik statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-21% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,180 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
38% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate: 
1.1% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large
numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$263 million to outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners: 
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
Imports: 
$371 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, textiles,
foodstuffs
partners: 
Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -20% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
4,585,000 kW
production: 
16.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,879 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable
oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Agriculture: 
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep and goats
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as
transshipment points for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western
Europe and North America
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Russia reportedly provided substantial general assistance throughout
1993 and continues to provide assistance in 1994; Western aid and
credits promised through the end of 1993 were $700 million but
disbursements were only $104 million; large scale development loans
await IMF approval of a reform and stabilization plan
Currency: 
1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks; acquiring new Russian rubles as currency
under December 1993 agreement
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Tajikistan, Communications

Railroads: 
480 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
29,900 km 
paved: 
21,400 km 
unpaved: 
earth 8,500 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
natural gas 400 km (1992)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
58 
usable: 
30 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
13 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached
by the national network; 303,000 telephone circuits (December 1991);
telephone density about 55 per 1000 persons(1951); linked by cable and
microwave to other CIS republics, and by leased connections to the
Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by INTELSAT to
international gateway switch in Ankara; satellite earth stations - 1
Orbita and 2 INTELSAT (one INTELSAT earth station provides TV
receive-only service from Turkey)

@Tajikistan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (being formed), National Guard, Security Forces (internal and
border troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,361,143; fit for military service 1,116,246; reach
military age (18) annually 57,681 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Tanzania, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean between Kenya and
Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
945,090 sq km 
land area: 
886,040 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than twice the size of California
note: 
includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Land boundaries: 
total 3,402 km, Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km,
Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km 
Coastline: 
1,424 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia
tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is
reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has
been settled
Climate: 
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain: 
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Natural resources: 
hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds,
gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
40% 
forest and woodland: 
47% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
1,530 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral
reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal
agriculture
natural hazards: 
the tsetse fly and lack of water limit agriculture; flooding on the
central plateau during the rainy season
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
Mount Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

@Tanzania, People

Population: 
27,985,660 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.5% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
19.42 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
109.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
43.25 years 
male: 
41.52 years 
female: 
45.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.2 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Tanzanian(s) 
adjective: 
Tanzanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
mainland: 
native African 99% (consisting of well over 100 tribes)
Asian, European, and Arab 1% 
Zanzibar: 
NA
Religions: 
mainland: 
Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20% 
Zanzibar: 
Muslim 99% plus
Languages: 
Swahili (official; widely understood and generally used for
communication between ethnic groups and is used in primary education),
English (official; primary language of commerce, administration, and
higher education)
note: 
first language of most people is one of the local languages
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population: 
46% 
male: 
62% 
female: 
31% 
Labor force: 
732,200 wage earners
by occupation: 
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1986 est.)

@Tanzania, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
United Republic of Tanzania 
conventional short form: 
Tanzania 
former: 
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar 
Digraph: 
TZ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Dar es Salaam 
note: 
some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is
planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s
Administrative divisions: 
25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma,
Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba
North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora,
Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West,
Ziwa Magharibi
Independence: 
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN
trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent
19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April
1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed
United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
National holiday: 
Union Day, 26 April (1964) 
Constitution: 
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system: 
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts
limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice
President John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990); Second Vice President
and President of Zanzibar Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November 1990)
election last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995);
results - Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition
head of government: 
Prime Minister John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge): 
elections last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995);
results - CCM was the only party; seats - (241 total, 168 elected) CCM
168
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI;
Civic United Front (CUF), James MAPALALA; National Committee for
Constitutional Reform (NCCK), Mabere MARANDO; Union for Multiparty
Democracy (UMD), Abdullah FUNDIKIRA; Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo
(CHADEMA), Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-6, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Charles Musama NYIRABU 
chancery: 
2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-6125 
FAX: 
(202) 797-7408 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS 
embassy: 
36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam 
telephone: 
[255] (51) 66010 through 13 
FAX: 
[255] (51) 66701 
Flag: 
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the
lower triangle is blue

@Tanzania, Economy

Overview: 
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is
heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 58% of GDP,
provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry
accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing
agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery
program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in
agricultural production and financial support for the program by
bilateral donors. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and
bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's
deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-93 featured a
pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output
of minerals led by gold.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $16.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
21% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$495 million 
expenditures: 
$631 million, including capital expenditures of $118 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$418 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisal
partners: 
FRG, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US
Imports: 
$1.51 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton
piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners: 
FRG, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark
External debt: 
$6.44 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 9.3% (1990); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
405,000 kW
production: 
600 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
20 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal
twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refinery, shoes, cement,
textiles, wood products, fertilizer
Agriculture: 
accounts for over 58% of GDP; topography and climatic conditions limit
cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash crops - coffee, sisal,
tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums),
cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat,
cassava, bananas, fruits, vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep,
and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production
Illicit drugs: 
growing role in transshipment of Southwest Asian heroin destined for
US and European markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $9.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $614 million 
Currency: 
1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 486.75 (January 1994), 405.27
(1993), 297.71 (1992), 219.16 (1991), 195.06 (1990), 143.38 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July-30 June

@Tanzania, Communications

Railroads: 
969 km total; all of 1.067-meter gauge; connects with Zambia railroad
at Tazara
Highways: 
total: 
81,900 km 
paved: 
3,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 5,600 km; improved, unimproved earth 72,700 km 
Inland waterways: 
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa
Pipelines: 
crude oil 982 km 
Ports: 
Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza on
Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports
Merchant marine: 
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,145 GRT/39,186 DWT, cargo 3,
oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
109 
usable: 
100 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
40 
Telecommunications: 
fair system operating below capacity; open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 12 AM, 4 FM, 2
TV; 1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Tanzania, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; including Army, Navy, and Air
Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,011,564; fit for military service 3,480,179 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Thailand, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Burma and
Cambodia
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
514,000 sq km 
land area: 
511,770 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries: 
total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km,
Malaysia 506 km 
Coastline: 
3,219 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam;
parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with
Thailand not clearly defined
Climate: 
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March);
southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain: 
central plain; Khorat plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Natural resources: 
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish,
gypsum, lignite, fluorite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
34% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
30% 
other: 
31% 
Irrigated land: 
42,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution increasing from vehicle emissions; water pollution from
organic and factory wastes; deforestation; wildlife populations
threatened by illegal hunting
natural hazards: 
land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the
water table
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservaiton, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note: 
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

@Thailand, People

Population: 
59,510,471 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.3% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
37.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.35 years 
male: 
64.99 years 
female: 
71.87 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.1 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Thai (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Thai 
Ethnic divisions: 
Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11% 
Religions: 
Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other
0.6% (1991)
Languages: 
Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic and regional
dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
96% 
female: 
90% 
Labor force: 
30.87 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including
government) 14% (1989 est.)

@Thailand, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Thailand 
conventional short form: 
Thailand 
Digraph: 
TH
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Bangkok 
Administrative divisions: 
73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Ang Thong, Buriram,
Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang
Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon
Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom,
Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat,
Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani,
Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit,
Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri,
Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon,
Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing
Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin,
Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani,
Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence: 
1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
National holiday: 
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927) 
Constitution: 
new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992
Legal system: 
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23
February 1991 military coup
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown
Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 23 September 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Privy Council: 
NA 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha)
Senate (Vuthisatha): 
consists of a 270-member appointed body
House of Representatives(Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn): 
elections last held 13 September 1992 (next to be held by NA); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (360 total) DP 79, TNP 77, NDP
60, NAP 51, Phalang Tham 47, SAP 22, LDP 8, SP 8, Mass Party 4, Thai
Citizen's Party 3, People's Party 1, People's Force Party 0
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Sarndika) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democrat Party (DP), Chuan LIKPHAI; Thai Nation Pary (TNP or Chat Thai
Party), Banhan SINLAPA-ACHA; National Development Party (NDP or Chat
Phattana), Chatchai CHUNHAWAN; New Aspiration Party (NAP), Gen.
Chawalit YONGCHAIYUT; Phalang Tham (Palang Dharma), Bunchu
ROTCHANASATIEN; Social Action Party (SAP), Montri PHONGPHANIT; Liberal
Democratic Party (LDP or Seri Tham), Athit URAIRAT; Solidarity Party
(SP), Uthai PHIMCHAICHON; Mass Party (Muanchon), Pol. Cpt. Choem
YUBAMRUNG; Thai Citizen's Party (Prachakon Thai), Samak SUNTHONWET;
People's Party (Ratsadon), Chaiphak SIRIWAT; People's Force Party
(Phalang Prachachon), Col. Sophon HANCHAREON
Member of: 
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi 
chancery: 
2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-7200 
FAX: 
(202) 234-4498 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON 
embassy: 
95 Wireless Road, Bangkok 
mailing address: 
APO AP 96546 
telephone: 
[66] (2) 252-5040 
FAX: 
[66] (2) 254-2990 
consulate(s) general: 
Chiang Mai 
consulate(s): 
Udorn (Udon Thani) 
Flag: 
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white,
and red

@Thailand, Economy

Overview: 
Thailand's economy recovered rapidly from the political unrest in May
1992 to post an impressive 7.5% growth rate for the year and 7.8% in
1993. One of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, Thailand
depends on exports of manufactures and the development of the service
sector to fuel the country's rapid growth. The trade and current
account deficits fell in 1992; much of Thailand's recent imports have
been for capital equipment suggesting that the export sector is poised
for further growth. With foreign investment slowing, Bangkok is
working to increase the generation of domestic capital. Prime Minister
CHUAN's government - Thailand's fifth government in less than two
years - is pledged to continue Bangkok's probusiness policies, and the
return of a democratically elected government has improved business
confidence. Nevertheless, CHUAN must overcome divisions within his
ruling coalition to complete much needed infrastructure development
programs if Thailand is to remain an attractive place for business
investment. Over the longer-term, Bangkok must produce more college
graduates with technical training and upgrade workers' skills to
continue its rapid economic development.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $323 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
3.1% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$21.36 billion 
expenditures: 
$22.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.24 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$28.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery and manufactures 76.9%, agricultural products 14.9%,
fisheries products 5.9% (1992)
partners: 
US 22%, Japan 18%, Singapore 8%, Hong Kong 5%, Germany 4%, Netherlands
4%, UK 4%, Malaysia, France, China (1992)
Imports: 
$37.6 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
capital goods 41.4%, intermediate goods and raw materials 32.8%,
consumer goods 10.4%, oil 8.2%
partners: 
Japan 29.3%, US 11.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Taiwan 5.5%, Germany 5.4%,
South Korea 4.6%, Malaysia 4.2%, China 3.3%, Hong Kong 3.3%, UK (1992)
External debt: 
$33.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 9% (1992); accounts for about 26% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,000,000 kW
production: 
43.75 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
760 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and
garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light
manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components,
integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest
tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Agriculture: 
accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and
exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops - rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in
food
Illicit drugs: 
a minor producer of opium and marijuana; major illicit trafficker of
heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, for the international drug
market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis
cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries;
opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts; also
a major drug money laundering center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $8.6
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million 
Currency: 
1 baht (B) = 100 satang
Exchange rates: 
baht (B) per US$1 - 25.446 (December 1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517
(1991), 25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 October-30 September

@Thailand, Communications

Railroads: 
3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track
Highways: 
total: 
77,697 km 
paved: 
35,855 km (including 88 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
gravel, other stabilization 14,092 km; earth 27,750 km (1988)
Inland waterways: 
3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m
or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by
shallow-draft native craft
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km 
Ports: 
Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha
Merchant marine: 
198 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 998,372 GRT/1,561,824 DWT, bulk
14, cargo 105, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 2, container 13,
liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 43, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 6,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
105 
usable: 
96 
with permanent-surface runways: 
51 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
14 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
28 
Telecommunications: 
service to general public inadequate; bulk of service to government
activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay
network; 739,500 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - over 200 AM,
100 FM, and 11 TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT;
domestic satellite system being developed

@Thailand, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai Marine Corps),
Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 16,982,226; fit for military service 10,312,744; reach
military age (18) annually 599,240 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 2.9% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)


@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, between Serbia and Montenegro and
Greece
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
25,333 sq km 
land area: 
24,856 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries: 
total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Greece claims republic's name implies territorial claims against
Aegean Macedonia
Climate: 
hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy
snowfall
Terrain: 
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are
three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line
Natural resources: 
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore,
asbestos, sulphur, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
30% 
other: 
40% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from metallurgical plants
natural hazards: 
high seismic risks
international agreements: 
party to - Ozone Layer Protection
Note: 
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central
Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, People

Population: 
2,213,785 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.89% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.59 years 
male: 
71.51 years 
female: 
75.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.98 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Macedonian(s) 
adjective: 
Macedonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, Gypsies 3%, other
4% 
Religions: 
Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3% 
Languages: 
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
507,324 
by occupation: 
agriculture 8%, manufacturing and mining 40% (1990)

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 
conventional short form: 
none 
local long form: 
Republika Makedonija 
local short form: 
Makedonija 
Abbreviation: 
F.Y.R.O.M. 
Digraph: 
MK
Type: 
emerging democracy 
Capital: 
Skopje 
Administrative divisions: 
34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod,
Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani,
Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid,
Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair,
Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga,
Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica
Independence: 
17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: 
NA
Constitution: 
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991); election last held 27
January 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Kiro GLIGOROV was elected
by the Assembly
head of government: 
Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4 September 1992), Deputy
Prime Ministers Jovan ANDONOV (since NA March 1991), Risto IVANOV
(since NA), and Becir ZUTA (since NA March 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; elected by the majority vote of all the deputies
in the Sobranje
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Assembly (Sobranje): 
elections last held 11 and 25 November and 9 December 1990 (next to be
held November 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(120 total) VMRO-DPMNE 32, SDSM 29, PDPM 23, SRSM 19, SPM 4, DP 4, SJM
2, others 7
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic 
Political parties and leaders: 
Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDSM; former Communist
Party), Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president; Party for Democratic Prosperity
(PDPM); National Democratic Party (PDP), Ilijas HALINI, president;
Alliance of Reform Forces of Macedonia - Liberal Party (SRSM-LP),
Stojan ANDOV, president; Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM), Kiro
POPOVSKI, president; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization -
Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE), Ljupco
GEORGIEVSKI, president; Party of Yugoslavs in Macedonia (SJM), Milan
DURCINOV, president; Democratic Party (DP), Petal GOSEV, president
Other political or pressure groups: 
Movement for All Macedonian Action (MAAK); Democratic Party of Serbs;
Democratic Party of Turks; Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)
Member of: 
CE (guest), CSCE (observer), EBRD, ECE, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), ITU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
the US recognized The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 9
February 1994
US diplomatic representation: 
the US recognized The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 9
February 1994
Flag: 
16-point gold sun (Vergina, Sun) centered on a red field

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Economy

Overview: 
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the poorest
republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and
energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. Its
economic decline will continue unless ties are reforged or enlarged
with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and
Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil
and gas and its modern machinery and parts. Continued political
turmoil, both internally and in the region as a whole, prevents any
swift readjustments of trade patterns and economic programs. The
country's industrial output and GDP are expected to decline further in
1994. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's geographical
isolation, technological backwardness, and potential political
instability place it far down the list of countries of interest to
Western investors. Resolution of the dispute with Greece and an
internal commitment to economic reform would help to encourage foreign
investment over the long run. In the immediate future, the worst
scenario for the economy would be the spread of fighting across its
borders.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-14.7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
13% monthly average (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
27% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$889 million (1993)
commodities: 
manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food
(rice) and live animals 5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals
4.7% (1990)
partners: 
principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav
republics, Germany, Greece, Albania
Imports: 
$963 million (1993)
commodities: 
fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and
transport equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%,
raw materials 10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages
and tobacco 3.5% (1990)
partners: 
other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany, Bulgaria
External debt: 
$840 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -14% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,600,000 kW
production: 
6.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,900 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by
distillation only; produces basic liquid fuels, coal, metallic
chromium, lead, zinc, and ferronickel; light industry produces basic
textiles, wood products, and tobacco
Agriculture: 
provides 12% of GDP and meets the basic needs for food; principal
crops are rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are
cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is one of the seven legal
cultivators of the opium poppy for the world pharmaceutical industry,
including some exports to the US; agricultural production is highly
labor intensive
Illicit drugs: 
limited illicit opium cultivation; transshipment point for Asian
heroin
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance)
EC promised a 100 ECU million economic aid package (1993)
Currency: 
the denar, which was adopted by the Macedonian legislature 26 April
1992, was initially issued in the form of a coupon pegged to the
German mark; subsequently repegged to a basket of seven currencies
Exchange rates: 
denar per US$1 - 865 (October 1992)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Communications

Railroads: 
NA
Highways: 
total: 
10,591 km 
paved: 
5,091 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 1,404 km; earth 4,096 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
NA km
Pipelines: 
none
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
16 
usable: 
16 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
125,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 2 FM, 5 (2 relays) TV;
370,000 radios, 325,000 TV; satellite communications ground stations -
none

@The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 604,257; fit for military service 489,746; reach
military age (19) annually 19,539 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
7 billion denars, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate
could produce misleading results


@Togo, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean beween Benin and
Ghana
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
56,790 sq km 
land area: 
54,390 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
total 1,647 km, Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana 877 km 
Coastline: 
56 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
30 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: 
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low
coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Natural resources: 
phosphates, limestone, marble 
Land use: 
arable land: 
25% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
28% 
other: 
42% 
Irrigated land: 
70 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use
of wood for fuel; recent droughts affecting agriculture
natural hazards: 
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Togo, People

Population: 
4,255,090 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.59% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
47.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
88.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
56.93 years 
male: 
54.87 years 
female: 
59.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.9 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Togolese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Togolese 
Ethnic divisions: 
37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye,
European and Syrian-Lebanese under 1%
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10% 
Languages: 
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe (one of the two
major African languages in the south), Mina (one of the two major
African languages in the south), Dagomba (one of the two major African
languages in the north), Kabye (one of the two major African languages
in the north)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
43% 
male: 
56% 
female: 
31% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
agriculture 78%, industry 22%
note: 
about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided between public and private
sectors; 50% of population of working age (1985)

@Togo, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Togo 
conventional short form: 
Togo 
local long form: 
Republique Togolaise 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
French Togo 
Digraph: 
TO
Type: 
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital: 
Lome 
Administrative divisions: 
23 circumscriptions (circonscriptions, singular - circonscription);
Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo
(Assoli), Bassar (Bassari), Dapango (Tone), Kande (Keran), Klouto
(Kloto), Pagouda (Binah), Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango
(Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse (Haho), Pagouda, Sotouboua,
Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Nyala, Tchaoudjo, Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo)
note: 
the 23 units may now be called prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture) and reported name changes for individual units are
included in parentheses
Independence: 
27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 April (1960) 
Constitution: 
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic
1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system: 
French-based court system
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967); election last
held 25 August 1993 (next election to be held NA 1998); all major
opposition parties boycotted the election; Gen. EYADEMA won 96.5% of
the vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Edem KODJO (since April 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elections last held on 6 and 20 February 1994 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; SEATS - (81 total) RPT and
allies (pro government) 38, CAR, UTD (the opposition) 40, still
contested as of 3 May 1994
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
pro-government: 
Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA;
Coordination des Forces Nouvelles (CFN), Joseph KOFFIGOH
moderate: 
The Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD), Edem KODJO; The Action
Committee for Renewal (CAR), Yao AGBOYIBOR
radical: 
The Union for Democracy and Solidarity (UDS), Antoine FOLLY; The
Pan-African Sociodemocrats Group (GSP), an alliance of three radical
parties: The Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA), Leopold
GNININVI; The Party for Democracy and Renewal (PDR), Zarifou AYEVA;
The Pan-African Social Party (PSP), Francis AGBAGLI; The Union of
Forces for Change (UFC), Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile)
note: 
Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the
only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12
April 1991
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Charge d'Affaires Edem Frederic HEGBE 
chancery: 
2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-4212 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY (Ambassador Johnny YOUNG to replace
Ambassador KIRBY during the summer of 1994) 
embassy: 
Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome 
mailing address: 
B. P. 852, Lome 
telephone: 
[228] 21-29-91 
FAX: 
[228] 21-79-52 
Flag: 
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with
yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the
upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia

@Togo, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, which
accounts for about 33% of GDP and provides employment for 78% of the
labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and
cotton, which together generate about 30% of total export earnings.
Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal.
In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by far the most important
activity, although it has suffered from the collapse of World
phosphate prices and increased foreign competition. Togo serves as a
regional commercial and trade center. The government's decade-long IMF
and World Bank supported effort to implement economic reform measures
to encourage foreign investment and bring revenues in line with
expenditures has stalled. Political unrest, including private and
public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, has jeopardized the
reform program and has disrupted vital economic activity.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
0.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$284 million 
expenditures: 
$407 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$558 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
phosphates, cotton, cocoa, coffee
partners: 
EC 40%, Africa 16%, US 1% (1990)
Imports: 
$636 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemical products
partners: 
EC 57%, Africa 17%, US 5%, Japan 4% (1990)
External debt: 
$1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 9% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
179,000 kW
production: 
209 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
60 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts,
textiles, beverages
Agriculture: 
accounts for 33% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, cotton; food
crops - yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock
production not significant; annual fish catch of 10,000-14,000 tons
Illicit drugs: 
increasingly used as transit hub by heroin traffickers
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $142 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $51 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning 12
January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc
from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Togo, Communications

Railroads: 
570 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
6,462 km 
paved: 
1,762 km 
unpaved: 
unimproved earth 4,700 km 
Inland waterways: 
50 km Mono River
Ports: 
Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)
Merchant marine: 
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,118
GRT/20,529 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fair system based on network of radio relay routes supplemented by
open wire lines; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

@Togo, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 898,448; fit for military service 471,807 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $43 million, about 3% of GDP (1989)


@Tokelau

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of New Zealand) 

@Tokelau, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
10 sq km 
land area: 
10 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
101 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
Terrain: 
coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to
emigration to New Zealand
natural hazards: 
lies in Pacific typhoon belt
international agreements: 
NA 

@Tokelau, People

Population: 
1,523 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-1.35% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Tokelauan(s) 
adjective: 
Tokelauan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian 
Religions: 
Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2% 
note: 
on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu,
all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant
Languages: 
Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Tokelau, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Tokelau 
Digraph: 
TL
Type: 
territory of New Zealand 
Capital: 
none; each atoll has its own administrative center
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of New Zealand)
Independence: 
none (territory of New Zealand)
National holiday: 
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty over New Zealand)
Constitution: 
administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as amended in 1970
Legal system: 
British and local statutes
Suffrage: 
NA
Executive branch: 
Chief of State: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
Head of Government: 
Administrator Graham ANSELL (since NA 1990; appointed by the Minister
of Foreign Affairs in New Zealand); Official Secretary Casimilo J.
PEREZ (since NA), Office of Tokelau Affairs; Tokelau's governing
Council will elect its first head of government 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll
Judicial branch: 
High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand
Political parties and leaders: 
NA
Member of: 
SPC, WHO (associate) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of New Zealand)
Flag: 
the flag of New Zealand is used

@Tokelau, Economy

Overview: 
Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources greatly
restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to
maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than
GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra,
postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also
remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$800 (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$430,830 
expenditures: 
$2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $37,300 (1987 est.)
Exports: 
$98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities: 
stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners: 
NZ
Imports: 
$323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners: 
NZ
External debt: 
$0 
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
200 kW
production: 
300,000 kWh 
consumption per capita: 
180 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft
goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Agriculture: 
coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops - breadfruit, papaya,
bananas; pigs, poultry, goats
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $24 million 
Currency: 
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), l.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April-31 March

@Tokelau, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa
Telecommunications: 
radiotelephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

@Tokelau, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand


@Tonga, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
748 sq km 
land area: 
718 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
419 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool
season (May to December)
Terrain: 
most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation;
others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Natural resources: 
fish, fertile soil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
25% 
permanent crops: 
55% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
12% 
other: 
2% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation
natural hazards: 
subject to cyclones (October to April)
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

@Tonga, People

Population: 
104,778 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.79% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.76 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.75 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-10.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
20.79 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.97 years 
male: 
65.64 years 
female: 
70.43 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.62 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Tongan(s) 
adjective: 
Tongan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian, Europeans about 300
Religions: 
Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Languages: 
Tongan, English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write simple message in Tongan or English
(1976)
total population: 
57% 
male: 
60% 
female: 
60% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
agriculture 70%, mining (600 engaged in mining)

@Tonga, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Tonga 
conventional short form: 
Tonga 
former: 
Friendly Islands 
Digraph: 
TN
Type: 
hereditary constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Nuku'alofa 
Administrative divisions: 
three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence: 
4 June 1970 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970) 
Constitution: 
4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967
Legal system: 
based on English law
Suffrage: 
all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the king
Privy Council: 
consists of the king and the cabinet
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea): 
elections last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held NA February
1993); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (29 total, 9 elected) 6
proreform, 3 traditionalist
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Reform Movement, 'Akilisi POHIVA; Christian Democratic
Party, leader NA
Member of: 
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in London
consulate(s) general: 
San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
the US has no offices in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited
to Tonga and makes periodic visits
Flag: 
red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner

@Tonga, Economy

Overview: 
The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the
labor force and contributes 40% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla
beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The
country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New
Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP.
Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the
island remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to
offset its trade deficit. The economy continued to grow in 1993
largely because of a rise in squash exports, increased aid flows, and
several large construction projects. The government is now turning its
attention to further development of the private sector and the
reduction of the budget deficit.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $200 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9% (FY92)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$36.4 million 
expenditures: 
$68.1 million, including capital expenditures of $33.2 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$18.8 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
vanilla, fish, root crops, coconut oil, squash
partners: 
Japan 34%, US 17%, Australia 13%, NZ 13% (FY91)
Imports: 
$68.3 million (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels,
chemicals
partners: 
NZ 33%, Australia 22%, US 8%, Japan 8% (FY91)
External debt: 
$47.5 million (FY91)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.5% (FY92); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,000 kW
production: 
8 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
80 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourism, fishing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 40% of GDP; dominated by coconut, copra, and banana
production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $258
million 
Currency: 
1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti
Exchange rates: 
pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.3934 (November 1993), 1.3471 (1992), 1.2961
(1991), 1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989),
Fiscal year: 
1 July-30 June

@Tonga, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
366 km 
paved: 
272 km (198 km on Tongatapu; 74 km on Vava'u)
unpaved: 
94 km (usable only in dry weather)
Ports: 
Nuku'alofa, Neiafu, Pangai
Merchant marine: 
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,761 GRT/10,597 DWT, cargo 1,
liquefied gas 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
3,529 telephones; 66,000 radios; no TV sets; broadcast stations - 1
AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Tonga, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Tonga Defense Services, Maritime Division, Royal Tongan Marines,
Tongan Royal Guards, Police 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Trinidad and Tobago, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the extreme southeastern Caribbean Sea, 11 km off the
coast of Venezuela
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
5,130 sq km 
land area: 
5,130 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
362 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain: 
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
14% 
permanent crops: 
17% 
meadows and pastures: 
2% 
forest and woodland: 
44% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
220 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and
untreated sewage; oil pollution of beaches; land degradation
natural hazards: 
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Trinidad and Tobago, People

Population: 
1,328,282 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.1% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
16.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.73 years 
male: 
68.09 years 
female: 
73.43 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.32 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s) 
adjective: 
Trinidadian, Tobagonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 43%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant
14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1% 
Languages: 
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
95% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
463,900 
by occupation: 
construction and utilities 18.1%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying
14.8%, agriculture 10.9%, other 56.2% (1985 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 
conventional short form: 
Trinidad and Tobago 
Digraph: 
TD
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Port-of-Spain 
Administrative divisions: 
8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro,
Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint
Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Independence: 
31 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 31 August (1962) 
Constitution: 
1 August 1976
Legal system: 
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in
the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Patrick Augustus Mervyn MANNING (since 17 December
1991) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; responsible to parliament
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
consists of a 31-member body appointed by the president
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 16 December 1991 (next to be held by December
1996); results - PNM 32%, UNC 13%, NAR 2%; seats - (36 total) PNM 21,
UNC 13, NAR 2
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National
Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; National Alliance for Reconstruction
(NAR), Selby WILSON; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION),
David ABDULLAH; National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal
DAAGA; Republic Party, Nello MITCHELL; National Development Party
(NDP), Carson CHARLES
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Corinne Averille McKNIGHT 
chancery: 
1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 467-6490 
FAX: 
(202) 785-3130 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Sally G. COWAL 
embassy: 
15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain 
telephone: 
(809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176 
FAX: 
(809) 628-5462 
Flag: 
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

@Trinidad and Tobago, Economy

Overview: 
Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy still enjoys a high per
capita income by Latin American standards, even though output and
living standards are substantially below the boom years of 1973-82.
The country suffers from widespread unemployment, large foreign-debt
payments, and periods of low international oil prices. Seven
successive years of economic contraction were followed by small gains
in output in 1990-91 of 1.2% and 0.9%, in turn followed by small
declines in 1992-93 of roughly 1.0%. The government has begun to make
progress in its efforts to diversify exports.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $10.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$8,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
18.5% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.6 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $158 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products,
fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
partners: 
US 47%, CARICOM 13%, Latin America 9%, EC 5% (1992)
Imports: 
$900 million (f.o.b. , 1993)
commodities: 
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live
animals (1992)
partners: 
US 41%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8%, other EC 8%
External debt: 
$2 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.3% (1991); accounts for 37% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,176,000 kW
production: 
3.48 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,680 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage,
cotton textiles
Agriculture: 
accounts for 3% of GDP; highly subsidized sector; major crops - cocoa,
sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus,
coffee, vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal
protein; must import large share of food needs
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518
million 
Currency: 
1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 5.8111 (January 1994),
5.3511 (1993), 4.2500 (fixed rate 1989-1992); note - effective 13
April 1993, the exchange rate of the TT dollar is market-determined as
opposed to the prior fixed relationship to the US dollar
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Trinidad and Tobago, Communications

Railroads: 
minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando
Highways: 
total: 
8,000 km 
paved: 
4,000 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 1,000 km; unimproved earth 3,000 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas 904 km 
Ports: 
Port-of-Spain, Pointe-a-Pierre, Scarborough
Merchant marine: 
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,507 GRT/21,923 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to
Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Trinidad and Tobago, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast
Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 357,904; fit for military service 257,667 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $59 million, 1%-2% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Tromelin Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(possession of France) 

@Tromelin Island, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 350 km east of
Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion
Map references: 
World 
Area: 
total area: 
1 sq km 
land area: 
1 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
3.7 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
sandy
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (scattered bushes)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones; wildlife
sanctuary

@Tromelin Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Tromelin Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Tromelin Island 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ile Tromelin 
Digraph: 
TE
Type: 
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital: 
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
none (possession of France)

@Tromelin Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Tromelin Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
important meteorological station

@Tromelin Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Tunisia, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily,
between Algeria and Libya
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
163,610 sq km 
land area: 
155,360 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries: 
total 1,424 km, Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km 
Coastline: 
1,148 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land boundary dispute with
Algeria settled in 1993
Climate: 
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers;
desert in south
Terrain: 
mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into
the Sahara
Natural resources: 
petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
10% 
meadows and pastures: 
19% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
47% 
Irrigated land: 
2,750 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and presents human
health risks; water pollution from untreated sewage; water scarcity;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
strategic location in central Mediterranean

@Tunisia, People

Population: 
8,726,562 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.76% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
23.4 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
34.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.89 years 
male: 
70.85 years 
female: 
75.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.88 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Tunisian(s) 
adjective: 
Tunisian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%
Religions: 
Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French
(commerce)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
65% 
male: 
74% 
female: 
56% 
Labor force: 
2.25 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 32%
note: 
shortage of skilled labor

@Tunisia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Tunisia 
conventional short form: 
Tunisia 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah 
local short form: 
Tunis 
Digraph: 
TS
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Tunis 
Administrative divisions: 
23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba,
Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef, Mahdia, Medenine,
Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine,
Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan
Independence: 
20 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday: 
National Day, 20 March (1956) 
Constitution: 
1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review
of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987);
election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results - Gen.
Zine el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition
head of government: 
Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab): 
elections last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held NA March 1994);
results - RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, other
2.4%; seats - (141 total) RCD 141
Judicial branch: 
Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI
(official ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS),
Mohammed MOUAADA; five other political parties are legal, including
the Communist Party
Other political or pressure groups: 
the Islamic fundamentalist party, An Nahda (Rebirth), is outlawed
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM,
OAPEC (withdrew from active membership in 1986), OAS (observer), OAU,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ismail KHALIL 
chancery: 
1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 862-1850 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John T. McCARTHY 
embassy: 
144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[216] (1) 782-566 
FAX: 
[216] (1) 789-719 
Flag: 
red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly
encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are
traditional symbols of Islam

@Tunisia, Economy

Overview: 
Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining,
energy, tourism and manufacturing sectors. The economy grew rapidly in
the mid-1980s, GDP growth averaging 5.4% in 1983-85. Following a
foreign exchange crisis caused by a sharp drop in agricultural output
and tourism, combined with the oil price collapse in 1986, Tunisia
inaugurated an IMF-sponsored economic rehabilitation scheme.
Subsequent government structural reforms have helped liberalize and
open the economy, and GDP growth has been positive since the start of
the program. A sharp rebound in tourism from the downturn caused by
the Gulf war and strong agricultural performance boosted real GDP
growth to more than 8% in 1992; growth fell back to 2.6% in 1993.
Further privatization and further improvements in government
administrative efficiency are among the challenges for the future.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $34.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
16.2% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$4.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$5.5 billion, including capital expenditures to $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals
partners: 
EC countries 75%, Middle East 10%, Algeria 2%, India 2%, US 1%
Imports: 
$6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%,
consumer goods
partners: 
EC countries 70%, US 5%, Middle East 2%, Japan 2%, Switzerland 1%,
Algeria 1%
External debt: 
$7.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for about 25% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,545,000 kW
production: 
5,096 kWh 
consumption per capita: 
600 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism,
textiles, footwear, food, beverages
Agriculture: 
accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject
to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops -
olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products - grain, sugar beets,
wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $52
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $410 million 
Currency: 
1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes
Exchange rates: 
Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 1.0514 (January 1994), 1.0037 (1993),
0.8844 (1992), 0.9246 (1991), 0.8783 (1990), 0.9493 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Tunisia, Communications

Railroads: 
2,115 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge; 1,650 km
1.000-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
17,700 km 
paved: 
bituminous 9,100 km 
unpaved: 
improved, unimproved earth 8,600 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742 km 
Ports: 
Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis
Merchant marine: 
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 152,683 GRT/199,273 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 6, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1 
Airports: 
total: 
31 
usable: 
27 
with permanent-surface runways: 
14 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
note: 
a new airport opened 6 May 1993, length and type of surface NA
Telecommunications: 
the system is above the African average; facilities consist of
open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay; key centers
are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones (28
telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 7 AM, 8 FM, 19 TV;
5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial cable and
microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya

@Tunisia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,229,362; fit for military service 1,281,015; reach
military age (20) annually 91,941 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $618 million, 3.7% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Turkey, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is sometimes
included with Europe), bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea,
between Bulgaria and Iran
Map references: 
Africa, Europe, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
780,580 sq km 
land area: 
770,760 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 2,627 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km,
Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km 
Coastline: 
7,200 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the
former USSR
territorial sea: 
6 nm in the Aegean Sea,
12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea
International disputes: 
complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing
dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water
development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate: 
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in
interior
Terrain: 
mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)
Natural resources: 
antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
30% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
12% 
forest and woodland: 
26% 
other: 
28% 
Irrigated land: 
22,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air
pollution; deforestation
natural hazards: 
subject to very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey,
along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Note: 
strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of
Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

@Turkey, People

Population: 
62,153,898 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.02% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.98 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
48.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.94 years 
male: 
68.61 years 
female: 
73.38 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.21 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Turk(s) 
adjective: 
Turkish 
Ethnic divisions: 
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% 
Religions: 
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)
Languages: 
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
81% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
71% 
Labor force: 
20.8 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 48%, services 32%, industry 20%
note: 
about 1,800,000 Turks work abroad (1993)

@Turkey, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Turkey 
conventional short form: 
Turkey 
local long form: 
Turkiye Cumhuriyeti 
local short form: 
Turkiye 
Digraph: 
TU
Type: 
republican parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Ankara 
Administrative divisions: 
73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri,
Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman,
Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale,
Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan,
Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay,
Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars,
Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya,
Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu,
Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence: 
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923) 
Constitution: 
7 November 1982
Legal system: 
derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Tansu CILLER (since 5 July 1993) 
National Security Council: 
advisory body to the President and the Cabinet
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on nomination of the
prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Turkish Grand National Assembly: 
(Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi) elections last held 20 October 1991
(next to be held NA October 1996); results - DYP 27.03%, ANAP 24.01%,
SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%, SBP 0.44%, independent 0.14%; seats
- (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115, SHP 86, RP 40, MCP 19, DSP 7, other 5
note: 
seats held by various parties are subject to change due to defections,
creation of new parties, and ouster or death of sitting deputies;
present seats by party are as follows: DYP 178, ANAP 101, SHP 55, RP
39, CHP 18, MHP 13, DEP 13, BBP 7, DSP 3, YP 3, MP 2, independents 10,
vacant 8
Judicial branch: 
Court of Cassation 
Political parties and leaders: 
Correct Way Party (DYP), Tansu CILLER; Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut
YILMAZ; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Murat KARAYALCIN;
Welfare Party (RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN; Democratic Left Party (DSP),
Bulent ECEVIT; Nationalist Action Party (MHP), Alparslan TURKES;
Democracy Party (DEP), Hatip DICLE; Socialist Unity Party (SBP), Sadun
AREN; New Party (YP), Yusuf Bozkurt OZAL; Republican People's Party
(CHP), Deniz BAYKAL; Labor Party (IP), Dogu PERINCEK; National Party
(MP), Aykut EDIBALI; Democrat Party (DP), Aydin MENDERES; Grand Unity
Party (BBP), Muhsin YAZICIOGLU; Rebirth Party (YDP), Hasan Celal
GUZEL; People's Democracy Party (HADEP), Murat BOZLAK; Main Path Party
(ANAYOL), Gurcan BASER; Democratic Target Party, Abdul Kadir Yasar
TURK
Other political or pressure groups: 
Turkish Confederation of Labor (TURK-IS), Bayram MERAL
Member of: 
AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR 
chancery: 
1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 659-8200 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY 
embassy: 
110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara 
mailing address: 
PSC 93, Box 5000, Ankara, or APO AE 09823 
telephone: 
[90] (312) 468-6110 through 6128 
FAX: 
[90] (312) 467-0019 
consulate(s) general: 
Istanbul 
consulate(s): 
Adana 
Flag: 
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the
hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the
crescent opening

@Turkey, Economy

Overview: 
In early 1994, after an impressive economic performance through most
of the 1980s, Turkey faces its most damaging economic crisis in the
last 15 years. Sparked by the downgrading in mid-January of Turkey's
international credit rating by two US credit rating agencies, the
crisis stems from two years of loose fiscal and monetary policies that
have exacerbated inflation and allowed the public debt, money supply,
and current account deficit to explode. Under Prime Minister CILLER,
Ankara has followed seriously flawed policies that have destroyed
public confidence in the government's ability to manage the economy.
Inflation is now running at an annual rate of 107% and the public
sector deficit is equivalent to 16% of GDP. Turkish firms have been
hurt by high interest rates and a dramatic drop in consumer demand.
Three Turkish banks have folded and the stock market has fallen 48%
since the beginning of the year. Economic growth may drop to between
0% and 2% in 1994, compared to 7.3% in 1993. Moreover, the government
is facing a severe cash crunch. In March 1994, the treasury came close
to defaulting on a loan, and official foreign currency reserves are
equal to less than two months' worth of imports. The unprecedented
effort by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to raise the economic
costs of its insurgency against the Turkish state is adding to
Turkey's economic problems. Attacks against the tourism industry have
cut tourist revenues, which account for about 3% of GDP, while
economic activity in southeastern Turkey, where most of the violence
occurs, has dropped considerably. To cope with the economic crisis and
instill domestic and international investor confidence in the fragile
coalition government, CILLER has asked the IMF to endorse a
stabilization package she introduced in early April 1994. Negotiations
are underway for a standby agreement, which would give Turkey access
to $450 million this year and enable her cash-starved government to
return to the foreign capital markets.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $312.4 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
7.3% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$5,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
65% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
12.2% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$36.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$47.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5 billion (1994)
Exports: 
$14.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
manufactured products 72%, foodstuffs 23%, mining products 4%
partners: 
EC countries 53%, US 6%, Russia 4%, Saudi Arabia 3%
Imports: 
$22.9 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
manufactured products 68%, fuels 17%, foodstuffs 4%
partners: 
EC countries 44%, US 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, Russia 5%
External debt: 
$59.4 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.3% (1992); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
14,400,000 kW
production: 
44 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
750 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron
minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Agriculture: 
accounts for 16% of GDP and employs about half of working force;
products - tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus
fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years
Illicit drugs: 
major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western
Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish,
Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out
of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into
heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul;
government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy
cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion 
note: 
aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991), $4.1
billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund, $2.5 billion
Currency: 
1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates: 
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 15,196.1 (January 1994), 10,983.3
(1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Turkey, Communications

Railroads: 
8,429 km 1.435-meter gauge (including 795 km electrified)
Highways: 
total: 
320,611 km 
paved: 
27,000 km (including 138 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
gravel 18,500 km; earth 275,111 km (1988)
Inland waterways: 
about 1,200 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km 
Ports: 
Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir
Merchant marine: 
390 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,664,205 GRT/8,163,379 DWT,
bulk 103, cargo 195, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 5,
combination ore/oil 12, container 2, liquefied gas 4, livestock
carrier 1, oil tanker 41, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 2 
Airports: 
total: 
113 
usable: 
105 
with permanent-surface runways: 
69 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
32 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
27 
Telecommunications: 
fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay microwave
network; limited open wire network; 3,400,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 15 AM; 94 FM; 357 TV; 1 satellite ground station operating
in the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean antennas) and EUTELSAT systems; 1
submarine cable

@Turkey, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force,
Coast Guard, Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 16,112,783; fit for military service 9,828,853; reach
military age (20) annually 614,252 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $14 billion, 5.6% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Turkmenistan, Geography

Location: 
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Uzbekistan
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
488,100 sq km 
land area: 
488,100 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: 
total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km 
Coastline: 
0 km 
note: 
Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claims: 
landlocked, but boundaries in the Caspian Sea with Azerbaijan,
Kazakhstan, and Iran are under negotiations
International disputes: 
Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of
Caspian Sea from shore
Climate: 
subtropical desert
Terrain: 
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the
south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in
west
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
69% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
28% 
Irrigated land: 
12,450 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals,
pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation
methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow
of the Amu Darya river into irrigation contributes to that river's
inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Ozone Layer Protection
Note: 
landlocked

@Turkmenistan, People

Population: 
3,995,122 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
30.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
69.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.14 years 
male: 
61.63 years 
female: 
68.82 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Turkmen(s) 
adjective: 
Turkmen 
Ethnic divisions: 
Turkmen 73.3%, Russian 9.8%, Uzbek 9%, Kazakh 2%, other 5.9% 
Religions: 
Muslim 87%, Eastern Orthodox 11%, unknown 2% 
Languages: 
Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7% 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
1.573 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction 20%, other 36%
(1992)

@Turkmenistan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Turkmenistan 
local long form: 
Tiurkmenostan Respublikasy 
local short form: 
Turkmenistan 
former: 
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
TX
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Ashgabat 
Administrative divisions: 
5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan
Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty (formerly Tashauz), Lebap
Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note: 
names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from
welayat name
Independence: 
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 October (1991) 
Constitution: 
adopted 18 May 1992
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Saparmurad NIYAZOV (since NA October 1990); election last
held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002); results - Saparmurad
NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed); note - a 15 January 1994 referendum
extended NIYAZOV's term an additional five years until 2002 (99.99%
approval)
head of government: 
Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers Batyr SARDJAEV, Valery
G. OCHERTSOV, Orazgeldi AIDOGDIEV, Djourakuli BABAKULIYEV, Rejep
SAPAROV, Boris SHIKHMURADOV, Abad RIZAEVA, Yagmur OVEZOV (since NA)
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
under 1992 constitution there are two parliamentary bodies, a
unicameral People's Council (Halk Maslahaty - having more than 100
members and meeting infrequently) and a 50-member unicameral Assembly
(Majlis)
Assembly (Majlis): 
elections last held 7 January 1990 (next to be held late 1994 or early
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total)
elections not officially by party, but Communist Party members won
nearly 90% of seats; note - seats to be reduced to 50 at next election
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party: 
Democratic Party (formerly Communist), chairman vacant
opposition: 
Party for Democratic Development, Durdymurat HOJA-MUKHAMMED, chairman;
Agzybirlik, Nurberdy NURMAMEDOV, cochairman, Hubayberdi HALLIYEV,
cochairman
note: 
formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition
movements exist
Member of: 
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Khalil UGUR 
chancery: 
1511 K Street NW, Suite 412, Washington, DC, 20005 
telephone: 
NA 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Joseph S. HULINGS III 
embassy: 
Yubilenaya Hotel, Ashgabat 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[7] 36320 24-49-25 or 24-49-26 
Flag: 
green field, including a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with a
claret vertical stripe in between containing five white, black, and
orange carpet guls (an assymetrical design used in producing rugs)
associated with five different tribes; a white crescent and five white
stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet guls

@Turkmenistan, Economy

Overview: 
Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising,
intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil
resources. Half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; it is the
world's tenth largest producer. It also is the world's fourth largest
producer of natural gas and has the fifth largest reserves.
Furthermore, Turkmenistan has substantial oil resources; its two oil
refineries make it an exporter of refined products. Profiting from the
move toward market prices for its oil and gas resources, Turkmenistan
has suffered the least economic decline of the 15 states of the former
USSR. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a
tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious
approach to questions of economic reform, using the profits from its
gas and cotton exports to sustain a generally inefficient economy.
Economic restructuring and privatization have just begun, and price
liberalization and price increases have been accompanied by generous
wage hikes and subsidies. At the same time, Turkmenistan faces serious
constraints on its gas and oil earnings because of the inability of
its traditional regional customers to pay for the current level of
purchases and the lack of pipeline access to hard currency markets.
Faced with financial shortfalls, rampant inflation, and the desire to
ensure a stable currency, the regime has become more receptive to
market reforms yet still seeks to offer widespread social benefits to
its population and to retain state domination over the economy.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $13 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Turkmen statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
7.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,330 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
45% per month (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
2.9% (1992 est.); includes only officially registered unemployed; also
large number of underemployed
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$1.2 billion to states outside the FSU (1993)
commodities: 
natural gas, cotton, petroleum products, textiles, carpets
partners: 
Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Eastern Europe,
Turkey, Argentina
Imports: 
$490 million from states outside the FSU (1993)
commodities: 
machiner