(con't 4)

hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and
April
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note: 
most of the population concentrated along the Senegal River in the
southern part of the country

@Mauritania, People

Population: 
2,192,777 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.16% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
47.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
16.09 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
85.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
48.06 years 
male: 
45.23 years 
female: 
51.01 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.99 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mauritanian(s) 
adjective: 
Mauritanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30% 
Religions: 
Muslim 100% 
Languages: 
Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (official)
Literacy: 
age 10 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
34% 
male: 
47% 
female: 
21% 
Labor force: 
465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)
by occupation: 
agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce 14%, government
10%
note: 
53% of population of working age (1985)

@Mauritania, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Islamic Republic of Mauritania 
conventional short form: 
Mauritania 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah 
local short form: 
Muritaniyah 
Digraph: 
MR
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Nouakchott 
Administrative divisions: 
12 regions (regions, singular - region); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna,
Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el
Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
note: 
there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott
Independence: 
28 November 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 28 November (1960) 
Constitution: 
12 July 1991
Legal system: 
three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special courts, state
security courts (in the process of being eliminated)
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984);
election last held January 1992 (next to be held January 1998);
results - President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid 'Ahmed TAYA elected
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral legislature
Senate (Majlis al-Shuyukh): 
elections last held 15 April 1994 (one-third of the seats up for
re-election in 1996)
National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani): 
elections last held 6 and 13 March 1992 (next to be held March 1997)
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991, however, politics
continue to be tribally based; emerging parties include Democratic and
Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by President Col. Maaouya Ould
Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic Forces - New Era (UFD/NE), headed
by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly for Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed
Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed
Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party for Renewal (PMR), Hameida
BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party (PAN), Khattry Ould JIDDOU;
Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center (PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI
BADI
Other political or pressure groups: 
Mauritanian Workers Union (UTM)
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC,
CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mohamed Fall Ould AININA 
chancery: 
2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 232-5700 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Gordon S. BROWN 
embassy: 
address NA, Nouakchott 
mailing address: 
B. P. 222, Nouakchott 
telephone: 
[222] (2) 526-60 or 526-63 
FAX: 
[222] (2) 515-92 
Flag: 
green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star,
and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Mauritania, Economy

Overview: 
A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and
livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many
subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts
in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore,
which account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world
demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The
nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the
world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of
revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in
1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have
resulted in a substantial buildup of foreign debt. The government has
begun the second stage of an economic reform program in consultation
with the World Bank, the IMF, and major donor countries.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,050 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
20% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$280 million 
expenditures: 
$346 million, including capital expenditures of $61 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$432 million (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities: 
iron ore, fish and fish products
partners: 
Japan 27%, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg
Imports: 
$413 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods
partners: 
Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%, France, Germany, Spain, Italy
External debt: 
$1.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
190,000 kW
production: 
135 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
70 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum
Agriculture: 
accounts for 25% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence
farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal river
valley; crops - dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products
number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $277 million; Arab Development Bank (1991), $20
million 
Currency: 
1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums
Exchange rates: 
ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 124.480 (December 1993), 87.082 (1992),
81.946 (1991), 80.609 (1990), 83.051 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Mauritania, Communications

Railroads: 
690 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge, single track, owned and operated
by government mining company
Highways: 
total: 
7,525 km 
paved: 
1,685 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, otherwise improved 1,040 km; unimproved earth
4,800 km (roads, trails, tracks)
Inland waterways: 
mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River
Ports: 
Nouadhibou, Nouakchott
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
28 
usable: 
28 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
17 
Telecommunications: 
poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay
links, and radio communications stations (improvements being made);
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 ARABSAT, with six planned

@Mauritania, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National
Police, Presidential Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 467,677; fit for military service 228,385 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 4.2% of GDP (1989)


@Mauritius, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 900 km east of
Madagascar
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,860 sq km 
land area: 
1,850 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and
Rodrigues
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
177 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims UK-administered Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island
of Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory;
claims French-administered Tromelin Island
Climate: 
tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to
November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Terrain: 
small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling
central plateau
Natural resources: 
arable land, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
54% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
31% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
170 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution
natural hazards: 
subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded
by reefs
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

@Mauritius, People

Population: 
1,116,923 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.92% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.28 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
18.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.54 years 
male: 
66.62 years 
female: 
74.63 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.22 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mauritian(s) 
adjective: 
Mauritian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%
Religions: 
Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 2.3%),
Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1% 
Languages: 
English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
80% 
male: 
85% 
female: 
75% 
Labor force: 
335,000 
by occupation: 
government services 29%, agriculture and fishing 27%, manufacturing
22%, other 22%
note: 
43% of population of working age (1985)

@Mauritius, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Mauritius 
conventional short form: 
Mauritius 
Digraph: 
MP
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Port Louis 
Administrative divisions: 
9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River,
Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines
Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne
Independence: 
12 March 1968 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 12 March (1968) 
Constitution: 
12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system with elements of English common law
in certain areas
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992); Vice President
Rabindranath GHURBURRON (since 1 July 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June 1982); Deputy Prime
Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September 1990) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly: 
elections last held on 15 September 1991 (next to be held by 15
September 1996); results - MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%; seats - (70
total, 62 elected) MSM/MMM alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26, OPR 2, MTD 2);
MLP/PMSD 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
government coalition: 
Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. JUGNAUTH; Mauritian Militant
Movement (MMM), Prem NABABSING (less 12 legislators under the
leadership of Paul BERENGER, now voting with the opposition);
Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR;
Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil BAICHOO
opposition: 
Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN; Socialist Workers
Front, Sylvio MICHEL; Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), X.
DUVAL; MMM-Berenger Faction, Paul BERENGER
Other political or pressure groups: 
various labor unions
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Anund NEEWOOR 
chancery: 
Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 244-1491 or 1492 
FAX: 
(202) 966-0983 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Leslie ALEXANDER 
embassy: 
4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis 
mailing address: 
use Embassy street address 
telephone: 
[230] 208-9763 through 208-9767 
FAX: 
[230] 208-9534 
Flag: 
four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

@Mauritius, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles), and
tourism. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area
and accounts for 40% of export earnings. The government's development
strategy centers on industrialization (with a view to exports),
agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance in
1992 was impressive, with 6% real growth and low unemployment.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$7,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
2.4% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$557 million 
expenditures: 
$607 million, including capital expenditures of $111 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$1.32 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%
partners: 
EC and US have preferential treatment, EU 77%, US 15%
Imports: 
$1.63 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%,
petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7%
partners: 
EC, US, South Africa, Japan
External debt: 
$991 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
235,000 kW
production: 
630 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
570 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing apparel,
chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical
machinery, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 10% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in sugarcane;
other products - tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats,
fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; heroin
consumption and transshipment are growing problems
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $76 million; Western
(non-US) countries (1970-89), $709 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $54 million 
Currency: 
1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 18.696 (January 1994), 17.648
(1993), 15.563 (1992), 15.652 (1991), 14.839 (1990), 15.250 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Mauritius, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,800 km 
paved: 
1,640 km 
unpaved: 
earth 160 km 
Ports: 
Port Louis
Merchant marine: 
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 162,387 GRT/260,552 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 7, liquefied gas 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
small system with good service utilizing primarily microwave radio
relay; new microwave link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to
several countries; over 48,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM,
no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Mauritius, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Police Force, including the paramilitary Special Mobile Force
(SMF), Special Support Units (SSU), and National Coast Guard
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 316,975; fit for military service 161,634 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $5 million, 0.2% of GDP (FY89)


@Mayotte

Header
Affiliation: 
(territorial collectivity of France) 

@Mayotte, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the northern Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
375 sq km 
land area: 
375 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
185.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Comoros
Climate: 
tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon
(November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Terrain: 
generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to cyclones during rainy season
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
part of Comoro Archipelago

@Mayotte, People

Population: 
93,468 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.8% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
48.84 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
79.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
57.81 years 
male: 
55.63 years 
female: 
60.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.77 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mahorais (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Mahoran 
Ethnic divisions: 
NA
Religions: 
Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages: 
Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Mayotte, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte 
conventional short form: 
Mayotte 
Digraph: 
MF
Type: 
territorial collectivity of France 
Capital: 
Mamoutzou 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
National holiday: 
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
Prefect Jean-Jacques DERACQ (since NA); President of the General
Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1976) 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
General Council (Conseil General): 
elections last held March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) MPM 12, RPR 5
French Senate: 
elections last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MPM 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held 1998);
results - UDF-CDS 54.3%, RPR 44.3%; seats - (1 total) UDF-CDS 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Younoussa BAMANA; Party for the
Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche MAOULIDA; Mahoran Rally for
the Republic (RPR), Mansour KAMARDINE; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Maoulida AHMED; Center of Social Democrats (CDS),
Member of: 
FZ 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@Mayotte, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector,
including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not
self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food
requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development
of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance.
Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle to the development of
tourism.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $54 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$37.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)
Exports: 
$4 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: 
ylang-ylang, vanilla
partners: 
France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%
Imports: 
$21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: 
building materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour
partners: 
France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
NA
production: 
NA
consumption per capita: 
NA
Industries: 
newly created lobster and shrimp industry
Agriculture: 
most important sector; provides all export earnings; crops - vanilla,
ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $402 million 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Mayotte, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
42 km 
paved: 
bituminous 18 km 
unpaved: 
24 km 
Ports: 
Dzaoudzi
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
small system administered by French Department of Posts and
Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio
communications for links to Comoros and international communications;
450 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

@Mayotte, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Mexico, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, between Guatemala and the US
Map references: 
North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,972,550 sq km 
land area: 
1,923,040 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 4,538 km, Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km 
Coastline: 
9,330 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the natural prolongation of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims Clipperton Island (French possession)
Climate: 
varies from tropical to desert
Terrain: 
high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert
Natural resources: 
petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
12% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
39% 
forest and woodland: 
24% 
other: 
24% 
Irrigated land: 
51,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
natural water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and
poor quality in center and extreme southeast; untreated sewage and
industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation;
widespread erosion; desertification; serious air pollution in the
national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border
natural hazards: 
subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast, destructive earthquakes
in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Gulf and Caribbean
coasts
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands,
Whaling
Note: 
strategic location on southern border of US

@Mexico, People

Population: 
92,202,199 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.94% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
27.17 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.73 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.94 years 
male: 
69.36 years 
female: 
76.7 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.17 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mexican(s) 
adjective: 
Mexican 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian
30%, Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%, other 1% 
Religions: 
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6% 
Languages: 
Spanish, various Mayan dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
87% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
85% 
Labor force: 
26.2 million (1990)
by occupation: 
services 31.7%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing 28%,
commerce 14.6%, manufacturing 11.1%, construction 8.4%, transportation
4.7%, mining and quarrying 1.5%

@Mexico, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
United Mexican States 
conventional short form: 
Mexico 
local long form: 
Estados Unidos Mexicanos 
local short form: 
Mexico 
Digraph: 
MX
Type: 
federal republic operating under a centralized government
Capital: 
Mexico 
Administrative divisions: 
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
(distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California
Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito
Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico,
Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro,
Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas,
Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Independence: 
16 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 16 September (1810) 
Constitution: 
5 February 1917
Legal system: 
mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial
review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (since 1 December 1988); election
last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held 21 August 1994); results -
Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano
(FDN) 31.06%, Manuel CLOUTHIER (PAN) 16.81%; other 1.39%; note -
several of the smaller parties ran a common candidate under a
coalition called the National Democratic Front (FDN)
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union)
Senate (Camara de Senadores): 
elections last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held 21 August
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats in full Senate -
(64 total; Senate will expand to 128 seats following next election)
PRI 62, PRD 1, PAN 1
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
elections last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held 21 August
1994); results - PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS
(now part of PRD) 4%; seats - (500 total) PRI 320, PAN 89, PRD 41,
PFCRN 23, PARM 15, PPS 12
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
(recognized parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Ignacio
Pichardo PAGAZA; National Action Party (PAN), Carlos CASTILLO; Popular
Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Porfirio MUNOZ Ledo; Cardenist Front for
the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes;
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution (PARM), Rosa Maria MARTINEZ
Denagri; Democratic Forum Party (PFD), Pablo Emilio MADERO; Mexican
Green Ecologist Party (PVEM), Jorge GONZALEZ Torres
Other political or pressure groups: 
Roman Catholic Church; Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM);
Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of
National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO); National Peasant
Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary
Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC); Regional Confederation
of Mexican Workers (CROM); Confederation of Employers of the Mexican
Republic (COPARMEX); National Chamber of Transformation Industries
(CANACINTRA); Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations
(COECE); Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services (FESEBES)
Member of: 
AG (observer), BCIE, CARICOM (observer), CCC, CDB, CG, EBRD, ECLAC,
FAO, G-3, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS,
OECD, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTI, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jorge MONTANO Martinez 
chancery: 
1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006 
telephone: 
(202) 728-1600 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco,
San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
consulate(s): 
Albuquerque, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico
(California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Eagle Pass
(Texas), Fresno (California), Loredo, Mc Allen (Texas), Midland
(Texas), Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador James JONES 
embassy: 
Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, D.F. 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087 
telephone: 
[52] (5) 211-0042 
FAX: 
[52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373 
consulate(s) general: 
Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana 
consulate(s): 
Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the
coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak)
is centered in the white band

@Mexico, Economy

Overview: 
Mexico's economy, made up predominantly of private manufacturing and
services and both large-scale and traditional agriculture, is
beginning to rebound from the economic difficulties of the 1980s but
still faces key challenges. During the 1980s, the accumulation of
large external debts, falling world petroleum prices, rapid population
growth, and mounting inflation and unemployment plagued the economy.
In recent years, the government has responded by implementing sweeping
economic reforms. Strict fiscal and monetary discipline have brought
inflation under control, reduced the internal debt, and produced
budgetary surpluses in 1992 and 1993. The tight money policies,
however, have restricted growth: barely 0.4% in 1993 after a rise of
2.6% in 1992 and 3.6% in 1991. Another aspect of the reform has been
the privatization of more than 80% of Mexico's businesses, including
all of the commercial banks. Seeking out increased trade and
investment opportunities, the government negotiated the North American
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the United States and Canada, which
entered into force on 1 January 1994. Within Latin America, Mexico has
completed bilateral free trade agreements with Chile and Costa Rica,
and is continuing negotiations with Colombia and Venezuela for a
trilateral deal in addition to holding trade discussions with various
other nations. In January of 1993, Mexico replaced its old peso at the
rate of 1,000 old to 1 new peso. Despite its hard-won economic
progress and the prospects of long-term gains under NAFTA, Mexico
still faces difficult problems, including sluggish growth,
unemployment, continuing social inequalities, serious pollution, and
the prospect of increased competition with the opening of trade.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $740 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0.4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$8,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
10.7% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$58.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$53 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.4 billion (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$50.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.), includes in-bond industries
commodities: 
crude oil, oil products, coffee, silver, engines, motor vehicles,
cotton, consumer electronics
partners: 
US 74%, Japan 8%, EC 4% (1992 est.)
Imports: 
$65.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.), includes in-bond industries
commodities: 
metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery,
electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor
vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
partners: 
US 74%, Japan, 11%, EC 6% (1992)
External debt: 
$125 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.8% (1992 est.); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
27,000,000 kW
production: 
120.725 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,300 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum,
mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large number of
small farms at subsistence level; major food crops - corn, wheat,
rice, beans; cash crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of
active government eradication program; major supplier to the US
market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound
cocaine and marijuana from South America
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.7
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $110 million 
Currency: 
1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 3.3556 (March 1994),
3,094.9 (1992), 3,018.4 (1991), 2,812.6 (1990), 2,461.3 (1989)
note: 
the new peso replaced the old peso on 1 January 1993; 1 new peso =
1,000 old pesos
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Mexico, Communications

Railroads: 
24,500 km total
Highways: 
total: 
242,300 km 
paved: 
84,800 km (including 3,166 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
gravel and earth 157,500 km 
Inland waterways: 
2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals
Pipelines: 
crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254
km; petrochemical 1,400 km 
Ports: 
Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo,
Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Tuxpan,
Veracruz
Merchant marine: 
58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 853,161 GRT/1,269,018 DWT, cargo
3, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 7, oil tanker 32,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 4 
Airports: 
total: 
1,993 
usable: 
1,585 
with permanent-surface runways: 
202 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
35 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
286 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed system with extensive microwave radio relay links;
privatized in December 1990; connected into Central America Microwave
System; 6,410,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 679 AM, no FM, 238
TV, 22 shortwave; 120 domestic satellite terminals; earth stations - 4
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; launched
Solidarity I satellite in November 1993

@Mexico, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Defense (including Army and Air Force), Navy (including
Marines)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 22,779,635; fit for military service 16,619,809; reach
military age (18) annually 1,053,025 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Micronesia, Federated States of, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters
of the way between Hawaii and Indonesia
Map references: 
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
702 sq km 
land area: 
702 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk), Yap, and Kosrae
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
6,112 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern
islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional
severe damage
Terrain: 
islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral
atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk
Natural resources: 
forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons (June to December)
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity
Note: 
four major island groups totaling 607 islands

@Micronesia, Federated States of, People

Population: 
120,347 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.36% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
37.24 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.63 years 
male: 
65.67 years 
female: 
69.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.01 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Micronesian(s) 
adjective: 
Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese 
Ethnic divisions: 
nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups
Religions: 
Christian (divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant; other
churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Latter-Day Saints, and the Baha'i Faith)
Languages: 
English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese,
Kosrean 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
90% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
85% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
two-thirds are government employees
note: 
45,000 people are between the ages of 15 and 65

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Federated States of Micronesia 
conventional short form: 
none 
former: 
Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands) 
Abbreviation: 
FSM 
Digraph: 
FM
Type: 
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact
of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986
Capital: 
Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei)
note: 
a new capital is being built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir
valley
Administrative divisions: 
4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap
Independence: 
3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)
National holiday: 
Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia, 10 May (1979) 
Constitution: 
10 May 1979
Legal system: 
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Bailey OLTER (since 21 May 1991); Vice President Jacob NENA
(since 21 May 1991); election last held ll May 1991 (next to be held
March 1995); results - President Bailey OLTER elected president;
Vice-President Jacob NENA
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Congress: 
elections last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held March 1993);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (14 total)
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
no formal parties
Member of: 
AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU 
chancery: 
1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 223-4383 
FAX: 
(202) 223-4391 
consulate(s) general: 
Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Aurelia E. BRAZEAL 
embassy: 
address NA, Kolonia 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 96941 
telephone: 
691-320-2187 
FAX: 
691-320-2186 
Flag: 
light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are
arranged in a diamond pattern

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming and
fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting,
except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry
exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate
facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the
primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in
the islands in the l990s. Geographical isolation and a poorly
developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $150 million (1989 est.)
note: 
GNP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
27% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$165 million 
expenditures: 
$115 million, including capital expenditures of $20 million (1988
est.)
Exports: 
$2.3 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
copra
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$67.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
18,000 kW
production: 
40 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
380 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood,
and pearls
Agriculture: 
mainly a subsistence economy; black pepper; tropical fruits and
vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs, chickens
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will provide
$1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
226 km 
paved: 
39 km (on major islands)
unpaved: 
stone, coral, laterite 187 km 
Ports: 
Colonia (Yap), Truk, Okat and Lelu (Kosrae)
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telephone network - 960 telephone lines total at Kolonia and Truk;
islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government
purposes); 16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est. 1987);
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

@Micronesia, Federated States of, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Midway Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Midway Islands, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,350 km
west-northwest of Honolulu, about one-third of the way between
Honolulu and Tokyo
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
5.2 sq km 
land area: 
5.2 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 9 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
includes Eastern Island and Sand Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
15 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds
Terrain: 
low, nearly level
Natural resources: 
fish, wildlife 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
a coral atoll; closed to the public

@Midway Islands, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 453 US military personnel

@Midway Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Midway Islands 
Digraph: 
MQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy, under
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division. This facility
has been operationally closed since 10 September 1993 and is currently
being transferred from Pacific Fleet to Naval Facilities Engineering
Command via a Memorandum of Understanding. 
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC
Flag: 
the US flag is used

@Midway Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on providing support services for US naval
operations located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods
must be imported.
Electricity: 
supplied by US Military

@Midway Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
32 km 
paved: 
NA 
Pipelines: 
7.8 km 
Ports: 
Sand Island
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 

@Midway Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Moldova, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Europe, between Ukraine and Romania
Map references: 
Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
33,700 sq km 
land area: 
33,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii
Land boundaries: 
total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
no official territorial claims by either Moldova or Romania, but
nationalists in Romania seek the merger of Moldova into Romania;
potential future dispute by Moldova and Romania against Ukraine over
former southern and northern Bessarabian areas and Northern Bukovina
ceded to Ukraine upon Moldova's incorporation into USSR
Climate: 
moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain: 
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Natural resources: 
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
50% 
permanent crops: 
13% 
meadows and pastures: 
9% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
28% 
Irrigated land: 
2,920 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such
as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion
from poor farming methods
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
landlocked

@Moldova, People

Population: 
4,473,033 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.38% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.02 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
30.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.07 years 
male: 
64.65 years 
female: 
71.67 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.18 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Moldovan(s) 
adjective: 
Moldovan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%,
Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
note: 
internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester
region and Gagauz Turks in the south
Religions: 
Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000
members) (1991)
note: 
the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian
Languages: 
Moldovan (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language),
Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
2.05 million (1992)
by occupation: 
agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985 figures)

@Moldova, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Moldova 
conventional short form: 
Moldova 
local long form: 
Republica Moldoveneasca 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia 
Digraph: 
MD
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Chisinau 
Administrative divisions: 
previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new
constitution in 1994
Independence: 
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 August 1991 
Constitution: 
old Soviet constitution (adopted NA 1979) is still in effect but has
been heavily amended during the past few years; a new constitution is
expected in 1994
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts;
does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and
CSCE documents
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990); election last held 8
December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Mircea SNEGUR ran
unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note - President SNEGUR was named
executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3 September 1990 and was
confirmed by popular election on 8 December 1991
head of government: 
Prime Minister Andrei SANGHALI (since 1 July 1992; reappointed 5 April
1994 after elections for new legislature) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
results - percent by party NA; seats - (104 total) Agrarian-Democratic
Party 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectual Bloc
11, Christian Democratic Popular Front 9
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Christian Democratic Popular Front (formerly Moldovan Popular Front),
Iurie ROSCA, chairman; Yedinstvo Intermovement, V. YAKOVLEV, chairman;
Social Democratic Party, Oazu NANTOI, chairman, two other chairmen;
Agrarian-Democratic Party, Dumitru MOTPAN, chairman; Democratic Party,
Gheorghe GHIMPU, chairman; Democratic Labor Party, Alexandru ARSENI,
chairman; Reform Party, Anatol SELARU; Republican Party, Victor
PUSCAS; Socialist Party, Valeriu SENIC, chairman; Communist Party,
Vladimir VORONIN
Other political or pressure groups: 
United Council of Labor Collectives (UCLC), Igor SMIRNOV, chairman;
Congress of Intellectuals, Alexandru MOSANU; The Ecology Movement of
Moldova (EMM), G. MALARCHUK, chairman; The Christian Democratic League
of Women of Moldova (CDLWM), L. LARI, chairman; National Christian
Party of Moldova (NCPM), D. TODIKE, M. BARAGA, V. NIKU, leaders; The
Peoples Movement Gagauz Khalky (GKh), S. GULGAR, leader; The
Democratic Party of Gagauzia (DPG), G. SAVOSTIN, chairman; The
Alliance of Working People of Moldova (AWPM), G. POLOGOV, president;
Christian Alliance for Greater Romania; Stefan the Great Movement;
Liberal Convention of Moldova; Association of Victims of Repression;
Christian Democratic Youth League
Member of: 
BSEC, CE (guest), CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Nicolae TIU 
chancery: 
1511 K Street NW, Room 329, Washington, DC 
telephone: 
(202) 783-3012 or -2807 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mary C. PENDLETON 
embassy: 
Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
373 (2) 23-37-72 or 23-34-76 
FAX: 
7-0422-23-30-44 
Flag: 
same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist
side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle
of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow
cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a
yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided
horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and
crescent all in black-outlined yellow

@Moldova, Economy

Overview: 
Moldova has pushed ahead boldly on economic reform since gaining its
independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. It introduced a
convertible currency - the leu - in late 1993 that has remained stable
against the dollar, removed price controls on most products,
eliminated licenses and quotas on most imports and exports, and freed
interest rates. In 1994, Moldova aims to privatize at least one-third
of state enterprises, lower inflation to 1% per month, and reduce the
budget deficit to 3.5% of GDP. Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and
good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result,
Moldova's economy is primarily based on agriculture, featuring fruits,
vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova, however, must import all of
its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, and energy shortages have
contributed to sharp production declines since the break-up of the
Soviet Union. Activities by separatist groups in the Dniester region
have held back economic development in that area. Foreign economic
assistance has been a tangible plus for Moldova, whereas direct
foreign investment has been lacking.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $16.3 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Moldovan statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,650 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
30% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
less than 1% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large
numbers of underemployed workers)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
note: 
budget deficit for 1993 approximately 6% of GDP
Exports: 
$108 million to outside the FSU countries (January-September 1993);
over 70% of exports go to FSU countries
commodities: 
foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals
(1991)
partners: 
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany
Imports: 
$145 million from outside the FSU countries (January-September 1993);
over 70% of imports are from FSU countries
commodities: 
oil, gas, coal, steel machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other
consumer durables
partners: 
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany
External debt: 
$325 million (end of 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -10% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,115,000 kW
production: 
11.1 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,491 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
key products are canned food, agricultural machinery, foundry
equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery,
refined sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Agriculture: 
Moldova's principal economic activity; products are vegetables,
fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, meat, milk, tobacco
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for CIS
consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Joint EC-US loan (1993), $127 million; IMF STF credit (1993), $64
million; IMF stand-by loan (1993), $72 million; US commitments
(1992-93), $61 million in humanitarian aid, $11 million in technical
assistance; World Bank loan (1993), $60 million; Russia (1993), 50
billion ruble credit; Romania (1993), 20 billion lei credit
Currency: 
the leu (plural lei) was introduced in late 1993
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Moldova, Communications

Railroads: 
1,150 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
20,000 km 
paved or gravelled: 
13,900 km 
unpaved: 
earth 6,100 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
natural gas 310 km (1992)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
26 
usable: 
15 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
The telecommunication system of Moldova is not well developed; number
of telephone subscribers 577,000 (1991); number of subscribers per
1,000 persons 134 (1991); number of unsuccessful requests for
telephone service 215,000 (1991); international connections to the
other former Soviet republics by land line and microwave radio relay
through Ukraine, and to other countries by leased connections to the
Moscow international gateway switch; 2 satellite earth stations - 1
EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT; broadcast services NA

@Moldova, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defence Force, Security Forces (internal
and border troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,098,156; fit for military service 869,866; reach
military age (18) annually 35,814 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Monaco, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, in southern France
near the border with Italy
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1.9 sq km 
land area: 
1.9 sq km 
comparative area: 
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 4.4 km, France 4.4 km 
Coastline: 
4.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain: 
hilly, rugged, rocky
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but
not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See); almost
entirely urban

@Monaco, People

Population: 
31,278 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.81% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
10.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.21 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
9.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.69 years 
male: 
73.94 years 
female: 
81.64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.7 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s) 
adjective: 
Monacan or Monegasque 
Ethnic divisions: 
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Monaco, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Principality of Monaco 
conventional short form: 
Monaco 
local long form: 
Principaute de Monaco 
local short form: 
Monaco 
Digraph: 
MN
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Monaco 
Administrative divisions: 
4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La
Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo
Independence: 
1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)
National holiday: 
National Day, 19 November 
Constitution: 
17 December 1962
Legal system: 
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
25 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Prince RAINIER III (since NA November 1949); Heir Apparent Prince
ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958) 
head of government: 
Minister of State Jacques DUPONT (since NA 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Government; under the authority of the Prince
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Council (Conseil National): 
elections last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) UND 18
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
National and Democratic Union (UND); Democratic Union Movement (MUD);
Monaco Action; Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)
Member of: 
ACCT, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, IMF (observer), IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
honorary consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco,
San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
honorary consulate(s): 
Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington 
US diplomatic representation: 
no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille, France,
is accredited to Monaco
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag
of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white
(top) and red

@Monaco, Economy

Overview: 
Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular
resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The
Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and
small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no
income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for
individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies
that have set up businesses and offices. About 50% of Monaco's annual
revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the
industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living
standards are high, that is, roughly comparable to those in prosperous
French metropolitan suburbs.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $475 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$16,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NEGL%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$424 million 
expenditures: 
$376 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EU market system through
customs union with France
Imports: 
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EU market system through
customs union with France
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,000 kW standby; power imported from France
production: 
NA
consumption per capita: 
NA (1992)
Agriculture: 
none
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Monaco, Communications

Railroads: 
1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways: 
none; city streets
Ports: 
Monaco
Merchant marine: 
1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT
Airports: 
1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways
Telecommunications: 
served by cable into the French communications system; automatic
telephone system; 38,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM,
5 TV; no communication satellite earth stations

@Monaco, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Mongolia, Geography

Location: 
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1.565 million sq km 
land area: 
1.565 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries: 
total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain: 
vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest;
Gobi Desert in southeast
Natural resources: 
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel,
zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
79% 
forest and woodland: 
10% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
770 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
limited water resources; policies of the former communist regime
promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised
concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning
of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have
severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting
of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion
from wind and rain; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

@Mongolia, People

Population: 
2,429,762 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.61% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
33.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
66.16 years 
male: 
63.9 years 
female: 
68.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mongolian(s) 
adjective: 
Mongolian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2% 
Religions: 
predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4% 
note: 
previously limited religious activity because of Communist regime
Languages: 
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
primarily herding/agricultural
note: 
over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a
large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor

@Mongolia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Mongolia 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Mongol Uls 
former: 
Outer Mongolia 
Digraph: 
MG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Ulaanbaatar 
Administrative divisions: 
18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities*
(hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan,
Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay,
Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov,
Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence: 
13 March 1921 (from China)
National holiday: 
National Day, 11 July (1921) 
Constitution: 
adopted 13 January 1992
Legal system: 
blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no
constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990); election
last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results -
Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of
the vote; other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
head of government: 
Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the Great Hural
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
State Great Hural: 
elections first time held 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, United Party
4, MSDP 1
note: 
the People's Small Hural no longer exists
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's and provincial
courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts
Political parties and leaders: 
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin
DASH-YONDON, secretary general; Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP),
Erdenijiyn BAT-UUL, general coordinator; National Progress Party
(NPP), S. BYAMBAA and Luusandambyn DASHNYAM, leaders; Social
Democratic Party (SDP), BATBAYAR and Tsohiogyyn ADYASUREN, leaders;
Mongolian Independence Party (MIP), D. ZORIGT, leader; United Party of
Mongolia (made up of the MDP, SDP, and NPP); Mongolian National
Democratic Party (MNDP), D. GANBOLD, chairman; Mongolian Social
Democratic Party (MSDP), B. BATBAYAR, chairman; Mongolian Conservative
Party, O. ZOYA; Mongolian Green Party (MGP), M. GANBAT
note: 
opposition parties were legalized in May 1990
Member of: 
AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Luvsandorj DAWAGIV 
chancery: 
2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 333-7117 
FAX: 
(202) 298-9227 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON 
embassy: 
address NA, Ulaanbaatar 
mailing address: 
Ulaanbaatar, c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region II, Big Ring
Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002 
telephone: 
[976] (1) 329095 through 329606 
FAX: 
[976] (1) 320-776 
Flag: 
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red,
centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem
("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric
representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang
symbol)

@Mongolia, Economy

Overview: 
Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of
unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic
activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding
of livestock - Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person
in the world. In past years extensive mineral resources had been
developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height
amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper,
molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of
industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors.
The Mongolian leadership is trying to make the transition from
Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through
privatization and price reform, and is soliciting support from
international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy,
however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid, and the
country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-1.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
325% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
note: 
deficit of $67 million
Exports: 
$355 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar,
other nonferrous metals
partners: 
former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)
Imports: 
$501 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer
goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: 
USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5%
External debt: 
$16.8 billion (yearend 1990); 98.6% with USSR
Industrial production: 
growth rate -15% (1992 est.); accounts for about 42% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,248,000 kW
production: 
3,740 kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,622 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
copper, processing of animal products, building materials, food and
beverage, mining (particularly coal)
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of
the population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and
goats, but also cattle, camels, and horses); crops - wheat, barley,
potatoes, forage
Economic aid: 
NA
Currency: 
1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos
Exchange rates: 
tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 150 (1 January 1993), 40 (1992), 7.1 (1991),
5.63 (1990), 3.00 (1989)
note: 
the exchange rate 40 tughriks = 1US$ was introduced June 1991 and was
in force to the end of 1992
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Mongolia, Communications

Railroads: 
1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1988)
Highways: 
total: 
46,700 km 
paved: 
1,000 km 
unpaved: 
45,700 km (1988)
Inland waterways: 
397 km of principal routes (1988)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
81 
usable: 
31 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
fewer than 5 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
fewer than 20 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
12 
Telecommunications: 
63,000 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with
18 provincial repeaters); repeat of Russian TV; 120,000 TVs; 220,000
radios; at least 1 earth station

@Mongolia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and
Frontier Guards), Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 587,113; fit for military service 382,633; reach
military age (18) annually 25,261 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million of GDP, 1% of GDP (1992)


@Montserrat

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Montserrat, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 400 km southeast of
Puerto Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
100 sq km 
land area: 
100 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
40 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
10% 
forest and woodland: 
40% 
other: 
30% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to severe hurricanes (June to November)
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
located 400 km east southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

@Montserrat, People

Population: 
12,701 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.93 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.79 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.73 years 
male: 
73.96 years 
female: 
77.53 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.05 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Montserratian(s) 
adjective: 
Montserratian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black, Europeans 
Religions: 
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day
Adventist, other Christian denominations 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
97% 
Labor force: 
5,100 
by occupation: 
community, social, and personal services 40.5%, construction 13.5%,
trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%, manufacturing 10.5%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other 14.4% (1983 est.)

@Montserrat, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Montserrat 
Digraph: 
MH
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Plymouth 
Administrative divisions: 
3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday of June) 
Constitution: 
present constitution came into force 19 December 1989
Legal system: 
English common law and statute law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Frank SAVAGE (since NA February 1993) 
head of government: 
Chief Minister Reuben T. MEADE (since October 1991) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; consists of the governor, the chief minister, three
other ministries, the attorney-general, and the finance secretary
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Council: 
elections last held on 8 October 1991; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) NPP 4, NDP 1, PLM 1,
independent 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Progressive Party (NPP) Reuben T. MEADE; People's Liberation
Movement (PLM), Noel TUITT; National Development Party (NDP), Bertrand
OSBORNE; Independent (IND), Ruby BRAMBLE
Member of: 
CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), OECS,
WCL 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her
arm around a black cross

@Montserrat, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is small and open with economic activity centered on
tourism and construction. Tourism is the most important sector and
accounts for roughly one-fifth of GDP. Agriculture accounts for about
4% of GDP and industry 10%. The economy is heavily dependent on
imports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Exports
consist mainly of electronic parts sold to the US.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53.7 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.8% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
3% (1987)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$12.1 million 
expenditures: 
$14.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.2 million (1988
est.)
Exports: 
$2.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
electronic parts, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants,
cattle
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$80.6 million (f.o.b.,1992)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured
goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$2.05 million (1987)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 8.1% (1986); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,271 kW
production: 
12 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
950 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism; light manufacturing - rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food crops - tomatoes,
onions, peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially livestock
products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $90 million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Montserrat, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
280 km 
paved: 
200 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 80 km 
Ports: 
Plymouth
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV

@Montserrat, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Police Force 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Morocco, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean
Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
446,550 sq km 
land area: 
446,300 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: 
total 2,002 km, Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km 
Coastline: 
1,835 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved;
the UN is attempting to hold a referendum; the UN-administered
cease-fire has been currently in effect since September 1991; Spain
controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off
the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which
Morocco contests as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon
de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas
Climate: 
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with rich coastal plains
Natural resources: 
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
18% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
28% 
forest and woodland: 
12% 
other: 
41% 
Irrigated land: 
12,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming
of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water
supplies contaminated by untreated sewage; siltation of reservoirs;
oil pollution of coastal waters
natural hazards: 
northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection
Note: 
strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

@Morocco, People

Population: 
28,558,635 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.12% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.23 years 
male: 
66.36 years 
female: 
70.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Moroccan(s) 
adjective: 
Moroccan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2% 
Religions: 
Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of
business, government, and diplomacy
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
50% 
male: 
61% 
female: 
38% 
Labor force: 
7.4 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9% (1985)

@Morocco, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Morocco 
conventional short form: 
Morocco 
local long form: 
Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah 
local short form: 
Al Maghrib 
Digraph: 
MO
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Rabat 
Administrative divisions: 
37 provinces and 5 municipalities* (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane,
Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia,
Essaouira, Fes, Fes*, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset,
Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Marrakech*, Meknes,
Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi
Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan,
Tiznit
Independence: 
2 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday: 
National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King Hassan II's
accession to the throne)
Constitution: 
10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Abdellatif FILALI (since 29 May 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the King
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab): 
elections last held 15 June 1993 (direct popular vote) and 17
September 1993 (indirect special interest vote); next to be held NA
1999; results - seats (333 total), direct popular vote (222 seats)
USFP 48, IP 43, MP 33, RNI 28, UC 27, PND 14, MNP 14, PPS 6, PDI 3,
SAP 2, PA 2, OADP 2; indirect special interest vote (111 seats) UC 27,
MP 18, RNI 13, MNP 11, PND 10, IP 7, Party of Shura and Istiqlal 6,
USFP 4, PPS 4, CDT 4, UTM 3, UGTM 2, SAP 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
opposition: 
Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), leader NA; Istiqlal Party
(IP), M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Party of Progress and Socialism (PPS), Ali
YATA; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action (OADP), leader NA
pro-government: 
Constitutional Union (UC), Maati BOUABID; Popular Movement (MP),
Mohamed LAENSER; National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane
EL-JADIDI; National Popular Movement, Mahjoubi AHARDANE
independents: 
National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN; Democracy and
Istiqlal Party (PDI), leader NA; Action Party (PA), leader NA;
Non-Obedience Candidates (SAP), leader NA
labor unions and community organizations (indirect
elections: 
Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), leader NA; General Union of
Moroccan Workers (UGTM), leader NA; Moroccan Union of Workers (UTM),
leader NA; Party of Shura and Istiqlal, leader NA
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA,
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, OAS (observer), NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mohamed BENAISSA 
chancery: 
1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; 
telephone: 
(202) 462-7979 through 7982 
FAX: 
(202) 265-0161 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Marc C. GINSBERG 
embassy: 
2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat 
mailing address: 
PSC 74, Box 003 APO AE 09718 
telephone: 
[212] (7) 76-22-65 
FAX: 
[212] (7) 76-56-61 
consulate(s) general: 
Casablanca 
Flag: 
red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as
Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional
color of Islam

@Morocco, Economy

Overview: 
Morocco faces the typical problems of developing
countries--restraining government spending, reducing constraints on
private activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within
bounds. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an economic
program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF, the World
Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The economy has substantial
assets to draw on: the world's largest phosphate reserves, diverse
agricultural and fishing resources, a sizable tourist industry, a
growing manufacturing sector, and large remittances from Moroccans
working abroad. However, a severe drought in 1992-93 has depressed
economic activity and held down experts. Real GDP contracted by 2.9%
in 1992, and growth for 1993 is estimated at only 2%. Despite these
setbacks, initiatives to relax capital controls, strengthen the
banking sector, and privatize state enterprises went forward in 1993.
Servicing the large debt, high unemployment, and vulnerability to
external economic forces remain long-term problems for Morocco.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $70.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
16% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$7.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$7.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.9 billion (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$5.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%,
phosphates 17%
partners: 
EC 64%, India 6%, Japan 4%, US 3%
Imports: 
$8.4 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel
and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9%
partners: 
EC 63%, US 6%, Saudi Arabia 4%, FSU 4%, Japan 1%
External debt: 
$21.3 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0.1% (year NA); accounts for 31% of GDP (1991)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,384,000 kW
production: 
8.864 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
317 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods,
textiles, construction, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 14% of GDP, 50% of employment, and 30% of export value;
not self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising
predominate; barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both
domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly
directed to Western Europe; occasional transit point for cocaine from
South America destined for Western Europe.
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3 billion; US
commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $123.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion; Communist countries
(1970-89), $2.5 billion 
note: 
$2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991); IMF standby
agreement worth $13 million; World Bank, $450 million (1991)
Currency: 
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.669 (January 1994), 9.299 (1993),
8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Morocco, Communications

Railroads: 
1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double track, 974 km
electrified)
Highways: 
total: 
59,198 km 
paved: 
27,740 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth, unimproved earth 31,458 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 362 km; petroleum products (abandoned) 491 km; natural gas
241 km 
Ports: 
Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Safi,
Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla
Merchant marine: 
47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 226,369 GRT/335,089 DWT, cargo
9, chemical tanker 11, container 3, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo
12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 2 
Airports: 
total: 
73 
usable: 
64 
with permanent-surface runways: 
26 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
13 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
25 
Telecommunications: 
good system composed of wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay
links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat; secondary centers
are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000 telephones
(10.5 telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 20 AM, 7 FM,
26 TV and 26 repeaters; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; microwave radio relay to
Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave to
Algeria; microwave radio relay network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt,
Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

@Morocco, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force,
Royal Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 7,076,261; fit for military service 4,494,641; reach
military age (18) annually 317,093 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3.8% of GDP (1993 budget)


@Mozambique, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel between South Africa
and Tanzania opposite the island of Madagascar
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
801,590 sq km 
land area: 
784,090 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries: 
total 4,571 km, Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105
km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km 
Coastline: 
2,470 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical to subtropical
Terrain: 
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west
Natural resources: 
coal, titanium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
56% 
forest and woodland: 
20% 
other: 
20% 
Irrigated land: 
1,150 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
civil strife in the hinterlands has resulted in increased migration to
urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences;
desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters
natural hazards: 
severe drought and floods occur in central and southern provinces
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Mozambique, People

Population: 
17,346,280 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
5.87% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
44.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
16.33 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
30.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
128.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
48.49 years 
male: 
46.63 years 
female: 
50.41 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.25 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mozambican(s) 
adjective: 
Mozambican 
Ethnic divisions: 
indigenous tribal groups, Europeans about 10,000, Euro-Africans
35,000, Indians 15,000
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10% 
Languages: 
Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
33% 
male: 
45% 
female: 
21% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
90% engaged in agriculture

@Mozambique, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Mozambique 
conventional short form: 
Mozambique 
local long form: 
Republica Popular de Mocambique 
local short form: 
Mocambique 
Digraph: 
MZ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Maputo 
Administrative divisions: 
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza,
Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence: 
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 25 June (1975) 
Constitution: 
30 November 1990
Legal system: 
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since 17 July 1986) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica); draft
electoral law provides for periodic, direct presidential and Assembly
elections
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), Joaquim Alberto
CHISSANO, chairman; formerly a Marxist organization with close ties to
the USSR; FRELIMO was the only legal party before 30 November 1990,
when the new Constitution went into effect establishing a multiparty
system
note: 
under the terms of the 1992 peace accords multiparty elections are
scheduled for October 1994; 11 parties, including the Mozambique
National Resistance (RENAMO), Alfonso DHLAKAMA, president, are
registered to participate
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Hipolito Pereira Zozimo PATRICIO 
chancery: 
Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 293-7146 
FAX: 
(202) 835-0245 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dennis JETT 
embassy: 
Avenida Kenneth Kuanda, 193 Maputo 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 783, Maputo 
telephone: 
[258] (1) 49-27-97 
FAX: 
[258] (1) 49-01-14 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a
red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is
edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star
bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white
book

@Mozambique, Economy

Overview: 
One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit
the economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and
transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and
investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of
internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a
growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an
economic reform policy, resulted in successive years of economic
growth in the late 1980s, but aid has declined steadily since 1989.
Agricultural output is at only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to
be imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy
depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat. Peace accords
signed in October 1992 improved chances of foreign investment, aided
IMF-supported economic reforms, and supported continued economic
recovery.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $9.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
40% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
50% (1989 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$252 million 
expenditures: 
$607 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$164.4 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%
partners: 
US, Western Europe, Germany, Japan
Imports: 
$1.03 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners: 
US, Western Europe, USSR
External debt: 
$5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5% (1989 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,270,000 kW
production: 
1.745 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
115 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum
products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass,
asbestos), tobacco
Agriculture: 
accounts for 50% of GDP and about 90% of exports; cash crops - cotton,
cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops - cassava, corn,
rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $350 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $890 million 
Currency: 
1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 4,941.3 (October 1993), 2,550.40 (1992),
1,763.99 (1991), 1,053.09 (1990), 844.34 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Mozambique, Communications

Railroads: 
3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km 0.762-meter narrow
gauge; Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are
subject to closure because of insurgency
Highways: 
total: 
26,498 km 
paved: 
4,593 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 829 km; unimproved earth
21,076 km 
Inland waterways: 
about 3,750 km of navigable routes
Pipelines: 
crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km 
Ports: 
Maputo, Beira, Nacala
Merchant marine: 
4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,686 GRT/9,742 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
194 
usable: 
134 
with permanent-surface runways: 
24 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
28 
Telecommunications: 
fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio relay;
broadcast stations - 29 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; earth stations - 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Mozambique, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia 
note: 
as of early 1994, Mozambique was demobilizing and reorganizing its
defence forces
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 3,890,532; fit for military service 2,233,824 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $118 million, 8% of GDP (1993)


@Namibia, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Angola and
South Africa
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
825,418 sq km 
land area: 
825,418 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries: 
total 3,824 km, Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855
km, Zambia 233 km 
Coastline: 
1,572 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite; quadripoint
with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with
South Africa over Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands has been resolved
and these territories were transferred to Namibian sovereignty on 1
March 1994
Climate: 
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain: 
mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Natural resources: 
diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc,
salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil, natural
gas, coal, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
64% 
forest and woodland: 
22% 
other: 
13% 
Irrigated land: 
40 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
very limited natural water resources; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Namibia, People

Population: 
1,595,567 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.4 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
61.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
61.65 years 
male: 
58.97 years 
female: 
64.4 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.4 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Namibian(s) 
adjective: 
Namibian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4% 
note: 
about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the
Kavangos tribe
Religions: 
Christian 
Languages: 
English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the
population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%,
indigenous languages 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1960)
total population: 
38% 
male: 
45% 
female: 
31% 
Labor force: 
500,000 
by occupation: 
agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%, services 8%, government
7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)

@Namibia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Namibia 
conventional short form: 
Namibia 
Digraph: 
WA
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Windhoek 
Administrative divisions: 
13 districts; Erango, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Liambezi,
Ohanguena, Okarango, Omaheke, Omusat, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa 
Independence: 
21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 21 March (1990) 
Constitution: 
ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990
Legal system: 
based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); election last held 16
February 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results - Sam NUJOMA was
elected president by the Constituent Assembly (now the National
Assembly)
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
bicameral legislature
National Council: 
elections last held 30 November-3 December 1992 (next to be held by
December 1998); seats - (26 total) SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1
National Assembly: 
elections last held on 7-11 November 1989 (next to be held by November
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) SWAPO
41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA; DTA of
Namibia (formerly Democratic Turnhalle Alliance) (DTA), Mishake
MUYONGO; United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus GAROEB; Action
Christian National (ACN), Kosie PRETORIUS; National Patriotic Front
(NPF), Moses KATJIUONGUA; Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans
DIERGAARDT; Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii RUKORO
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH 
chancery: 
1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 986-0540 
FAX: 
(202) 986-0443 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Howard F. JETER 
embassy: 
Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 9890, Windhoek 9000 
telephone: 
[264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680 
FAX: 
[264] (61) 229-792 
Flag: 
a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left
section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right
section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is
contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

@Namibia, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry to extract and
process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25% of GDP.
Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa
and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond
deposits are among the richest in the world, making Namibia a primary
source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large
quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. More than half
the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence
agriculture) for its livelihood.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.85 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.5% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
17.9% (1992) in urban area
Unemployment rate: 
30% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$941 million 
expenditures: 
$1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $157 million
(FY93/94)
Exports: 
$1.289 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle, processed fish,
karakul skins
partners: 
Switzerland, South Africa, Germany, Japan
Imports: 
$1.178 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment
partners: 
South Africa, Germany, US, Switzerland
External debt: 
about $220 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.9% (1991); accounts for 35% of GDP, including mining
Electricity: 
capacity: 
490,000 kW
production: 
1.29 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
850 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper, lead,
zinc, diamond, uranium)
Agriculture: 
accounts for 15% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising
major source of cash income; crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish
catch potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled,
1988 catch reaching only 384,000 metric tons; not self-sufficient in
food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $47.2 million 
Currency: 
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
South African rand (R) per US$1 - 3.4096 (January 1994), 3.2678
(1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7653 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Namibia, Communications

Railroads: 
2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
54,500 km 
paved: 
4,080 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 2,540 km; earth 47,880 km (roads and tracks)
Ports: 
Luderitz; Walvis Bay
Airports: 
total: 
136 
usable: 
109 
with permanent-surface runways: 
21 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
64 
Telecommunications: 
good urban, fair rural services; radio relay connects major towns,
wires extend to other population centers; 62,800 telephones; broadcast
stations - 4 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

@Namibia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Defense Force (Army), Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 336,145; fit for military service 199,337 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 3.4% of GDP (FY92)


@Nauru, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, 500 km north-northeast of Papua New Guinea
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
21 sq km 
land area: 
21 sq km 
comparative area: 
about one-tenth the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
30 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)
Terrain: 
sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with
phosphate plateau in center
Natural resources: 
phosphates 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
limited water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater;
phosphate mining threatens limited remaining land resources
natural hazards: 
rainfall is erratic
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Dumping; signed, but
not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific
Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea
in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

@Nauru, People

Population: 
10,019 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
18.03 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
66.68 years 
male: 
64.3 years 
female: 
69.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.08 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Nauruan(s) 
adjective: 
Nauruan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8% 
Religions: 
Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)
Languages: 
Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely
understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial
purposes
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
by occupation: 
NA

@Nauru, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Nauru 
conventional short form: 
Nauru 
former: 
Pleasant Island 
Digraph: 
NR
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
Administrative divisions: 
14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada,
Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren
Independence: 
31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia, New Zealand, and
UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 31 January (1968) 
Constitution: 
29 January 1968
Legal system: 
own Acts of Parliament and British common law
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 12 December 1989); election last
held 19 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1995); results -
Bernard DOWIYOGO elected by Parliament
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from the parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held on 14 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1995); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (18 total) independents
18
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Member of: 
AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UPU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
consulate(s): 
Agana (Guam) 
US diplomatic representation: 
the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru
Flag: 
blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a
large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the
star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the
yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of
Nauru

@Nauru, Economy

Overview: 
Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves of which are
expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given
Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World -
$10,000 annually. Few other resources exist, so most necessities must
be imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation
of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are
serious long-term problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income
are invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $90 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$10,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
0% 
Budget: 
revenues: 
$69.7 million 
expenditures: 
$51.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)
Exports: 
$93 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: 
phosphates
partners: 
Australia, NZ
Imports: 
$73 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: 
food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners: 
Australia, UK, NZ, Japan
External debt: 
$33.3 million 
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
14,000 kW
production: 
50 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,430 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products
Agriculture: 
coconuts; other agricultural activity negligible; almost completely
dependent on imports for food and water
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries (1970-89), $2 million 
Currency: 
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2834 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Nauru, Communications

Railroads: 
3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to
processing facilities on the southwest coast
Highways: 
total: 
27 km 
paved: 
21 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 6 km 
Ports: 
Nauru
Merchant marine: 
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,426 GRT/5,750 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate local and international radio communications provided via
Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones; 4,000 radios; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Nauru, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Directorate of the Nauru Police Force 
note: 
no regular armed forces
Defense expenditures: 
$NA - no formal defense structure


@Navassa Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Navassa Island, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the Caribbean Sea, 160 km south of the US Naval Base at
Guantanamo Bay (Cuba), between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
5.2 sq km 
land area: 
5.2 sq km 
comparative area: 
about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
8 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Haiti
Climate: 
marine, tropical
Terrain: 
raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by
vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)
Natural resources: 
guano 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
10% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
90% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo
Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat
herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

@Navassa Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited; note - transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the
island

@Navassa Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Navassa Island 
Digraph: 
BQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast Guard
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Navassa Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Navassa Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only

@Navassa Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Nepal, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
140,800 sq km 
land area: 
136,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Arkansas
Land boundaries: 
total 2,926 km, China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical
summers and mild winters in south
Terrain: 
Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region,
rugged Himalayas in north
Natural resources: 
quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty, small
deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
17% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
13% 
forest and woodland: 
33% 
other: 
37% 
Irrigated land: 
9,430 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
the almost total dependence on wood for fuel and cutting down trees to
expand agricultural land without replanting has resulted in widespread
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution (use of contaminated
water presents human health risks)
natural hazards: 
vulnerable to severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and
famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer
monsoons
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight
of world's 10 highest peaks

@Nepal, People

Population: 
21,041,527 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.44% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
37.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
13.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
83.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
52.53 years 
male: 
52.35 years 
female: 
52.73 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.24 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Nepalese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Nepalese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais,
Limbus, Sherpas 
Religions: 
Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
note: 
only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction
between many Hindu and Buddhist groups
Languages: 
Nepali (official), 20 languages divided into numerous dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
26% 
male: 
38% 
female: 
13% 
Labor force: 
8.5 million (1991 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%
note: 
severe lack of skilled labor

@Nepal, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Nepal 
conventional short form: 
Nepal 
Digraph: 
NP
Type: 
parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991
Capital: 
Kathmandu 
Administrative divisions: 
14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri,
Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani,
Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence: 
1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)
National holiday: 
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945) 
Constitution: 
9 November 1990
Legal system: 
based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 29 May 1991) 
chief of state: 
King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January 1972, crowned King
24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah
Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the king on recommendation of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
National Council: 
consists of a 60-member body, 50 appointed by House of Representatives
and 10 by the King
House of Representatives: 
elections last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results
- NCP 38%, CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa 5%, Terai
Rights Sadbhavana Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%,
independents 4%, other 7%; seats - (205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69,
UPF 9, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 6, NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN
(Democratic) 2, NDP/Thapa 1, independents 3; note - the new
Constitution of 9 November 1990 gave Nepal a multiparty democracy
system for the first time in 32 years
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Nepali Congress Party (NCP), president Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI, Prime
Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA, Supreme Leader Ganesh Man SINGH; The
Conservative National Democratic Party (NDP/Thapa), Surya Bahadur
THAPA; Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and Leninist (CPN/UML),
Man Mohan ADHIKARI; Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, Gajendra
Narayan SINGH; United People's Front (UPF), Lila Mani POKHREL; Nepal
Workers and Peasants Party (NWPP), Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE; National
Democratic Party/Chand (NDP/Chand), Lokendra Bahadur CHAND; Rohit
Party, N. M. BIJUKCHHE; Communist Party of Nepal
(Democratic-Manandhar), B. B. MANANDHAR
Other political or pressure groups: 
numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several
small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
Member of: 
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
chancery: 
2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 667-4550 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Sandra VOGELGESANG 
embassy: 
Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[977] (1) 411179 or 412718, 411613, 413890 
FAX: 
[977] (1) 419963 
Flag: 
red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping
right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized
moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

@Nepal, Economy

Overview: 
Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for
over 90% of the population and accounting for 60% of GDP. Industrial
activity is limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural
produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles
and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for 85% of foreign
exchange earnings in FY94. Apart from agricultural land and forests,
exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism.
Agricultural production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as
compared with annual population growth of 2.6%. More than 40% of the
population is undernourished. Since May 1991, the government has been
encouraging trade and foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating
business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify
domestic and foreign investment. The government also has been cutting
public expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state
industries, and laying off civil servants. Prospects for foreign trade
and investment in the 1990s remain poor, however, because of the small
size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness,
and susceptibility to natural disaster. Nepal experienced severe
flooding in August 1993 which caused at least $50 million in damage to
the country's infrastructure.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $20.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2.9% (FY93)
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9% (September 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
5%; underemployment estimated at 25%-40% (1987)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$457 million 
expenditures: 
$725 million, including capital expenditures of $427 million (FY93
est.)
Exports: 
$369 million (f.o.b., FY93) but does not include unrecorded border
trade with India
commodities: 
carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
partners: 
US, Germany, India, UK
Imports: 
$789 million (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners: 
India, Singapore, Japan, Germany
External debt: 
$2 billion (FY93 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6% (FY91 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
300,000 kW
production: 
1 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
50 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette, textile,
carpet, cement, and brick production; tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 60% of GDP and 93% of work force; farm products - rice,
corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not
self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug
markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast Asia to the West
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $304 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $2.23
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $286 million 
Currency: 
1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates: 
Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 49.240 (January 1994), 48.607 (1993),
42.742 (1992), 37.255 (1991), 29.370 (1990), 27.189 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
16 July - 15 July

@Nepal, Communications

Railroads: 
52 km (1990), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in Terai close to
Indian border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is government owned
Highways: 
total: 
7,080 km 
paved: 
2,898 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 1,660 km; seasonally motorable tracks 2,522 km
(1990)
Airports: 
total: 
37 
usable: 
37 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio communication and
broadcast service; international radio communication service is poor;
50,000 telephones (1990); broadcast stations - 88 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Nepal, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese Police
Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 5,003,661; fit for military service 2,598,507; reach
military age (17) annually 241,405 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 2% of GDP (FY91/92)


@Netherlands, 


@Netherlands, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
37,330 sq km 
land area: 
33,920 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
total 1,027 km, Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km 
Coastline: 
451 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Terrain: 
mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in
southeast
Natural resources: 
natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
26% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
32% 
forest and woodland: 
9% 
other: 
32% 
Irrigated land: 
5,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and
nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles
and refining activities; acid rain
natural hazards: 
the extensive system of dikes and dams, protects nearly one-half of
the total area from being flooded
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note: 
located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or
Meuse, Schelde)

@Netherlands, People

Population: 
15,367,928 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.58% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.75 years 
male: 
74.69 years 
female: 
80.97 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.58 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women) 
adjective: 
Dutch 
Ethnic divisions: 
Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%, unaffiliated
36% (1991)
Languages: 
Dutch 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
6.7 million (1991)
by occupation: 
services 50.1%, manufacturing and construction 28.2%, government
15.9%, agriculture 5.8% (1986)

@Netherlands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of the Netherlands 
conventional short form: 
Netherlands 
local long form: 
Koninkrijk de Nederlanden 
local short form: 
Nederland 
Digraph: 
NL
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government
Administrative divisions: 
12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland,
Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant,
Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland
Dependent areas: 
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 
Independence: 
1579 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938) 
Constitution: 
17 February 1983
Legal system: 
civil law system incorporating French penal theory; judicial review in
the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather than Acts of
the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent
WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen Beatrix (born 27
April 1967) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister RUDOLPHUS (Ruud) F. M. LUBBERS (since 4 November 1982);
Vice Prime Minister Willem (Wim) KOK (since 2 November 1989) -
resigned after 3 May 1994 parliamentary elections; no new government
has been formed to date
cabinet: 
Ministry of General Affairs; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal)
First Chamber (Eerste Kamer): 
elections last held on 9 June l991 (next to be held 9 June 1995);
results - elected by the country's 12 provincial councils; seats - (75
total) percent of seats by party NA
Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer): 
elections last held on 3 May 1994 (next to be held in May 1999);
results - PvdA 24.3%, CDA 22.3%, VVD 20.4%, D'66 16.5%, other 16.5%;
seats - (150 total) PvdA 37, CDA 34, VVD 31, D'66 24, other 24
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Elco BRINKMAN; Labor (PvdA), Wim
KOK; Liberal (VVD), Frits BOLKESTEIN; Democrats '66 (D'66), Hans van
MIERLO; a host of minor parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
large multinational firms; Federation of Netherlands Trade Union
Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a
Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant
Employers Associations; the nondenominational Federation of
Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch Peace Council (IKV)
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNTAC,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Adriaan Pieter Roetert JACOBOVITS DE SZEGED 
chancery: 
4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 244-5300 
FAX: 
(202) 362-3430 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Manila (Trust Territories of the
Pacific Islands), New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Kirk Terry DORNBUSH 
embassy: 
Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ The Hague 
mailing address: 
PSC 71, Box 1000, the Hague; APO AE 09715 
telephone: 
[31] (70) 310-9209 
FAX: 
[31] (70) 361-4688 
consulate(s) general: 
Amsterdam 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to
the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer

@Netherlands, Economy

Overview: 
This highly developed and affluent economy is based on private
enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however, through
many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs affecting
most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial services
sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity provides about
25% of GDP and is led by the food-processing, oil-refining, and
metalworking industries. The highly mechanized agricultural sector
employs only 5% of the labor force, but provides large surpluses for
export and the domestic food-processing industry. Rising unemployment
and a sizable budget deficit are currently the most serious economic
problems. Many of the economic issues of the 1990s will reflect the
course of European economic integration.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $262.8 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.2% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$17,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
9.1% (March 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$109.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$122.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$139 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
metal products, chemicals, processed food and tobacco, agricultural
products
partners: 
EC 77% (Germany 27%, Belgium-Luxembourg 15%, UK 10%), US 4% (1991)
Imports: 
$130.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods,
transportation equipment, crude oil, food products
partners: 
EC 64% (Germany 26%, Belgium-Luxembourg 14%, UK 8%), US 8% (1991)
External debt: 
$0 
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1.5% (1993 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
22,216,000 kW
production: 
63.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,200 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery
and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4.6% of GDP; animal production predominates; crops -
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages of grain,
fats, and oils
Illicit drugs: 
gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; European
producer of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $19.4 billion 
Currency: 
1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1 - 1.9508
(January 1994), 1.8573 (1993), 1.7585 (1992), 1.8697 (1991), 1.8209
(1990), 2.1207 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Netherlands, Communications

Railroads: 
2,828 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by Netherlands Railways
(NS) (includes 1,957 km electrified and 1,800 km double track)
Highways: 
total: 
104,590 km 
paved: 
92,525 km (including 2,185 km of expressway)
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 12,065 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity
or larger
Pipelines: 
crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km 
Ports: 
coastal - Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht, Eemshaven,
Ijmuiden, Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen; inland - 29
ports
Merchant marine: 
324 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,507,112 GRT/3,208,838 DWT,
bulk 3, cargo 180, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 3, container
32, liquefied gas 12, livestock carrier 1, multifunction large-load
carrier 4, oil tanker 27, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 20,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
note: 
many Dutch-owned ships are also registered on the captive Netherlands
Antilles register
Airports: 
total: 
28 
usable: 
28 
with permanent-surface runways: 
19 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed, well maintained, and integrated; extensive redundant
system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave radio relay
microwave links; 9,418,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 (3
relays) AM, 12 (39 repeaters) FM, 8 (7 repeaters) TV; 5 submarine
cables; 1 communication satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT
(1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean antenna) and EUTELSAT systems;
nationwide mobile phone system

@Netherlands, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (including Naval Air
Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal
Constabulary 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,180,745; fit for military service 3,667,212; reach
military age (20) annually 98,479 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $6.8 billion, 2.3% of GDP (1993)


@Netherlands Antilles

Header
Affiliation: 
(part of the Dutch realm) 

@Netherlands Antilles, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, two island groups - Curacao and Bonaire in the southern
Caribbean Sea are about 70 km north of Venezuela near Aruba and the
rest of the country is about 800 km to the northeast about one-third
of the way between Antigua and Barbuda and Puerto Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
960 sq km 
land area: 
960 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten
(Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
364 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
12 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
Terrain: 
generally hilly, volcanic interiors
Natural resources: 
phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
92% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt, so rarely
threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to
hurricanes from July to October
international agreements: 
party to - Whaling

@Netherlands Antilles, People

Population: 
185,790 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.47% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.32 years 
male: 
74.1 years 
female: 
78.66 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.96 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Netherlands Antillean(s) 
adjective: 
Netherlands Antillean 
Ethnic divisions: 
mixed African 85%, Carib Indian, European, Latin, Oriental 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist 
Languages: 
Dutch (official), Papiamento a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English
dialect predominates, English widely spoken, Spanish 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 
94% 
male: 
94% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
89,000 
by occupation: 
government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

@Netherlands Antilles, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Netherlands Antilles 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Nederlandse Antillen 
Digraph: 
NA
Type: 
part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in
1954
Capital: 
Willemstad 
Administrative divisions: 
none (part of the Dutch realm)
Independence: 
none (part of the Dutch realm)
National holiday: 
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938) 
Constitution: 
29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended
Legal system: 
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
influence
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 25 February 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval of the
unicameral legislature
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Staten: 
elections last held on 25 February 1994 (next to be held March 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (23 total) PAR 8, PNP
3, SPA 2, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, DP 1, WIPM 1, DP-St. E 1, DP-St. M 1,
Nos Patria 1
note: 
the government of Miguel POURIER is a coalition of several parties
Judicial branch: 
Joint High Court of Justice 
Political parties and leaders: 
political parties are indigenous to each island
Bonaire: 
Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic Party of
Bonaire (PDB), Franklin CRESTIAN
Curacao: 
Antillean Restructuring Party (PAR), Miguel POURIER; National People's
Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles Movement (MAN),
Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson
(Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and Nelson
MONTE; Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos Patria,
Chin BEHILIA
Saba: 
Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will JOHNSON; Saba
Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon HASSELL; Saba Unity Party, Carmen
SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius: 
Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), K. Van PUTTEN; Windward
Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius Alliance (SEA), Ralph
BERKEL
Sint Maarten: 
Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Claude WATHEY; Patriotic
Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance JAMES
Member of: 
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO
(associate), UPU, WMO, WTO (associate) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Consul General Bernard J. WOERZ 
consulate general: 
Saint Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao 
telephone: 
[599] (9) 613066 
FAX: 
[599] (9) 616489 
Flag: 
white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a
vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are
arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five
stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint
Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

@Netherlands Antilles, Economy

Overview: 
Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the mainstays of
the economy. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a
well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the
region. Unlike many Latin American countries, the Netherlands Antilles
has avoided large international debt. Almost all consumer and capital
goods are imported, with Venezuela and the US being the major
suppliers.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$9,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
16.4% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$209 million 
expenditures: 
$232 million, including capital expenditures of $8 million (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$240 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
petroleum products 98%
partners: 
US 39%, Brazil 9%, Colombia 6%
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures
partners: 
Venezuela 26%, US 18%, Colombia 6%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5%
External debt: 
$701 million (December 1987)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
125,000 kW
production: 
365 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,980 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining (Curacao),
petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light
manufacturing (Curacao)
Agriculture: 
hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief products - aloes,
sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
money-laundering center; transshipment point for South American
cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $513 million 
Currency: 
1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins (NAf.) per US$1 -
1.79 (fixed rate since 1989; 1.80 fixed rate 1971-88)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Netherlands Antilles, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
950 km 
paved: 
300 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 650 km 
Ports: 
Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk
Merchant marine: 
113 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 966,797 GRT/1,251,871 DWT, bulk
1, cargo 43, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 1, container 3,
liquefied gas 5, multifunction large-load carrier 18, oil tanker 1,
passenger 4, refrigerated cargo 23, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7 
note: 
all but a few are foreign owned, mostly in the Netherlands
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
generally adequate facilities; extensive interisland microwave radio
relay links; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine
cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Netherlands Antilles, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal Netherlands Air Force,
National Guard, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 48,866; fit for military service 27,421; reach
military age (20) annually 1,595 (1994 est.)
Note: 
defense is responsibility of the Netherlands


@New Caledonia

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas territory of France) 

@New Caledonia, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Melanesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 1,750 km east of
Australia
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
19,060 sq km 
land area: 
18,760 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
2,254 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
Terrain: 
coastal plains with interior mountains
Natural resources: 
nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
14% 
forest and woodland: 
51% 
other: 
35% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
typhoons most frequent from November to March
international agreements: 
NA 

@New Caledonia, People

Population: 
181,309 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.79% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
22.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.96 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.62 years 
male: 
70.32 years 
female: 
77.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.62 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
New Caledonian(s) 
adjective: 
New Caledonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%,
Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10% 
Languages: 
French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population: 
91% 
male: 
91% 
female: 
90% 
Labor force: 
50,469 foreign workers for plantations and mines from Wallis and
Futuna, Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)
by occupation: 
NA

@New Caledonia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies 
conventional short form: 
New Caledonia 
local long form: 
Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances 
local short form: 
Nouvelle-Caledonie 
Digraph: 
NC
Type: 
overseas territory of France since 1956
Capital: 
Noumea 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud
Independence: 
none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on independence will
be held in 1998)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands;
formerly under French law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
High Commissioner and President of the Council of Government Alain
CHRISTNACHT (since 15 January 1991; appointed by the French Ministry
of the Interior); President of the Territorial Congress Simon
LOUECKHOTE (since 26 June 1989) 
cabinet: 
Consultative Committee 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Territorial Assembly: 
elections last held 11 June 1989 (next to be held 1993); results -
RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS 28.5%, FN 7%, CD 5%, UO 4%, other 11%; seats - (54
total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, other 5; note - election boycotted by
FULK
French Senate: 
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September
2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPCR 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 March 1993 (next to be held 21 and 28 March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPCR 2
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie dans la Republique
(RPCR), conservative, Jacques LAFLEUR - affiliated to France's
Rassemblement pour la Republique (RPR); Melanesian proindependence
Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS), Paul NEAOUTYINE;
Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation (LKS), Nidoish
NAISSELINE; National Front (FN), extreme right, Guy GEORGE; Caledonie
Demain (CD), right-wing, Bernard MARANT; Union Oceanienne (UO),
conservative, Michel HEMA; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak (FULK),
proindependence, Clarence UREGEI; Union Caledonian (UC), Francois
BURCK
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@New Caledonia, Economy

Overview: 
New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known nickel resources.
In recent years the economy has suffered because of depressed
international demand for nickel, the principal source of export
earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for
cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2.4% (1988)
National product per capita: 
$6,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
16% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$224 million 
expenditures: 
$211 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)
Exports: 
$671 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: 
nickel metal 87%, nickel ore
partners: 
France 32%, Japan 23.5%, US 3.6%
Imports: 
$764 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: 
foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment
partners: 
France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
400,000 kW
production: 
2.2 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
12,790 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
nickel mining and smelting
Agriculture: 
large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn, wheat,
vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal source of income
for some families
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.185 billion 
Currency: 
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Comptoirs Francais duPacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
(January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00
(1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@New Caledonia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
6,340 km 
paved: 
634 km 
unpaved: 
5,706 km (1987)
Ports: 
Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio
Airports: 
total: 
30 
usable: 
28 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
32,578 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@New Caledonia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Gendarmerie, Police Force 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@New Zealand, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Oceania, southeast of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
268,680 sq km 
land area: 
268,670 sq km 
comparative area: 
about the size of Colorado
note: 
includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell
Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
15,134 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Climate: 
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain: 
predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Natural resources: 
natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
53% 
forest and woodland: 
38% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
2,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by
species introduced from outside
natural hazards: 
earthquakes are common, though usually not severe
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed,
but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand, People

Population: 
3,388,737 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.57% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.06 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.38 years 
male: 
72.76 years 
female: 
80.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.03 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
New Zealander(s) 
adjective: 
New Zealand 
Ethnic divisions: 
European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%, other 0.2% 
Religions: 
Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%,
Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 9% (1986)
Languages: 
English (official), Maori 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1,603,500 (June 1991)
by occupation: 
services 67.4%, manufacturing 19.8%, primary production 9.3% (1987)

@New Zealand, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
New Zealand 
Abbreviation: 
NZ 
Digraph: 
NZ
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Wellington 
Administrative divisions: 
93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri,
Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot,
Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere,
Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island,
Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**,
Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood,
Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**,
Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount
Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford,
Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*,
Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks,
Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki,
Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent,
Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino,
Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa
South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace,
Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa,
Woodville
Dependent areas: 
Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 
Independence: 
26 September 1907 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty)
Constitution: 
no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents,
including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments;
Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but
has not been enacted
Legal system: 
based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts
for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12 December 1990) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October 1990); Deputy Prime
Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; appointed by the governor general on recommendation
of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Representatives: 
(commonly called Parliament) elections last held on 6 November 1993
(next to be held NA November 1996); results - NP 35.2%, NZLP 34.7%,
Alliance 18.3%, New Zealand First 8.3%; seats - (99 total) NP 50, NZLP
45, Alliance 2, New Zealand First Party 2
Judicial branch: 
High Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Party (NP; government), James BOLGER; New Zealand Labor Party
(NZLP; opposition), Helen CLARK; Alliance, Jim ANDERTON; Democratic
Party, Dick RYAN; New Zealand Liberal Party, Hanmish MACINTYRE and
Gilbert MYLES; Green Party, no official leader; Mana Motuhake, Martin
RATA; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS; New
Zealand First, Winston PETERS
note: 
the New Labor, Democratic, and Mana Motuhake parties formed a
coalition called the Alliance Party, Jim ANDERTON, president, in
September 1991; the Green Party joined the coalition in May 1992
Member of: 
ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986),
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM (cooperating), EBRD,
ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM
II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Lionel John WOOD 
chancery: 
37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 328-4800 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Josiah BEEMAN 
embassy: 
29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001 
telephone: 
[64] (4) 472-2068 
FAX: 
[64] (4) 472-3537 
consulate(s) general: 
Auckland 
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with
four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half
of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

@New Zealand, Economy

Overview: 
Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy
dependent on a guaranteed British market to a more industrialized,
open free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The
government has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes,
broaden and deepen the technological capabilities of the industrial
sector, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of
welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation is down from
double-digit levels, but growth was sluggish in 1988-91. In 1992-93,
growth picked up to 3% annually, a sign that the new economic approach
is beginning to pay off. Business confidence has strengthened, and the
inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world.
Unemployment, down from 11% in 1991, remains unacceptably high at 9%.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $53 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$15,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
9.1% (September 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
note: 
deficit $345 million (October 1993)
Exports: 
$10.3 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures,
chemicals, forestry products
partners: 
Australia 18.9%, Japan 15.1%, US 12.5%, South Korea 4.1%
Imports: 
$9.4 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment
partners: 
Australia 21.1%, US 19.6%, Japan 14.7%, UK 6.3%, Germany 4.2%
External debt: 
$35.3 billion (March 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
8,000,000 kW
production: 
31 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
9,250 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery,
transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 9% of GDP and about 10% of the work force;
livestock predominates - wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables;
surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a record 503,000
metric tons in 1988
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million 
Currency: 
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@New Zealand, Communications

Railroads: 
4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track; 113 km
electrified; over 99% government owned
Highways: 
total: 
92,648 km 
paved: 
49,547 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 43,101 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,609 km; of little importance to transportation
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; condensate (liquified
petroleum gas - LPG) 150 km 
Ports: 
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga
Merchant marine: 
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 165,514 GRT/218,699 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 2, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 3, railcar carrier 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5 
Airports: 
total: 
108 
usable: 
108 
with permanent-surface runways: 
39 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
39 
Telecommunications: 
excellent international and domestic systems; 2,110,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables extend to
Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@New Zealand, Defense Forces

Branches: 
New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 880,576; fit for military service 741,629; reach
military age (20) annually 28,242 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $792 million, 2% of GDP (FY90/91)


@Nicaragua, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, between Costa Rica and Honduras
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America 
Area: 
total area: 
129,494 sq km 
land area: 
120,254 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New York State
Land boundaries: 
total 1,231 km, Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km 
Coastline: 
910 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
25-nm security zone (status of claim uncertain)
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres
y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; International Court of Justice
(ICJ) referred the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca
to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some
tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua
likely would be required
Climate: 
tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Terrain: 
extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Natural resources: 
gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
9% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
43% 
forest and woodland: 
35% 
other: 
12% 
Irrigated land: 
850 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
natural hazards: 
subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and
occasionally severe hurricanes
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua, People

Population: 
4,096,689 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.68% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
34.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
52.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
64.02 years 
male: 
61.18 years 
female: 
66.96 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Nicaraguan(s) 
adjective: 
Nicaraguan 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official)
note: 
English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population: 
57% 
male: 
57% 
female: 
57% 
Labor force: 
1.086 million 
by occupation: 
services 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13% (1986)

@Nicaragua, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Nicaragua 
conventional short form: 
Nicaragua 
local long form: 
Republica de Nicaragua 
local short form: 
Nicaragua 
Digraph: 
NU
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Managua 
Administrative divisions: 
17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Boaco,
Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon,
Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, North Atlantic Coast Autonomous
Zone (RAAN), Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, South Atlantic Coast
Autonomous Zone (RAAS)
Independence: 
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
9 January 1987
Legal system: 
civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
Suffrage: 
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990); Vice
President Virgilio GODOY Reyes (since 25 April 1990); election last
held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held November 1996); results -
Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN)
40.8%, other 4.5%
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional): 
elections last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held November
1996); results - UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats -
(92 total) UNO 41, FSLN 39, "Centrist" (Dissident UNO) 12
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling coalition: 
National Opposition Union (UNO) is a 10-party alliance - moderate
parties: National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano MATAMOROS Lacayo,
president; Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto
SOMARRIBA, Arnold ALEMAN; Christian Democratic Union (UDC), Luis
Humberto GUZMAN, Agustin JARQUIN, Azucena FERREY, Roger MIRANDA,
Francisco MAYORGA; National Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ;
National Action Party (PAN), Duilio BALTODANO; UNO - hardline parties:
Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO,Virgilio GODOY
Reyes; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo POTOY, Alfredo CESAR
Aguirre, secretary general; Conservative Popular Alliance Party
(PAPC), Myriam ARGUELLO; Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli
ALTIMIRANO Perez; Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel
opposition parties: 
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA; Central
American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS; Democratic Conservative
Party of Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose BRENES; Liberal Party of National
Unity (PLUIN), Eduardo CORONADO; Movement of Revolutionary Unity
(MUR), Francisco SAMPER; Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick RAMIREZ;
Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Social
Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando AGUERRO; Popular Action Movement -
Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ; Popular Social Christian
Party (PPSC), Mauricio DIAZ
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Workers Front (FNT) is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight
labor unions: Sandinista Workers' Central (CST); Farm Workers
Association (ATC); Health Workers Federation (FETASALUD); National
Union of Employees (UNE); National Association of Educators of
Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and
Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations (CONAPRO); and the
National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (UNAG); Permanent Congress of
Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor
unions: Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS); Autonomous
Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent General Confederation
of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS);
Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent labor union;
Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a confederation of
business groups 
Member of: 
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Roberto MAYORGA Cortes 
chancery: 
1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 939-6570 
consulate(s) general: 
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John MAISTO 
embassy: 
Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua 
mailing address: 
APO AA 34021 
telephone: 
[505] (2) 666010 or 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032
through 34 
FAX: 
[505] (2) 666046 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El
Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white
band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars
arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

@Nicaragua, Economy

Overview: 
Since March 1991, when President CHAMORRO began an ambitious economic
stabilization program, Nicaragua has had considerable success in
reducing inflation and obtaining substantial economic aid from abroad.
Annual inflation fell from more than 750% in 1991 to less than 5% in
1992. Inflation rose again to an estimated 20% in 1993, although this
increase was due almost entirely to a large currency devaluation in
January. As of early 1994, the government was close to finalizing an
enhanced structural adjustment facility with the IMF, after the
previous standby facility expired in early 1993. Despite these
successes, achieving overall economic growth in an economy scarred by
misguided economic values and civil war during the 1980s has proved
elusive. Economic growth was flat in 1992 and slightly negative in
1993. Nicaragua's per capita foreign debt is one of the highest in the
world; nonetheless, as of late 1993, Nicaragua was current on its
post-1988 debt as well as on payments to the international financial
institutions. Definition of property rights remains a problem;
ownership disputes over large tracts of land, businesses, and homes
confiscated by the previous government have yet to be resolved.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
20% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
13%; underemployment 50% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$375 million (1992)
expenditures: 
$410 million (1992), including capital expenditures of $115 million
(1991 est.)
Exports: 
$228 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, cotton, coffee, chemicals
partners: 
EC 26%, US 26%, Japan, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico (1992)
Imports: 
$907 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing
partners: 
US 26%, Venezuela, Costa Rica, EC, Guatemala (1992)
External debt: 
$10.5 billion ( 1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for 20-25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
434,000 kW
production: 
1.118 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
290 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles, clothing,
petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear
Agriculture: 
crops account for about 15% of GDP; export crops - coffee, bananas,
sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn, cassava, citrus fruit,
beans; also produces a variety of animal products - beef, veal, pork,
poultry, dairy products; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-92), $620 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.381 billion 
Currency: 
1 gold cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
gold cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 6 (10 January 1993), 5 (1992); note -
gold cordoba replaced cordoba as Nicaragua's currency in 1991
(exchange rate of old cordoba had reached per US$1 - 25,000,000 by
March 1992)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Nicaragua, Communications

Railroads: 
373 km 1.067-meter narrow gauge, government owned; majority of system
not operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does not
connect with mainline)
Highways: 
total: 
25,930 km 
paved: 
4,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 2,170 km; graded earth 5,425 km; unimproved
earth 14,335 km 
Pan-American highway: 
368.5 km (not in total)
Inland waterways: 
2,220 km, including 2 large lakes
Pipelines: 
crude oil 56 km 
Ports: 
Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama
Merchant marine: 
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161 GRT/2,500 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
208 
usable: 
149 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
13 
Telecommunications: 
low-capacity radio relay and wire system being expanded; connection
into Central American Microwave System; 60,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; earth stations - 1
Intersputnik and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Nicaragua, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 946,177; fit for military service 582,669; reach
military age (18) annually 45,555 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $43.0 million, 1.6% of GDP (1992)


@Niger, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, between Algeria and Nigeria
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1.267 million sq km 
land area: 
1,266,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,697 km, Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina 628 km, Chad
1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger; demarcation of
international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to
border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; Burkina and Mali are proceeding
with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate: 
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain: 
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in
south; hills in north
Natural resources: 
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
2% 
other: 
88% 
Irrigated land: 
320 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife
populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, and lion) threatened
because of poaching and habitat destruction
natural hazards: 
recurrent droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked

@Niger, People

Population: 
8,971,605 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.36% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
54.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
21.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
44.61 years 
male: 
43.01 years 
female: 
46.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
7.35 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Nigerien(s) 
adjective: 
Nigerien 
Ethnic divisions: 
Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%,
Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 4,000 French expatriates
Religions: 
Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians 
Languages: 
French (official), Hausa, Djerma 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
28% 
male: 
40% 
female: 
17% 
Labor force: 
2.5 million wage earners (1982)
by occupation: 
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
note: 
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Niger, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Niger 
conventional short form: 
Niger 
local long form: 
Republique du Niger 
local short form: 
Niger 
Digraph: 
NG
Type: 
republic
Capital: 
Niamey
Administrative divisions: 
7 departments (departements, singular - departement); Agadez, Diffa,
Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder
Independence: 
3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Republic Day, 18 December (1958) 
Constitution: 
approved by national referendum 16 December 1992; promulgated January
1993
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Mahamane OUSMANE (since 16 April 1993) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Mahamadou ISSOUFOU (since 17 April 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elected by proportional representation for 5 year terms; elections
last held 14 February 1993 (next election NA 1998); seats - (83 total)
MNSD 29, CDS 22, PNDS 13, ANDP-Z 11, UPDP 2, PPN/RDA 2, UDFP 2, PSDN
1, UDPS 1
Judicial branch: 
State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal (Cour d'Apel) 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Movement of the Development Society (MNSD-NASSARA), Kada
LABO, General Secretary; Democratic and Social Convention - Rahama
(CDS- Rahama), Mahamane OUSMANE; Nigerien Party for Democracy and
Socialism (PNDS), Mahamadou ISSOUFOU; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy
and Progress - Zamanlahia (ANDP-Z), Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE; Union
of Patriots, Democrats, and Progressives (UPDP), Andre SALIFOU; Niger
Progressive Party - African Democratic Rally (PPN-RDA), Harou KOUKA;
Niger Social Democrat Party (PADN), Malam Adji WAZIRI; Union for
Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), Akoli DAOUEL
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Adamou SEYDOU 
chancery: 
2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-4224 through 4227 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John DAVISON 
embassy: 
Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey 
mailing address: 
B. P. 11201, Niamey 
telephone: 
[227] 72-26-61 through 64 
FAX: 
[227] 73-31-67 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a
small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band;
similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered
in the white band

@Niger, Economy

Overview: 
Niger's economy is centered on subsistence agriculture, animal
husbandry, and re-export trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its
major export throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Uranium revenues dropped
by almost 50% between 1983 and 1990. Terms of trade with Nigeria,
Niger's largest regional trade partner, have improved dramatically
since the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994; this
devaluation boosted exports of livestock, peas, onions, and the
products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on
bilateral and multilateral aid for operating expenses and public
investment, and is strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment
programs designed by the IMF and the World Bank.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.9% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$650 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$193 million 
expenditures: 
$355 million, including capital expenditures of $106 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$294 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
uranium ore 60%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions
partners: 
France 77%, Nigeria 8%, Cote d'Ivoire, Italy
Imports: 
$346 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, electronic
equipment, cereals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemical
products, foodstuffs
partners: 
Germany 26%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, France 5%, Italy 4%, Nigeria 2%
External debt: 
$1.2 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2.7% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
105,000 kW
production: 
230 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
30 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses,
and a few other small light industries; uranium mining began in 1971
Agriculture: 
accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force; cash crops -
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops - millet, sorghum, cassava, rice;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food except in
drought years
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$3.165 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $61 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning 12
January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc
from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Niger, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
39,970 km 
paved: 
bituminous 3,170 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, laterite 10,330 km; earth 3,470 km; tracks 23,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
Niger River is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin
frontier from mid-December through March
Airports: 
total: 
30 
usable: 
28 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
14 
Telecommunications: 
small system of wire, radiocommunications, and radio relay links
concentrated in southwestern area; 14,260 telephones; broadcast
stations - 15 AM, 5 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 3 domestic, with 1
planned

@Niger, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police, Republican Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,845,374; fit for military service 994,683; reach
military age (18) annually 91,595 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $27 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989)


@Nigeria, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Benin and
Cameroon
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
923,770 sq km 
land area: 
910,770 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries: 
total 4,047 km, Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger
1,497 km 
Coastline: 
853 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
30 nm
International disputes: 
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of
which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and
awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary
commission, created with Cameroon to discuss unresolved land and
maritime boundaries, has not yet convened, but a commission was formed
January 1994 to study a flare-up of the dispute
Climate: 
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain: 
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in
southeast, plains in north
Natural resources: 
petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc,
natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
31% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
23% 
forest and woodland: 
15% 
other: 
28% 
Irrigated land: 
8,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent
droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities
natural hazards: 
periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Nigeria, People

Population: 
98,091,097 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.15% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
75 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
55.33 years 
male: 
54.11 years 
female: 
56.59 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.37 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Nigerian(s) 
adjective: 
Nigerian 
Ethnic divisions: 
north: 
Hausa and Fulani 
southwest: 
Yoruba 
southeast: 
Ibos 
non-Africans 27,000
note: 
Hausa and Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibos together make up 65% of population
Religions: 
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10% 
Languages: 
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
51% 
male: 
62% 
female: 
40% 
Labor force: 
42.844 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 15%
note: 
49% of population of working age (1985)

@Nigeria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Federal Republic of Nigeria 
conventional short form: 
Nigeria 
Digraph: 
NI
Type: 
military government since 31 December 1983; plans to institute a
constitutional conference to prepare for a new transition to civilian
rule after plans for a transition in 1993 were negated by General
BABANGIDA
Capital: 
Abuja 
note: 
on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos to
Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion of
facilities in Abuja
Administrative divisions: 
30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Capital Territory*, Adamawa,
Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Edo,
Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos,
Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
Independence: 
1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 October (1960) 
Constitution: 
1979 constitution still in force; plan for 1989 constitution to take
effect in 1993 was not implemented
Legal system: 
based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and Commander in Chief of
Armed Forces and Defense Minister Gen. Sani ABACHA (since 17 November
1993); Vice-Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council Oladipo DIYA
(since 17 November 1993) 
cabinet: 
Federal Executive Council 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly
Senate: 
suspended after coup of 17 November 1993
House of Representatives: 
suspended after coup of 17 November 1993
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
note: 
two political party system suspended after the coup of 17 November
1993
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Zubair Mahmud KAZAURE 
chancery: 
1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 986-8400 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Walter CARRINGTON 
embassy: 
2 Eleke Crescent, Lagos 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 554, Lagos 
telephone: 
[234] (1) 610050 
FAX: 
[234] (1) 610257 
consulate(s) general: 
Kaduna 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

@Nigeria, Economy

Overview: 
The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be hobbled by poor
macroeconomic management that has resulted in an average annual
inflation rate of 60%, a growing foreign debt, and a worsening balance
of payments. A deepening political crisis in 1993 has compounded the
government's failure to reign in deficit spending, which prevents it
from reaching an agreement with the IMF and its bilateral creditors on
debt relief. Investment in both oil and non-oil sector industry has
been undermined by corruption and squandered on white elephant
projects that have failed to generate diversification or new
employment.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $95.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.1% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
60% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
28% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$9 billion 
expenditures: 
$10.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$11.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
oil 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners: 
US 54%, EC 23%
Imports: 
$8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, manufactured goods, food and animals
partners: 
EC 64%, US 10%, Japan 7%
External debt: 
$29.5 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7.7% (1991); accounts for 43% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
4,740,000 kW
production: 
8.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
70 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
crude oil and mining - coal, tin, columbite; primary processing
industries - palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins;
manufacturing industries - textiles, cement, building materials, food
products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics, steel
Agriculture: 
accounts for 35% of GDP and half of labor force; inefficient
small-scale farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and
now an importer; cash crops - cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food
crops - corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock -
cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively
exploited
Illicit drugs: 
passenger and cargo air hub for West Africa; facilitates movement of
heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe
and North America; increasingly a transit route for cocaine from South
America intended for West European, East Asian, and North American
markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion 
Currency: 
1 naira (N) = 100 kobo
Exchange rates: 
naira (N) per US$1 - 21.886 (November 1993), 17.298 (1992), 9.909
(1991), 8.038 (1990), 7.3647 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Nigeria, Communications

Railroads: 
3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
107,990 km 
paved: 
mostly bituminous-surface treatment 30,019 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 25,411 km; unimproved earth
52,560 km 
Inland waterways: 
8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and
creeks
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural gas 500 km 
Ports: 
Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele
Merchant marine: 
33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 432,704 GRT/686,718 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, liquified gas 1, oil tanker 9,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
80 
usable: 
67 
with permanent-surface runways: 
34 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
15 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
21 
Telecommunications: 
above-average system limited by poor maintenance; major expansion in
progress; radio relay microwave and cable routes; broadcast stations -
35 AM, 17 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 20 domestic stations; 1 coaxial
submarine cable

@Nigeria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 22,468,803; fit for military service 12,840,029; reach
military age (18) annually 986,518 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $172 million, about 1% of GDP (1992)


@Niue

Header
Affiliation: 
(free association with New Zealand) 

@Niue, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, 460 km east of Tonga in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
260 sq km 
land area: 
260 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
64 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Terrain: 
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Natural resources: 
fish, arable land 
Land use: 
arable land: 
61% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
19% 
other: 
12% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue, People

Population: 
1,906 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.66% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Niuean(s) 
adjective: 
Niuean 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans)
Religions: 
Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church) 75% - a Protestant church closely
related to the London Missionary Society, Morman 10%, other 15%
(mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages: 
Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1,000 (1981 est.)
by occupation: 
most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government
service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

@Niue, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Niue 
Digraph: 
NE
Type: 
self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand; Niue
fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs
Capital: 
Alofi 
Administrative divisions: 
none
Independence: 
19 October 1974 (became a self-governing territory in free association
with New Zealand on 19 October 1974)
National holiday: 
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty)
Constitution: 
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system: 
English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by New Zealand
Representative Kurt MEYER (since NA) 
head of government: 
Premier Frank F. LUI (since 12 March 1993; Acting Premier since
December 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; consists of the premier and three other ministers
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly: 
elections last held on 6 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1996); results
- percent of vote NA; seats - (20 total, 6 elected)
Judicial branch: 
Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Niue Island Party (NIP), Young VIVIAN
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), INTELSAT (signatory user), SPARTECA, SPC, SPF 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Flag: 
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the
flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a
blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red
cross

@Niue, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New Zealand. Government
expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall made up by
grants from New Zealand - the grants are used to pay wages to public
employees. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence
gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry
consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime
oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign
collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent
years has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration
of Niueans to New Zealand.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $2.1 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.6% (1984)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$5.5 million 
expenditures: 
$6.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)
Exports: 
$175,274 (f.o.b., 1985)
commodities: 
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaw,
root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners: 
NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia
Imports: 
$3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985)
commodities: 
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants,
chemicals, drugs
partners: 
NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,500 kW
production: 
3 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,490 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourist, handicrafts, coconut products
Agriculture: 
coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence crops - taro, yams,
cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $62 million 
Currency: 
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Niue, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
229 km 
unpaved: 
all-weather 123 km; plantation access 106 km 
Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
single-line telephone system connects all villages on island; 383
telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); broadcast stations - 1
AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Niue, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Police Force 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand


@Norfolk Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Australia) 

@Norfolk Island, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Oceania, 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
34.6 sq km 
land area: 
34.6 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
32 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
25% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
75% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons (especially May to July)
international agreements: 
NA 

@Norfolk Island, People

Population: 
2,710 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.7% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Norfolk Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Norfolk Islander(s) 
Ethnic divisions: 
descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander 
Religions: 
Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 16.4%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%, other 2.4%
(1986)
Languages: 
English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and
ancient Tahitian
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Norfolk Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of Norfolk Island 
conventional short form: 
Norfolk Island 
Digraph: 
NF
Type: 
territory of Australia 
Capital: 
Kingston (administrative center); Burnt Pine (commercial center)
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: 
Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856) 
Constitution: 
Norfolk Island Act of 1979
Legal system: 
wide legislative and executive responsibility under the Norfolk Island
Act of 1979; Supreme Court
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Administrator A. G. KERR (since NA April 1992), who is appointed by
the Governor General of Australia 
head of government: 
Assembly President David Ernest BUFFETT (since NA May 1992) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly: 
elections last held 1989 (held every three years); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) percent of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
NA
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a
large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider
white band

@Norfolk Island, Economy

Overview: 
The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought a level of
prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The
number of visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached
29,000 in FY89. Revenues from tourism have given the island a
favorable balance of trade and helped the agricultural sector to
become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$4.2 million, including capital expenditures of $400,000 (1989 est.)
Exports: 
$1.7 million (f.o.b., FY86)
commodities: 
postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm,
small quantities of avocados
partners: 
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
Imports: 
$15.6 million (c.i.f., FY86)
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
7,000 kW
production: 
8 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,160 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourism
Agriculture: 
Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables,
fruit, cattle, poultry
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Norfolk Island, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
80 km 
paved: 
53 km 
unpaved: 
earth, coral 27 km 
Ports: 
none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service with Sydney; 987
telephones (1983); broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

@Norfolk Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Australia


@Northern Mariana Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(commonwealth in political union with the US) 

@Northern Mariana Islands, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 5,635 km
west-southwest of Honolulu, about three-quarters of the way between
Hawaii and the Philippines
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
477 sq km 
land area: 
477 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,482 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal
temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July
to October
Terrain: 
southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral
reefs; northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is 471 meters
(Mt. Okso' Takpochao on Saipan)
Natural resources: 
arable land, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% on Saipan
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
19% 
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
contamination of groundwater on Saipan by raw sewage contributes to
disease
natural hazards: 
active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; subject to typhoons (especially
August to November)
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

@Northern Mariana Islands, People

Population: 
49,799 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.04% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
35.05 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
37.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.43 years 
male: 
65.53 years 
female: 
69.48 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.69 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
NA 
adjective: 
NA 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians, Caucasian, Japanese,
Chinese, Korean 
Religions: 
Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional beliefs and
taboos may still be found)
Languages: 
English, Chamorro, Carolinian 
note: 
86% of population speaks a language other than English at home
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
96% 
Labor force: 
7,476 total indigenous labor force, 2,699 unemployed; 21,188 foreign
workers (1990)
by occupation: 
NA

@Northern Mariana Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 
conventional short form: 
Northern Mariana Islands 
Digraph: 
CQ
Type: 
commonwealth in political union with the US; self-governing with
locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs
Capital: 
Saipan 
Administrative divisions: 
none
Independence: 
none (commonwealth in political union with the US)
National holiday: 
Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978) 
Constitution: 
Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 and the Constitution of
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Legal system: 
based on US system except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and
taxation
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but
do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
Governor Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO (since 9 January 1990); Lieutenant
Governor Benjamin T. MANGLONA (since 9 January 1990); election last
held in NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1993); results -
Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO, Republican Party, was elected governor
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Legislature
Senate: 
elections last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA November
1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total)
Republicans 6, Democrats 3
House of Representatives: 
elections last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA November
1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total)
Republicans 10, Democrats 6, Independent 2
US House of Representatives: 
the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in Congress;
instead, it has an elected official "resident representative" located
in Washington, DC; seats - (1 total) Republican (Juan N. BABAUTA)
Judicial branch: 
Commonwealth Supreme Court, Superior Court, Federal District Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Republican Party, Governor Lorenzo GUERRERO; Democratic Party, Carlos
SHODA, chairman
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), SPC 
Flag: 
blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray
silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in
building) in the center

@Northern Mariana Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance from the
US. The rate of funding has declined as locally generated government
revenues have grown. An agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitled
the islands to $228 million for capital development, government
operations, and special programs. A rapidly growing major source of
income is the tourist industry, which now employs about 50% of the
work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural sector is
made up of cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts,
breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Industry is small scale, mostly
handicrafts and light manufacturing.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $541 million (1992)
note: 
GNP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$11,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6.5-7.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$147 million 
expenditures: 
$127.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$263.4 million (f.o.b. 1991 est.)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, garments, bread, pastries, concrete blocks, light
iron work
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$392.4 million (c.i.f. 1991 est.)
commodities: 
food, construction, equipment, materials
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$0 
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
25,000 kW
production: 
35 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
740 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
coconuts, fruits, cattle, vegetables
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Northern Mariana Islands, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
381.5 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
undifferentiated: 
primary 134.5 km; secondary 55 km; local 192 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
none
Ports: 
Saipan, Tinian
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM (1984), 1 TV, 2 cable TV stations; 2
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Northern Mariana Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Norway, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Sweden
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
324,220 sq km 
land area: 
307,860 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 2,515 km, Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km 
Coastline: 
21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long
fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
10 nm
continental shelf: 
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
4 nm
International disputes: 
territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); dispute between
Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean between
Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the International Court of
Justice; maritime boundary dispute with Russia over portion of Barents
Sea
Climate: 
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder
interior; rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain: 
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile
valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords;
arctic tundra in north
Natural resources: 
petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead,
fish, timber, hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
27% 
other: 
70% 
Irrigated land: 
950 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting
lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented
coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in
North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world;
Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with Russia

@Norway, People

Population: 
4,314,604 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.39% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.32 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.38 years 
male: 
74.02 years 
female: 
80.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Norwegian(s) 
adjective: 
Norwegian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)
Languages: 
Norwegian (official)
note: 
small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
2.004 million (1992)
by occupation: 
services 39.1%, commerce 17.6%, mining, oil, and manufacturing 16.0%,
banking and financial services 7.6%, transportation and communications
7.8%, construction 6.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5%
(1989)

@Norway, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Norway 
conventional short form: 
Norway 
local long form: 
Kongeriket Norge 
local short form: 
Norge 
Digraph: 
NO
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Oslo 
Administrative divisions: 
19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder,
Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland,
Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane,
Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas: 
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 
Independence: 
26 October 1905 (from Sweden)
National holiday: 
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814) 
Constitution: 
17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Legal system: 
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions;
Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3 November 1990) 
cabinet: 
State Council; appointed by the king in accordance with the will of
the Storting
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Parliament (Storting)
Storting: 
elections last held on 13 September 1993 (next to be held September
1997); results - Labor 37.1%, Center Party 18.5%, Conservatives 15.6%,
Christian Peoples' 8.4%, Socialist Left 7.9%, Progress 6%, Left Party
3.6%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%; seats - (165 total) Labor 67,
Center Party 32, Consevatives 18, Christian Peoples' 13, Socialist
Left 13, Progress 10, Left Party 1, Red Electoral Alliance 1,
unawarded 10
Lagting: 
Storting elects one-fourth of its member to upper house
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Hoyesterett) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Labor Party, Thorbjorn JAGLUND; Conservative Party, Jan PETERSEN;
Center Party, Anne ENGER LAHNSTEIN; Christian People's Party, Kjell
Magne BONDEVIK; Socialist Left, Eric SOLHEIM; Norwegian Communist,
Ingre IVERSEN; Progress Party, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Odd Einar
DORUM; Finnmark List, leader NA; Left Party; Red Electoral Alliance
Member of: 
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB,
NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
(associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Kjeld VIBE 
chancery: 
2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 333-6000 
FAX: 
(202) 337-0870 
consulate(s) general: 
Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco 
consulate(s): 
Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Thomas A. LOFTUS 
embassy: 
Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo 2 
mailing address: 
PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707 
telephone: 
[47] 22-44-85-50 
FAX: 
[47] 22-43-07-77 
Flag: 
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Norway, Economy

Overview: 
Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free market
activity and government intervention. The government controls key
areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state
enterprises) and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and
areas with sparse resources. Norway also maintains an extensive
welfare system that helps propel public sector expenditures to
slightly more than 50% of the GDP and results in one of the highest
average tax burdens in the world (54%). A small country with a high
dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of
raw materials and semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and
medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations.
The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum,
hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on
its oil sector to keep its economy afloat. Although one of the
government's main priorities is to reduce this dependency, this
situation is not likely to improve for years to come. The government
also hopes to reduce unemployment and strengthen and diversify the
economy through tax reform and a series of expansionary budgets. The
budget deficit is expected to hit a record 8% of GDP because of
welfare spending and bail-outs of the banking system. Unemployment
continues at record levels of over 10% - including those in job
programs - because of the weakness of the economy outside the oil
sector. Economic growth was only 1.6% in 1993, while inflation was a
moderate 2.3%. Oslo, a member of the European Free Trade Area, has
applied for membership in the European Union and continues to
deregulate and harmonize with EU regulations. Membership is expected
in early 1995.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $89.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
1.6% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$20,800 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
5.5% (excluding people in job-training programs; 1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$45.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$51.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports: 
$32.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
petroleum and petroleum products 40%, metals and products 10.6%, fish
and fish products 6.9%, chemicals 6.4%, natural gas 6.0%, ships 5.4%
partners: 
EC 66.3%, Nordic countries 16.3%, developing countries 8.4%, US 6.0%,
Japan 1.8% (1993)
Imports: 
$24.8 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment 38.9%, chemicals and other industrial inputs
26.6%, manufactured consumer goods 17.8%, foodstuffs 6.4%
partners: 
EC 48.6%, Nordic countries 25.1%, developing countries 9.6%, US 8.1%,
Japan 8.0% (1993)
External debt: 
$6.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.2% (1992); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
26,900,000 kW
production: 
111 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
25,850 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper
products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 3% of GDP and about 6% of labor force; among world's top
10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of crops; over half
of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS and Baltic states
for the European market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion 
Currency: 
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941
(1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Norway, Communications

Railroads: 
4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways (NSB)
operates 4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4 km
other
Highways: 
total: 
88,800 km 
paved: 
38,580 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 50,220 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum
Pipelines: 
refined products 53 km 
Ports: 
Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondheim
Merchant marine: 
764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,793,968 GRT/35,409,472 DWT,
bulk 159, cargo 92, chemical tanker 85, combination bulk 8,
combination ore/oil 28, container 17, liquefied gas 81, oil tanker
162, passenger 13, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 54, short-sea passenger 21, vehicle
carrier 28 
note: 
the government has created a captive register, the Norwegian
International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of ships
(761) under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS
Airports: 
total: 
103 
usable: 
102 
with permanent-surface runways: 
65 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
13 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
15 
Telecommunications: 
high-quality domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and
telex services; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 3,102,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 46 AM, 350 private and 143 government FM, 54
(2,100 repeaters) TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; 3 communications
satellite earth stations operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1
Atlantic Ocean), MARISAT, and domestic systems


@Norway, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home
Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,119,405; fit for military service 932,438; reach
military age (20) annually 30,557 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, 3.2% of GDP (1993)


@Oman, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, along the Arabian Sea, between Yemen and the United Arab
Emirates
Map references: 
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
212,460 sq km 
land area: 
212,460 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries: 
total 1,374 km, Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km 
Coastline: 
2,092 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
to be defined
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
no defined boundary with most of UAE; Administrative Line with UAE in
far north; a treaty with Yemen defining the Omani-Yemeni boundary was
ratified in December 1992
Climate: 
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain: 
vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Natural resources: 
petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum,
natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
less than 2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
93% 
Irrigated land: 
410 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; sparse natural
freshwater resources
natural hazards: 
summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula
controlling Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude
oil

@Oman, People

Population: 
1,701,470 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
Oman's first census was concluded in December 1993; preliminary
figures give a population of 2,000,000, of whom about 500,000 are
expatriate workers; final evaluative figures are not yet available
Population growth rate: 
3.46% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
40.38 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.77 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
36.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.79 years 
male: 
65.9 years 
female: 
69.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.53 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Omani(s) 
adjective: 
Omani 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan,
Bangladeshi) 
Religions: 
Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
430,000 (est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 40% (est.)

@Oman, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Sultanate of Oman 
conventional short form: 
Oman 
local long form: 
Saltanat Uman 
local short form: 
Uman 
Digraph: 
MU
Type: 
monarchy 
Capital: 
Muscat 
Administrative divisions: 
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 governorates (muhafazah, singular -
muhafazat); Masqat, Musandam, Zufar
Independence: 
1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
National holiday: 
National Day, 18 November (1940) 
Constitution: 
none
Legal system: 
based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the
sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Consultative Council
Judicial branch: 
none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil court system
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Ahmad bin Muhammad al-RASBI 
chancery: 
2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 387-1980 through 1982 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador David J. DUNFORD 
embassy: 
address NA, Muscat 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 202 Code No. 115, Muscat 
telephone: 
[968] 698-989 
FAX: 
[968] 604-316 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green
(double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the
national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two
crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the
vertical band

@Oman, Economy

Overview: 
Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil
industry, including trends in international oil prices and the ability
of OPEC producers to agree on output quotas. Petroleum accounts for
more than 85% of export earnings, about 80% of government revenues,
and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of 4 billion
barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current rate of
extraction. Agriculture is carried on at a subsistence level and the
general population depends on imported food. The government is
encouraging private investment, both domestic and foreign, as a prime
force for further economic development.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $16.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$10,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$4.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$5.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1 billion (1994 est.)
Exports: 
$5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum 87%, re-exports, fish, processed copper, textiles
partners: 
UAE 30%, Japan 27%, South Korea 10%, Singapore 5% (1991)
Imports: 
$3.7 billion (f.o.b, 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food,
livestock, lubricants
partners: 
Japan 20%, UAE 14%, UK 19%, US 7% (1991)
External debt: 
$3 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 8.6% (1991); accounts for almost 60% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,142,400 kW
production: 
5.1 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,200 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4% of GDP and 40% of the labor force (including fishing);
less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence farming (dates,
limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not
self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric
tons
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $148
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million 
Currency: 
1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza
Exchange rates: 
Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Oman, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
26,000 km 
paved: 
6,000 km 
unpaved: 
motorable track 20,000 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km 
Ports: 
Mina' Qabus, Mina' Raysut, Mina' al Fahl
Merchant marine: 
1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,442 GRT/1,320 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
138 
usable: 
130 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
74 
Telecommunications: 
modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radio
communications stations; limited coaxial cable; 50,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; satellite earth stations - 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, and 8 domestic

@Oman, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 382,793; fit for military service 217,755; reach
military age (14) annually 22,118 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, 16% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the

Header
Affiliation: 
(UN trusteeship administered by the US) 

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 850 km southeast of
the Philippines
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
458 sq km 
land area: 
458 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,519 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
wet season May to November; hot and humid
Terrain: 
about 200 islands varying geologically from the high, mountainous main
island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large
barrier reefs
Natural resources: 
forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed
minerals 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons (June to December)
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
includes World War II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock
islands; archipelago of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in
the Caroline chain

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, People

Population: 
16,366 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.81% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
22.54 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
25.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.01 years 
male: 
69.14 years 
female: 
73.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.91 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Palauan(s) 
adjective: 
Palauan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and Melanesian races
Religions: 
Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the
Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day Saints),
Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this religion
which is indigenous to Palau)
Languages: 
English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese (official
in the state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state of
Anguar), Tobi (in the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13 states)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
92% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
91% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
NA

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 
conventional short form: 
none 
note: 
may change to Republic of Palau after independence; the native form of
Palau is Belau and is sometimes used incorrectly in English and other
languages
Digraph: 
PS
Type: 
UN trusteeship administered by the US 
note: 
constitutional government signed a Compact of Free Association with
the US on 10 January 1986, which was never approved in a series of
UN-observed plebiscites; until the UN trusteeship is terminated with
entry into force of the Compact, Palau remains under US administration
as the Palau District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands;
administrative authority resides in the Department of the Interior and
is exercised by the Assistant Secretary for Territorial and
International Affairs through the Palau Office, Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, J. Victor HOBSON Jr., Director (since 16 December
1990)
Capital: 
Koror 
note: 
a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern
Babelthuap
Administrative divisions: 
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 16 states: Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur,
Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard, Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang,
Ngchesar, Ngerchelong, Ngiwal, Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi
Independence: 
the last polity remaining under the US-administered UN trusteeship
following the departure of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the
Federated States of Micronesia, and the Commonwealth of the Northern
Marianas from the trusteeship; administered by the Office of
Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of Interior
National holiday: 
Constitution Day, 9 July (1979) 
Constitution: 
1 January 1981
Legal system: 
based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal,
common, and customary laws
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993), Vice-President Tommy
E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993); election last held on 4
November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Kuniwo
NAKAMURA 50.7%, Johnson TORIBIONG 49.3%
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK)
Senate: 
elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total);
number of seats by party NA
House of Delegates: 
elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (16 total);
number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, National Court, Court of Common Pleas 
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
trust territory of the UN administered by the US: Administrative
Officer Charles UONG, Palau Liaison Office, 444 North Capitol Street
NW, Suite 308, Washington, DC 20001
US diplomatic representation: 
director: 
US Liaison Officer Lloyd W. MOSS 
liaison office: 
US Liaison Office at Top Side, Neeriyas, Koror 
mailing address: 
P.O. Box 6028, Koror, PW 96940 
telephone: 
(680) 488-2920; (680) 488-2911 
Flag: 
light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted
slightly to the hoist side

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Economy

Overview: 
The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture and fishing.
Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote location
of Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered
development. The government is the major employer of the work force,
relying heavily on financial assistance from the US.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $31.6 million (1986)
note: 
GDP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$2,260 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
20% (1986)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$6 million 
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)
Exports: 
$500,000 (f.o.b., 1986)
commodities: 
trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts
partners: 
US, Japan
Imports: 
$27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986)
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
US
External debt: 
about $100 million (1989)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
16,000 kW
production: 
22 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,540 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some commercial fishing and
agriculture
Agriculture: 
subsistence-level production of coconut, copra, cassava, sweet
potatoes
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.56 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $92
million 
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
61 km 
paved: 
36 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 25 km 
Ports: 
Koror
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not change when
the UN trusteeship terminates if the Compact of Free Association with
the US goes into effect


@Pacific Ocean, Geography

Location: 
body of water between the Western Hemisphere, Asia, and Australia
Map references: 
Asia, North America, Oceania, South America, Standard Time Zones of
the World 
Area: 
total area: 
165.384 million sq km 
comparative area: 
about 18 times the size of the US; the largest ocean (followed by the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean); covers about
one-third of the global surface; larger than the total land area of
the world
note: 
includes Bali Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait,
Coral Sea, East China Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea,
Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk,
South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other tributary water
bodies
Coastline: 
135,663 km 
International disputes: 
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate: 
the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the
summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the
land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow
from the Asian land mass back to the ocean
Terrain: 
surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise,
warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the
southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the
northern Pacific sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in
winter; in the southern Pacific sea ice from Antarctica reaches its
northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific
is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is
dissected by deep trenches, including the world's deepest, the 10,924
meter Marianas Trench
Natural resources: 
oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates,
placer deposits, fish 
Environment: 
current issues: 
endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter,
seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South
China Sea
natural hazards: 
surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity
sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire; subject to tropical
cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December
(most frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes)
may form south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from
June to October (most common in August and September); southern
shipping lanes subject to icebergs from Antarctica; occasional El Nino
phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade winds slacken
and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, killing the
plankton that is the primary food source for anchovies; consequently,
the anchovies move to better feeding grounds, causing resident marine
birds to starve by the thousands because of their lost food source
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon
Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific
Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; ships
subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May
and in extreme south from May to October; persistent fog in the
northern Pacific from June to December is a hazard to shipping; dotted
with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern
Pacific Ocean

@Pacific Ocean, Government

Digraph: 
ZN

@Pacific Ocean, Economy

Overview: 
The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world economy and
particularly to those nations its waters directly touch. It provides
low-cost sea transportation between East and West, extensive fishing
grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and gravel
for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the world's
fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only ocean where
the fish catch has increased every year since 1978. Exploitation of
offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in
the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China, US, and Peru. The high
cost of recovering offshore oil and gas, combined with the wide swings
in world prices for oil since 1985, has slowed but not stopped new
drillings.
Industries: 
fishing, oil and gas production

@Pacific Ocean, Communications

Ports: 
Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines),
Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai
(China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (Russia),
Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)
Telecommunications: 
several submarine cables with network nodal points on Guam and Hawaii


@Pakistan, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, along the Arabian Sea, between India and Afghanistan
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
803,940 sq km 
land area: 
778,720 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries: 
total 6,774 km, Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
Iran 909 km 
Coastline: 
1,046 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
status of Kashmir with India; border question with Afghanistan (Durand
Line); water-sharing problems (Wular Barrage) over the Indus with
upstream riparian India
Climate: 
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain: 
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west
Natural resources: 
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality
coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
26% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
64% 
Irrigated land: 
162,200 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from untreated sewage, industrial wastes, and
agricultural runoff; water scarcity; a majority of the population does
not have access to safe drinking water; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: 
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and
west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear
Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes
between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

@Pakistan, People

Population: 
128,855,965 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
42.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
101.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
57.41 years 
male: 
56.79 years 
female: 
58.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.43 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Pakistani(s) 
adjective: 
Pakistani 
Ethnic divisions: 
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from
India and their descendents)
Religions: 
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3% 
Languages: 
Urdu (official), English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite
and most government ministries), Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%,
Urdu 7%, Balochi and other 9% 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
35% 
male: 
47% 
female: 
21% 
Labor force: 
28.9 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing 13%, services 33%, extensive
export of labor (1987 est.)

@Pakistan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Islamic Republic of Pakistan 
conventional short form: 
Pakistan 
former: 
West Pakistan 
Digraph: 
PK
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Islamabad 
Administrative divisions: 
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan,
Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**,
North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note: 
the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir
region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Independence: 
14 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the republic)
Constitution: 
10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977 restored with amendments, 30
December 1985
Legal system: 
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's
stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved
parliamentary seats for non-Muslims
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI election last held on 13 November 1993
(next to be held no later than 14 October 1998); results - LEGHARI was
elected by Parliament and the four provincial assemblies
head of government: 
Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO 
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)
Senate: 
elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1997);
results - seats (87 total) Pakistan People's Party (PPP) 22, Pakistan
Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N) 17; Tribal Area
Representatives (nonparty) 8, Awami National Party (ANP) 6, Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J) 5, Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP) 5,
Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A) 5, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam,
Fazlur Rehman group (JUI/F) 2, Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP)
2, Jamaat-i-Islami (JI) 2, National People's Party (NPP) 2,
Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H) 1, Balochistan
National Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M) 1, Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan,
Niazi faction (JUP/NI) 1, Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction
(JUP/NO) 1, Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH) 1, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam,
Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S) 1, Pakistan Muslim League, Functional
Group (PML/F) 1, Pakistan National Party (PNP) 1, independents 2,
vacant 1
National Assembly: 
elections last held 6 October 1993 (next to be held by October 1998);
results - seats (217 total); Pakistan People's Party (PPP) 92;
Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N) 75; Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J) 6; Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz
(IJM-Islamic Democratic Front) 4; Awami National Party (ANP) 3;
Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP) 4; Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF)
3; Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP) 2; Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM) 2;
Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H) 1; Balochistan
National Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M) 1; National Democratic
Alliance (NDA) 1; National People's Party (NPP) 1; Pakhtun Quami Party
(PKQP) 1; Religious minorities 10 reserved seats; independents, 9;
results pending, 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
government: 
Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan Muslim League,
Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National People's Party
(NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP),
Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group
(BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Maulana
Kausar NIAZI; Pakhtun Quami Party (PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan;
Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI
opposition: 
Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N), Nawaz SHARIF;
Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul WALI KHAN; Pakistan Islamic
Front (PIF), Qazi Hussain AHMED; Balochistan National Movement, Mengal
Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar MENGAL; Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf
faction (MQM/A); Jamaat-i-Islami (JI); Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH)
frequently shifting: 
Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ, the MDM includes
Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI) and Anjuman
Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (ASSP); Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz (IJM-Islamic
Democratic Party), the IJM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur
Rehman group (JUI/F); Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction
(JUP/NO); Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S); Pakistan
Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F); Pakistan National Party (PNP)
note: 
most Pakistani political groups are motivated primarily by opportunism
and political alliances can shift frequently
Other political or pressure groups: 
military remains important political force; ulema (clergy),
landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Member of: 
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAS
(observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Maleeha LODHI 
chancery: 
2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-6205 
FAX: 
(202) 387-0484 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John MONJO 
embassy: 
Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Unit 6220,Islamabad or APO AE
09812-2000 
telephone: 
[92] (51) 826161 through 79 
FAX: 
[92] (51) 214222 
consulate(s) general: 
Karachi, Lahore 
consulate(s): 
Peshawar 
Flag: 
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious
minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are
centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are
traditional symbols of Islam

@Pakistan, Economy

Overview: 
Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual problems
of rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits, and
heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support
a large military establishment. Rapid economic growth, averaging 5%-6%
over the past decade has helped Pakistan cope with these problems.
However, growth slumped to 3% in FY93 because of severe flooding,
which damaged the key export crop, cotton. Almost all agriculture and
small-scale industry is in private hands. In 1990, Pakistan embarked
on a sweeping economic liberalization program to boost foreign and
domestic private investment and lower foreign aid dependence. The
SHARIF government denationalized several state-owned firms and
attracted some foreign investment. Pakistan likely will have
difficulty raising living standards because of its rapidly expanding
population. At the current rate of growth, population would double in
25 years.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $239 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
12.7% (FY91)
Unemployment rate: 
10% (FY91 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$9.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$6.8 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities: 
cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets
partners: 
US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK
Imports: 
$9.1 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities: 
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment,
vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners: 
Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia
External debt: 
$24 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7.3% (FY92); accounts for 23% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,000,000 kW
production: 
43 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
350 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials,
clothing, paper products, shrimp
Agriculture: 
22% of GDP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest contiguous
irrigation system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane,
fruits, vegetables; livestock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs;
self-sufficient in food grain
Illicit drugs: 
major illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug
trade; despite some success in reducing cultivation, remains world's
fourth largest opium producer (140 metric tons in 1993)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $91
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.3 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $3.2 billion 
note: 
including Bangladesh prior to 1972
Currency: 
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates: 
Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 30.214 (January 1994), 28.107
(1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991), 21.707 (1990), 20.541 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Pakistan, Communications

Railroads: 
8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km 1-meter gauge, and 610 km
less than 1-meter gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km
electrified; all government owned (1985)
Highways: 
total: 
110,677 km 
paved: 
58,677 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 23,000 km; improved earth 29,000 km (1988)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km
(1987)
Ports: 
Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Merchant marine: 
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 352,189 GRT/532,782 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 25, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 3 
Airports: 
total: 
110 
usable: 
104 
with permanent-surface runways: 
75 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
30 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
43 
Telecommunications: 
the domestic telephone system is poor, adequate only for government
and business use; about 7 telephones per 1,000 persons; the system for
international traffic is better and employs both microwave radio relay
and satellites; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 8 FM, 29 TV

@Pakistan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard,
paramilitary/security forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 29,548,746; fit for military service 18,134,013; reach
military age (17) annually 1,391,258 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $3.0 billion, 5.7% of GNP (FY93/94)


@Palmyra Atoll

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Palmyra Atoll, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,600 km
south-southwest of Honolulu, almost halfway between Hawaii and
American Samoa
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
11.9 sq km 
land area: 
11.9 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
14.5 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
equatorial, hot, and very rainy
Terrain: 
low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
100% 
other: 
0% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and
balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

@Palmyra Atoll, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Palmyra Atoll, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Palmyra Atoll 
Digraph: 
LQ
Type: 
incorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but administered by
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of
the Interior
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Palmyra Atoll, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Palmyra Atoll, Communications

Ports: 
the main harbor is West Lagoon, which is entered by a channel on the
southwest side of the atoll; both the channel and harbor will
accommodate vessels drawing 6 meters of water; much of the road and
many causeways built during the war are unserviceable and overgrown
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 

@Palmyra Atoll, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Panama, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, between Colombia and Costa Rica
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
78,200 sq km 
land area: 
75,990 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries: 
total 555 km, Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km 
Coastline: 
2,490 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January),
short dry season (January to May)
Terrain: 
interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains;
coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Natural resources: 
copper, mahogany forests, shrimp 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
15% 
forest and woodland: 
54% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
320 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources;
deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge
connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links
North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

@Panama, People

Population: 
2.63 million (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.94% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.61 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
16.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.88 years 
male: 
72.28 years 
female: 
77.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.85 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Panamanian(s) 
adjective: 
Panamanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%, West Indian 14%,
white 10%, Indian 6% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), English 14% 
note: 
many Panamanians bilingual
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
88% 
male: 
88% 
female: 
88% 
Labor force: 
921,000 (1992 est.)
by occupation: 
government and community services 31.8%, agriculture, hunting, and
fishing 26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%, manufacturing
and mining 9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and communications
6.2%, finance, insurance, and real estate 4.3%
note: 
shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

@Panama, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Panama 
conventional short form: 
Panama 
local long form: 
Republica de Panama 
local short form: 
Panama 
Digraph: 
PM
Type: 
constitutional republic 
Capital: 
Panama 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory*
(comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera,
Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas
Independence: 
3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28
November 1821)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 3 November (1903) 
Constitution: 
11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Guillermo ENDARA (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May
1989); First Vice President Guillermo FORD Boyd (since 24 December
1992); Second Vice President (vacant); election last held on 7 May
1989, annulled but later upheld; results - anti-NORIEGA coalition
believed to have won about 75% of the total votes cast
note: 
a presidential election was held 8 May 1994 (next election to held on
9 May 1999) with inauguration of the successful candidates to take
place on 1 September 1994; results - President Ernesto PEREZ
BALLADARES Gonzales, First Vice President Tomas Altamirano DUQUE, and
Second Vice President Felipe VIRZI were elected; percent of vote for
president - BALLADARES 33%, DE GRUBER 29%, BLADES 17%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional): 
elections held on 27 January 1991; results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (67 total)
progovernment parties: 
PDC 28, MOLIRENA 15, PA 8, PLA 4
opposition parties: 
PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1; note - the PDC went into opposition after
President Guillermo ENDARA ousted the PDC from the coalition
government in April 1991; an election of members of the National
Assembly was held on 8 May 1994 (next election to be held on 9 May
1999) and they will take their seats on 1 September 1994; results -
percent of vote and seats won by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), 5 superior
courts, 3 courts of appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
government alliance: 
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA; Arnulfista Party
(PA), Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER
other parties: 
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Raul OSSA; Democratic Revolutionary
Party (PRD), Gerardo GONZALEZ; Agrarian Labor Party (PALA), Nestor
Tomas GUERRA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta; Doctrinaire
Panamenista Party (PPD), Jose Salvador MUNOZ; Papa Egoro Movement,
Ruben BLADES; Civic Renewal Party (PRC), Tomas HERRERA; National
Integration Movement (MINA), Arrigo GUARDIA; National Unity Mission
Party (MUN), Jose Manuel PAREDES; Solidarity Party (CPS), Samuel LEWIS
GALINDO
note: 
following the elections of 8 May 1994 the following realignment of
political parties took place
governing coalition: 
Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo GONZALEZ; Liberal
Republican Party (PLR), Rodolfo CHIARI; Labor Party (PALA), Carlos
Lopez GUEVARA; Solidarity Party (PS),Samuel LEWIS GALINDO
other parties: 
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCOLONA; Arnulfista Party
(PA), Mireya Moscoso DE GRUBER; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Raul
OSSA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta; Papa Egoro Movement,
Ruben BLADES; Civic Renewal Party (PRC), Tomas HERRERA; National Unity
Mission Party (MUN), Jose Manuel PAREDES
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Council of Organized Workers (CONATO); National Council of
Private Enterprise (CONEP); Panamanian Association of Business
Executives (APEDE); National Civic Crusade; Chamber of Commerce;
Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP); Workers Confederation of the
Republic of Panama (CTRP)
Member of: 
AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jaime FORD Boyd (to be replaced by Ambassador Ricardo
Alberto ARIAS on 1 September 1994) 
chancery: 
2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-1407 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San
Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa, 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
embassy: 
Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5 
mailing address: 
American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945; APO AA 34002 
telephone: 
(507) 27-1777 
FAX: 
(507) 27-1964 
Flag: 
divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white
(hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain
red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a
red five-pointed star in the center

@Panama, Economy

Overview: 
GDP expanded by roughly 5.9% in 1993, following growth of 8% in 1992;
banking and financial services led the way in 1993. The economy thus
continues to recover from the crisis that preceded the ouster of
Manuel NORIEGA, even though the government's structural adjustment
program has been hampered by a lack of popular support and a passive
administration. Public investment has been limited as the
administration has kept the fiscal deficit below 2% of GDP.
Unemployment and economic reform are the two major issues the new
government must face in 1994-95.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5.9% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
12.5% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $200 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$545 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2%
partners: 
US 38%, EC, Central America and Caribbean
Imports: 
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer goods,
chemicals
partners: 
US 35%, EC, Central America and Caribbean, Japan
External debt: 
$6.1 billion (year-end 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7% (1993 est.); accounts for about 9% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,584,000 kW
production: 
4.36 trillion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
720 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining,
brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar milling
Agriculture: 
accounts for 10% of GDP (1992 est.), 27% of labor force (1992); crops
- bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer
of food grain, vegetables
Illicit drugs: 
major cocaine transshipment point and drug money laundering center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $582
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million 
Currency: 
1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos
Exchange rates: 
balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Panama, Communications

Railroads: 
238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
8,530 km 
paved: 
2,745 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 3,270 km; improved, unimproved earth 2,515 km 
Inland waterways: 
800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal
Pipelines: 
crude oil 130 km 
Ports: 
Cristobal, Balboa, Colon
Merchant marine: 
3,405 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,011,824 GRT/89,516,566
DWT, barge carrier 1, bulk 717, cargo 1,110, chemical tanker 181,
combination bulk 31, combination ore/oil 24, container 215, liquefied
gas 127, livestock carrier 9, multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil
tanker 437, passenger 22, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 287,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 67, short-sea passenger 30, specialized tanker
10, vehicle carrier 129 
note: 
all but 30 are foreign owned and operated; the top 4 foreign owners
are Japan 34%, Greece 8%, Hong Kong 7%, and Taiwan 5%; other foreign
owners include China at least 144 ships, Vietnam 3, Croatia 6, Cuba 4,
Cyprus 4, and Russia 41
Airports: 
total: 
118 
usable: 
109 
with permanent-surface runways: 
38 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
15 
Telecommunications: 
domestic and international facilities well developed; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 220,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 91 AM, no FM, 23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite
ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

@Panama, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Panamanian Public Forces (PPF) includes the National Police, Maritime
Service, National Air Service, Institutional Protective Service;
Judicial Technical Police operate under the control of Panama's
judicial branch
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 686,479; fit for military service 471,780 
Defense expenditures: 
expenditures for the Panamanian security forces amounted to $138.5
million, 1.0% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Papua New Guinea, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, just north of Australia, between Indonesia and the
Solomon Islands
Map references: 
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
461,690 sq km 
land area: 
451,710 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: 
total 820 km, Indonesia 820 km 
Coastline: 
5,152 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon
(May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Natural resources: 
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
71% 
other: 
28% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; pollution from mining projects
natural hazards: 
some active volcanoes; frequent earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but
not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest
swamps along southwest coast

@Papua New Guinea, People

Population: 
4,196,806 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.31% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
33.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
63.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
56.43 years 
male: 
55.6 years 
female: 
57.31 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.65 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Papua New Guinean(s) 
adjective: 
Papua New Guinean 
Ethnic divisions: 
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London
Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant sects 10%, indigenous
beliefs 34% 
Languages: 
English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in
Papua region
note: 
715 indigenous languages
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
52% 
male: 
65% 
female: 
38% 
Labor force: 
NA

@Papua New Guinea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Independent State of Papua New Guinea 
conventional short form: 
Papua New Guinea 
Digraph: 
PP
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Port Moresby 
Administrative divisions: 
20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain,
East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National
Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons, Sandaun, Southern
Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence: 
16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under Australian
administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 16 September (1975) 
Constitution: 
16 September 1975
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Wiwa KOROWI (since NA November 1991) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Paias WINGTI (since 17 July 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Sir Julius CHAN (since July 1992) 
cabinet: 
National Executive Council; appointed by the governor on
recommendation of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Parliament: 
(sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly) elections last held
13-26 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent by party
NA; seats - (109 total) Pangu Party 24, PDM 17, PPP 10, PAP 10,
independents 30, others 18 (association with political parties is
fluid)
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Jack GENIA; People's
Democratic Movement (PDM), Paias WINGTI; People's Action Party (PAP),
Akoka DOI; People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN; United
Party (UP), Paul TORATO; Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA; National
Party (NP), Paul PORA; Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS
Member of: 
ACP, APEC, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Kepas WATANGIA 
chancery: 
3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 745-3680 
FAX: 
(202) 745-3679 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard TEARE 
embassy: 
Armit Street, Port Moresby 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby, or APO AE 96553 
telephone: 
[675] 211-455 or 594, 654 
FAX: 
[675] 213-423 
Flag: 
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is
red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower
triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern
Cross constellation centered

@Papua New Guinea, Economy

Overview: 
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but
exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost
of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence
livelihood for 85% of the population. Mining of numerous deposits,
including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of export earnings.
Budgetary support from Australia and development aid under World Bank
auspices have helped sustain the economy. Robust growth in 1991-92 was
led by the mining sector; the opening of a large new gold mine helped
the advance. The economy remained strong in 1993, primarily because of
continued growth in the mining and oil sectors.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.5% (1992-93)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.33 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.49 billion, including capital expenditures of $225 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
gold, copper ore, oil, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, lobster
partners: 
Australia, Japan, South Korea, UK, US
Imports: 
$1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels,
chemicals
partners: 
Australia, Japan, US, Singapore, New Zealand, UK
External debt: 
$2.2 billion (April 1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 21% (1992); accounts for 31% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
400,000 kW
production: 
1.6 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
400 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip
production, mining of gold, silver, and copper, construction, tourism
Agriculture: 
Accounts for 28% of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population; fertile
soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of
crops; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other
products - tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry,
pork; net importer of food for urban centers
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million 
Currency: 
1 kina (K) = 100 toea
Exchange rates: 
kina (K) per US$1 - 1.0281 (January 1994), 1.0221 (1993), 1.0367
(1992), 1.0504 (1991), 1.0467 (1990), 1.1685 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Papua New Guinea, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
19,200 km 
paved: 
640 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 10,960 km; unimproved earth
7,600 km 
Inland waterways: 
10,940 km
Ports: 
Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine: 
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,337 GRT/25,669 DWT, bulk 2,
cargo 3, combination ore/oil 5, container 1 
Airports: 
total: 
504 
usable: 
462 
with permanent-surface runways: 
18 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
39 
Telecommunications: 
services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide
radiobroadcast, radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio,
aeronautical radio, and international radiocommunication services;
submarine cables extend to Australia and Guam; more than 70,000
telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 31 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Papua New Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air Force)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,080,316; fit for military service 601,369 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 1.8% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Paracel Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea,
about one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines
Map references: 
Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
NA sq km 
land area: 
NA sq km 
comparative area: 
NA 
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
518 km 
Maritime claims: 
NA
International disputes: 
occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
NA
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons
international agreements: 
NA 

@Paracel Islands, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered Chinese
garrisons

@Paracel Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Paracel Islands 
Digraph: 
PF

@Paracel Islands, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Paracel Islands, Communications

Ports: 
small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island
currently under expansion
Airports: 
1 on Woody Island

@Paracel Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
occupied by China


@Paraguay, Geography

Location: 
Central South America, between Argentina and Brazil
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
406,750 sq km 
land area: 
397,300 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries: 
total 3,920 km, Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
short section of the boundary with Brazil, just west of Salto del
Guaira (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has not been determined
Climate: 
varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west
Terrain: 
grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region
west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry
forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Natural resources: 
hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
39% 
forest and woodland: 
35% 
other: 
5% 
Irrigated land: 
670 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal
present health hazards for many urban residents
natural hazards: 
local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained
plains may become boggy (early October to June)
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

@Paraguay, People

Population: 
5,213,772 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.76% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.03 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.48 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
25.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.28 years 
male: 
71.74 years 
female: 
74.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Paraguayan(s) 
adjective: 
Paraguayan 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo (Spanish and Indian) 95%, white and Indian 5% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant denominations 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), Guarani 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
90% 
male: 
92% 
female: 
88% 
Labor force: 
1.692 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture, industry and commerce, services, government (1986)

@Paraguay, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Paraguay 
conventional short form: 
Paraguay 
local long form: 
Republica del Paraguay 
local short form: 
Paraguay 
Digraph: 
PA
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Asuncion 
Administrative divisions: 
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alto
Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa,
Canindeyu, Central, Chaco, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua,
Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San
Pedro
Independence: 
14 May 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811) 
Constitution: 
25 August 1967; Constituent Assembly rewrote the Constitution that was
promulgated on 20 June 1992
Legal system: 
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August 1993); Vice President
Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993); election last held 9 May
1993 (next to be held May 1998); results - Juan Carlos WASMOSY 40.09%,
Domingo LAINO 32.06%, Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS 23.04%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; nominated by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): 
elections last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held May 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total) Colorado Party 20,
PLRA 17, EN 8
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
elections last held on 9 May 1993 (next to be held by May 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total) Colorado
Party 38, PLRA 33, EN 9
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Colorado Party, Eugenio SANABRIA CANTERO, president; Authentic Radical
Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo LAINO; National Encounter (EN),
Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS (the EN party includes the following minor
parties: Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jose Angel BURRO;
Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Euclides ACEVEDO; Popular
Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER)
Other political or pressure groups: 
Confederation of Workers (CUT); Roman Catholic Church
Member of: 
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Juan Esteban AGUIRRE Martinez 
chancery: 
2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-6960 through 6962 
FAX: 
(202) 234-4508 
consulate(s) general: 
New Orleans and New York 
consulate(s): 
Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge D'Affaires Gerald McCOLLOCH 
embassy: 
1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion 
mailing address: 
C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO AA 34036-0001 
telephone: 
[595] (21) 213-715 
FAX: 
[595] (21) 213-728 
Flag: 
three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an
emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is
different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the
national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green
wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two
circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the
treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y
Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL
PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

@Paraguay, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture, including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GDP,
employs about 45% of the labor force, and provides the bulk of
exports, led by soybeans and cotton. Paraguay lacks substantial
mineral or petroleum resources but possesses a large hydropower
potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined compared with
the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an average annual
rate of nearly 11%. During the period 1982-86 real GDP fell in three
of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and foreign
debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the economy
were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather for
crops, and weak export prices for agricultural commodities. In 1987
the economy experienced a minor recovery because of improved weather
conditions and stronger international prices for key agricultural
exports. The recovery continued through 1990, on the strength of
bumper crops in 1988-89. In a major step to increase its economic
activity in the region, Paraguay in March 1991 joined the Southern
Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), which includes Brazil, Argentina, and
Uruguay. In 1992, the government, through an unorthodox approach,
reduced external debt with both commercial and official creditors by
purchasing a sizable amount of the delinquent commercial debt in the
secondary market at a substantial discount. The government had paid
100% of remaining official debt arrears to the US, Germany, France,
and Spain. All commercial debt arrears have been rescheduled. For the
long run, the government must press forward with general,
market-oriented economic reforms. Growth of 3.5% in 1993 was spurred
by higher-than-expected agricultural output and rising international
commodity prices. Inflation picked up steam in fourth quarter 1993
because of rises in public sector salaries and utility rates.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $15.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
20.4% (1993 )
Unemployment rate: 
11% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $487 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$728 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, meat products, coffee, tung
oil
partners: 
EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%
Imports: 
$1.38 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, raw materials, fuels
partners: 
Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%
External debt: 
$1.2 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.2% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,257,000 kW
production: 
16.2 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,280 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, other
light consumer goods, cement, construction
Agriculture: 
accounts for 26% of GDP and 44% of labor force; cash crops - cotton,
sugarcane, soybeans; other crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava,
fruits, vegetables; animal products - beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus
producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
important transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US
and Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
billion 
Currency: 
1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
guaranies (G) per US$ - 1,861.3 (January 1994), 1,744.3 (1993),
1,500.3 (1992), 447.5 (March 1992), 1,325.2 (1991), 1,229.8 (1990),
1,056.2 (1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Paraguay, Communications

Railroads: 
970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)
Highways: 
total: 
28,300 km 
paved: 
2,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 500 km; earth 25,200 km 
Inland waterways: 
3,100 km
Ports: 
Asuncion, Villeta, Ciudad del Este
Merchant marine: 
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,747 GRT/19,513 DWT, cargo 11,
oil tanker 2 
note: 
1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially
Airports: 
total: 
969 
usable: 
827 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
93 
Telecommunications: 
meager telephone service; principal switching center in Asuncion; fair
intercity microwave net; 78,300 telephones; telephone density - 16
telephones per 1,000 persons; broadcast stations - 40 AM, no FM, 5 TV,
7 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Paraguay, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,249,470; fit for military service 907,533; reach
military age (17) annually 53,126 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.6% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Peru, Geography

Location: 
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile
and Ecuador
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,285,220 sq km 
land area: 
1.28 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries: 
total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km,
Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km 
Coastline: 
2,414 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute
Climate: 
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west
Terrain: 
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center
(sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resources: 
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal,
phosphate, potash 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
21% 
forest and woodland: 
55% 
other: 
21% 
Irrigated land: 
12,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air
pollution in Lima
natural hazards: 
subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Tropical Timber
Note: 
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with
Bolivia

@Peru, People

Population: 
23,650,671 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
54.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.62 years 
male: 
63.44 years 
female: 
67.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.11 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Peruvian(s) 
adjective: 
Peruvian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white
15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
85% 
male: 
92% 
female: 
29% 
Labor force: 
8 million (1992)
by occupation: 
government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988
est.)

@Peru, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Peru 
conventional short form: 
Peru 
local long form: 
Republica del Peru 
local short form: 
Peru 
Digraph: 
PE
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Lima 
Administrative divisions: 
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1
constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash,
Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica,
Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de
Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: 
the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990
mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) intended
to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative
entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 existing
departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from
Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from
Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios,
Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari
(from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna,
Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca,
Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali);
formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the
constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of
Lima. Because of inadequate funding from the central government and
organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to
assume major responsibilities. The 1993 Constitution maintains the
regionalization process with some modifications that will limit the
powers of the regional governments. The new constitution also
reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments.
Independence: 
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 28 July (1821) 
Constitution: 
31 December 1993
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990);
election last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995);
results - Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other
9.55%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
note: 
Prime Minister Efrain GOLDENBERG Schreiber (since February 1994) does
not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the
president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Democratic Constituent Congress (CCD): 
elections last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held April 1995);
seats - (80 total) New Majority/Change 90 44, Popular Christian Party
8, Independent Moralization Front 7, Renewal 6, Movement of the
Democratic Left 4, Democratic Coordinator 4, others 7; note - several
major parties (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Popular
Action) did not participate; with the next election the congress will
be expanded to 100 seats
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
note: 
Peru's political party system has become fragmented in recent years
with independent movements proliferating; key parties are listed
New Majority/Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI; Popular
Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Popular Action Party (AP),
Raul DIEZ CANSECO; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA),
Armando VILLANUEVA del CAMPO; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM),
Fernando OLIVERA Vega; National Renewal, Rafael REY Rey; Democratic
Coordinator, Jose BARBA Caballero; Democratic Left Movement, Henry
PEASE; Solidarity and Democracy (SODE), Manuel MOREYRA; National Front
of Workers and Peasants (FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES
Other political or pressure groups: 
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso
(imprisoned); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and
Victor POLAY (imprisoned)
Member of: 
AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ricardo LUNA Mendoza 
chancery: 
1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 833-9860 through 9869 
FAX: 
(202) 659-8124 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey),
and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr. 
embassy: 
corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1991, Lima 1, Unit 3822, or APO AA 34031 
telephone: 
[51] (14) 33-8000 
FAX: 
[51] (14) 31-6682 
Flag: 
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with
the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a
yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green
wreath

@Peru, Economy

Overview: 
The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with
major privatizations scheduled for 1994 in the mining and
telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy suffered from
hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external
debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the
mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program
implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July
1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic
activity, but the slide halted late that year, and output rose 2.4% in
1991. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated
government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the
single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase
since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from
multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion
in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World
Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government
succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by
2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in
a 30% drop in the fish catch. In 1993 the economy rebounded as strong
foreign investment helped push growth to 6%.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $70 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
39% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined
silver, coffee, cotton
partners: 
US 25%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany
Imports: 
$4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: 
US 30%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil
External debt: 
$22 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -5% (1992 est.); accounts for 32% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,042,000 kW
production: 
17.434 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
760 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food
processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal
fabrication
Agriculture: 
accounts for 13% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops -
coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes,
plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool;
not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9
million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs: 
world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,800 hectares under
cultivation in 1993; source of supply for most of the world's coca
paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for
illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug
dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million 
Currency: 
1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.180 (January 1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.245
(1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990), 0.0027 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Peru, Communications

Railroads: 
1,801 km total; 1,501 km 1.435-meter gauge, 300 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
69,942 km 
paved: 
7,459 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 13,538 km; unimproved earth 48,945 km 
Inland waterways: 
8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago
Titicaca
Pipelines: 
crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km 
Ports: 
Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara
Merchant marine: 
17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 142,425 GRT/229,746 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 10, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note: 
in addition, 6 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used
commercially
Airports: 
total: 
252 
usable: 
222 
with permanent-surface runways: 
37 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
24 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
54 
Telecommunications: 
fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave system;
544,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 273 AM, no FM, 140 TV, 144
shortwave; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 12
domestic

@Peru, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Air Force
(Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,199,785; fit for military service 4,188,706; reach
military age (20) annually 246,427 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $500 million, about 2% of GDP (1991)


@Philippines, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, between Indonesia and China
Map references: 
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
300,000 sq km 
land area: 
298,170 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
36,289 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by
1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area
in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
International disputes: 
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state
of Sabah
Climate: 
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest
monsoon (May to October)
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Natural resources: 
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper 
Land use: 
arable land: 
26% 
permanent crops: 
11% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
40% 
other: 
19% 
Irrigated land: 
16,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; air pollution in Manila
natural hazards: 
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six
cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides, active volcanoes,
destructive earthquakes, tsunamis
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Philippines, People

Population: 
69,808,930 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.92% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
27.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
50.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.39 years 
male: 
62.88 years 
female: 
68.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.35 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Filipino(s) 
adjective: 
Philippine 
Ethnic divisions: 
Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3% 
Languages: 
Pilipino (official; based on Tagalog), English (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
90% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
90% 
Labor force: 
24.12 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services 18.5%, government
10%, other 9.5% (1989)

@Philippines, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of the Philippines 
conventional short form: 
Philippines 
local long form: 
Republika ng Pilipinas 
local short form: 
Pilipinas 
Digraph: 
RP
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Manila 
Administrative divisions: 
72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan
del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*,
Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas,
Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*,
Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*,
Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz,
Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*,
Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao
Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*,
Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo
City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del
Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte,
Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque,
Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental,
Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental,
North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*,
Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga,
Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino,
Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San
Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor,
Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu,
Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*,
Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*,
Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
Independence: 
4 July 1946 (from US)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)
Constitution: 
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system: 
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992); Vice President
Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); election last held 11
May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1998); results - Fidel
Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of votes, a narrow plurality
cabinet: 
Executive Secretary; appointed by the president with the consent of
the Commission of Appointments
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Congress (Kongreso)
Senate (Senado): 
elections last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May
1995); results - LDP 66%, NPC 20%, Lakas-NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%; seats -
(24 total) LDP 15, NPC 5, Lakas-NUCD 2, Liberal 1, Independent 1
House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan): 
elections last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May
1995); results - LDP 43.5%; Lakas-NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL
3%; seats - (200 total) LDP 87, NPC 45, Lakas-NUCD 41, Liberal 15, NP
6, KBL 3, Independent 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipinas,
Laban), Edgardo ESPIRITU; People Power-National Union of Christian
Democrats (Lakas ng Edsa, NUCD and Partido Lakas Tao, Lakas/NUCD);
Fidel V. RAMOS, President of the Republic, Raul MANGLAPUS, Jose de
VENECIA, secretary general; Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC),
Eduardo COJUANGCO; Liberal Party, Jovito SALONGA; People's Reform
Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New Society Movement (Kilusan
Bagong Lipunan; KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista Party (NP), Salvador
H. LAUREL, president
Member of: 
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE 
chancery: 
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 483-1414 
FAX: 
(202) 328-7614 
consulate(s) general: 
Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco, and Seattle 
consulate(s): 
San Diego and San Jose (Saipan) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE 
embassy: 
1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000 
mailing address: 
APO AP 96440 
telephone: 
[632] 521-7116 
FAX: 
[632] 522-4361 
consulate(s) general: 
Cebu 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the
triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing
three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small
yellow five-pointed star

@Philippines, Economy

Overview: 
Domestic output in this primarily agricultural economy failed to grow
in 1992 and rose only slightly in 1993. Drought and power supply
problems hampered production, while inadequate revenues prevented
government pump priming. Worker remittances helped to supplement GDP.
A marked increase in capital goods imports, particularly power
generating equipment, telecommunications equipment, and electronic
data processors, contributed to 20% import growth in both 1992 and
1993.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $171 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7.6% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
9.2% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$11.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$13 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$11.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
electronics, textiles, coconut products, cooper, fish
partners: 
US 39%, Japan 18%, Germany 5%, UK 5%, Hong Kong 5% (1992)
Imports: 
$17.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
raw materials 40%, capital goods 25%, petroleum products 10%
partners: 
Japan 21%, US 18%, Taiwan 7%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Hong Kong 5%, South
Korea 5% (1992)
External debt: 
$34.1 billion (September 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1% (1992 est.); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
7,850,000 kW
production: 
28 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
420 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing,
electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 20% of GDP and about 45% of labor force; major
crops - rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangos;
animal products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products;
fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers
are producing more and better quality cannabis despite government
eradication efforts; transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound
for the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $7.9
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries
(1975-89), $123 million 
Currency: 
1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 27.725 (January 1994), 22.120 (1993),
25.512 (1992), 27.479 (1991), 24.311 (1990), 21.737 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Philippines, Communications

Railroads: 
378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)
Highways: 
total: 
157,450 km 
paved: 
22,400 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 85,050 km; unimproved earth
50,000 km (1988)
Inland waterways: 
3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 357 km 
Ports: 
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi, Manila, Subic
Bay
Merchant marine: 
553 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,451,047 GRT/13,934,255 DWT,
bulk 241, cargo 145, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 10,
combination ore/oil 1, container 8, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier
9, oil tanker 33, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 13, refrigerated cargo
27, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14, short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier
35 
note: 
many Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the register
for the purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their original
owners who are principally in Japan and Germany
Airports: 
total: 
270 
usable: 
238 
with permanent-surface runways: 
74 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
57 
Telecommunications: 
good international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and
interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones; broadcast stations -
267 AM (including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US); submarine
cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT, and 11 domestic

@Philippines, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 17,668,781; fit for military service 12,479,312; reach
military age (20) annually 733,880 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $731 million, 1.4% of GNP (1992)


@Pitcairn Islands

Header
Affiliation: (dependent territory of the UK)

@Pitcairn Islands, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between
Peru and New Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
47 sq km 
land area: 
47 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
51 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season
(November to March)
Terrain: 
rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
Natural resources: 
miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons (especially November to March)
international agreements: 
NA 

@Pitcairn Islands, People

Population: 
71 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.93% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
NA
Death rate: 
NA
Net migration rate: 
NA
Infant mortality rate: 
NA
Life expectancy at birth: 
NA
Total fertility rate: 
NA
Nationality: 
noun: 
Pitcairn Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Pitcairn Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
descendants of the Bounty mutineers
Religions: 
Seventh-Day Adventist 100% 
Languages: 
English (official), Tahitian/English dialect 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA 
by occupation: 
no business community in the usual sense; some public works;
subsistence farming and fishing

@Pitcairn Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands 
conventional short form: 
Pitcairn Islands 
Digraph: 
PC
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Adamstown 
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June) 
Constitution: 
Local Government Ordinance of 1964
Legal system: 
local island by-laws
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal with three years residency
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by UK High
Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (non-resident) of the
Pitcairn Islands David Joseph MOSS (since NA September 1990);
Commissioner (non-resident) G.D. HARRAWAY (since NA; is the liason
person between the governor and the Island Council)
head of government: 
Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since
NA) 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Island Council: 
elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Island Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
NA
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
SPC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag;
the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield
featuring a yellow anchor

@Pitcairn Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming. The fertile
soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables,
including citrus, sugar cane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans.
Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of
revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of
handicrafts to passing ships.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$430,000 
expenditures: 
$429,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
fruits, vegetables, curios
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other
foodstuffs
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
110 kW
production: 
300,000 kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,360 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
postage stamp sales, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of fruits and
vegetables grown; must import grain products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $84,000 
Currency: 
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Pitcairn Islands, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
6.4 km 
unpaved: 
earth 6.4 km 
Ports: 
Bounty Bay
Airports: 
none
Telecommunications: 
24 telephones; party line telephone service on the island; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides electricity

@Pitcairn Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Poland, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between Germany and Belarus
Map references: 
Asia, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of
the World 
Area: 
total area: 
312,680 sq km 
land area: 
304,510 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 3,114 km, Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km,
Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Slovakia 444 km,
Ukraine 428 km 
Coastline: 
491 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent
precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrain: 
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Natural resources: 
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
46% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
13% 
forest and woodland: 
28% 
other: 
12% 
Irrigated land: 
1,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
forest damage due to air pollution; improper means for disposal of
large amounts of hazardous and industrial waste; severe water
pollution from industrial and municipal sources; severe air pollution
results from emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note: 
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack
of natural barriers on the North European Plain

@Poland, People

Population: 
38,654,561 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.35% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.44 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.66 years 
male: 
68.64 years 
female: 
76.91 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Pole(s) 
adjective: 
Polish 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian 0.5% (1990
est.)
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox,
Protestant, and other 5% 
Languages: 
Polish 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
17.329 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 32.0%, agriculture 27.6%, trade, transport,
and communications 14.7%, government and other 24.6% (1992)

@Poland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Poland 
conventional short form: 
Poland 
local long form: 
Rzeczpospolita Polska 
local short form: 
Polska 
Digraph: 
PL
Type: 
democratic state 
Capital: 
Warsaw 
Administrative divisions: 
49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska,
Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa,
Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin,
Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy
Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan,
Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk,
Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa,
Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora
Independence: 
11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)
National holiday: 
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791) 
Constitution: 
interim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992
replacing the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; new
democratic Constitution being drafted
Legal system: 
mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist
legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader
democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Lech WALESA (since 22 December 1990); election first round
held 25 November 1990, second round held 9 December 1990 (next to be
held NA November 1995); results - second round Lech WALESA 74.7%,
Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Waldemar PAWLAK (since 26 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; responsible to the president and the Sejm
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe)
Senate (Senat): 
elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than
NA October 1997); seats - (100 total)
post-Solidarity bloc: 
UW 6, NSZZ 12, BBWR 2
non-Communist, non-Solidarity: 
independents 7, unaffiliated 1, vacant 1 (to be filled in a 19 June
election)
Communist origin or linked: 
PSL 34, SLD 37
Diet (Sejm): 
elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than
NA October 1997); seats - (460 total)
post-Solidarity bloc: 
UW 74, UP 41, BBWR 16
non-Communist, non-Solidarity: 
KPN 22
Communist origin or linked: 
SLD 171, PSL 132
note: 
4 seats were won by ethnic Germans
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
post-Solidarity parties: 
Freedom Union (WD; UD and Liberal Democratic Congress merged to form
Freedom Union), Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI; Christian-National Union (ZCHN),
Wieslaw CHRZANOWSKI; Centrum (PC), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI; Peasant
Alliance (PL), Gabriel JANOWSKI; Solidarity Trade Union (NSZZ), Marian
KRZAKLEWSKI; Union of Labor (UP), Ryszard BUGAJ; Christian-Democratic
Party (PCHD), Pawel LACZKOWSKI; Conservative Party, Alexander HALL;
Nonparty Bloc for the Support of the Reforms (BBWR)
non-Communist, non-Solidarity: 
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), Leszek MOCZULSKI;
Polish Economic Program (PPG), Janusz REWINSKI; Christian Democrats
(CHD), Andrzej OWSINSKI; German Minority (MN), Henryk KROL; Union of
Real Politics (UPR), Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE; Democratic Party (SD),
Antoni MACKIEWICZ; Party X, Stanislaw Tyminski
Communist origin or linked: 
Social Democracy (SDRP, party of Poland), Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI;
Polish Peasants' Party (PSL), Waldemar PAWLAK; Democratic Left
Alliance, Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI
Other political or pressure groups: 
powerful Roman Catholic Church; Solidarity (trade union); All Poland
Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ), populist program
Member of: 
BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating),
CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR,
UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI 
chancery: 
2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 234-3800 through 3802 
FAX: 
(202) 328-6271 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Nicholas A. REY 
embassy: 
Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw 
mailing address: 
American Embassy Warsaw, Unit 1340, or APO AE 09213-1340 
telephone: 
[48] (2) 628-3041 
FAX: 
[48] (2) 628-8298 
consulate(s) general: 
Krakow, Poznan 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the
flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

@Poland, Economy

Overview: 
Poland is continuing the difficult transition to a market economy that
began on 1 January 1990, when the new democratic government instituted
"shock therapy" by decontrolling prices, slashing subsidies, and
drastically reducing import barriers. The economy contracted sharply
in 1990 and 1991, but in 1992 real GDP grew 1% despite a severe
drought. Real GDP expanded about 4% in 1993, the highest rate in
Europe except for Albania. About half of GDP now comes from the
private sector even though privatization of the large state-owned
enterprises is proceeding slowly and most industry remains in state
hands. The pattern of industrial production is changing rapidly;
output of textiles and construction materials is well above 1990
levels, while output of basic metals remains depressed. Inflation,
which had exceeded 50% monthly in late 1989, was down to about 37% for
all of 1993, as the government held the budget deficit below 3% of
GDP. Unemployment has risen steadily, however, to about 16%. The trade
deficit is also a problem, in part due to recession in Western Europe,
Poland's main customer. The new government elected in September 1993
is politically to the left of its predecessor but is continuing the
reform process.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $180.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,680 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
37% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
15.7% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$24.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$27.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$13.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery 24%, metals 17%, chemicals 12%, fuels and power 11%, food
10% (1992)
partners: 
Germany 31.4%, Netherlands 6.0%, Italy 5.6%, Russia 5.5% (1992)
Imports: 
$15.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
fuels and power 17%, machinery 36%, chemicals 17%, food 8% (1992)
partners: 
Germany 23.9%, Russia 8.5%, Italy 6.9%, UK 6.7% (1992)
External debt: 
$47 billion (1993); note - Poland's Western government creditors
promised in 1991 to forgive 30% of Warsaw's $35 billion official debt
immediately and to forgive another 20% in 1994; foreign banks agreed
in early 1994 to forgive 45% of their $12 billion debt claim
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
31,530,000 kW
production: 
137 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,570 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Agriculture: 
accounts for 7% of GDP and a much larger share of labor force; 75% of
output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains
low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed,
and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major
exporter of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producers of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines
for the international market; transshipment point for Asian and Latin
American illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
donor: 
bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89),
$2.2 billion 
recipient: 
Western governments and institutions have pledged $8 billion in grants
and loans since 1989, but most of the money has not been disbursed
Currency: 
1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy
Exchange rates: 
zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 21,080 (January 1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626
(1992), 10,576 (1991), 9,500 (1990), 1,439.18 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Poland, Communications

Railroads: 
26,250 km total; 23,857 km 1.435-meter gauge, 397 km 1.520-meter
gauge, 1,996 km narrow gauge; 8,987 km double track; 11,510 km
electrified; government owned (1991)
Highways: 
total: 
360,629 km (excluding farm, factory and forest roads)
paved: 
220,000 km (220 km of which are limited access expressways)
unpaved: 
140,629 km (1988)
Inland waterways: 
3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,986 km; petroleum products 360 km; natural gas 4,600 km
(1992)
Ports: 
Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal inland ports are
Gliwice on Kanal Gliwicki, Wrocaw on the Oder, and Warsaw on the
Vistula
Merchant marine: 
173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,327,855 GRT/3,458,445 DWT,
bulk 89, cargo 57, chemical tanker 4, container 8, oil tanker 1,
passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 5 
note: 
Poland owns 3 ships operating under Liberian registry
Airports: 
total: 
209 
usable: 
167 
with permanent-surface runways: 
70 
with runway over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
47 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
78 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
severely underdeveloped and outmoded system; cable, open wire and
microwave; phone density is 10.5 phones per 100 residents (October
1990); 3.6 million telephone subscribers; exchanges are 86% automatic
(1991); broadcast stations - 27 AM, 27 FM, 40 (5 Soviet repeaters) TV;
9.6 million TVs; 1 satellite earth station using INTELSAT, EUTELSAT,
INMARSAT and Intersputnik

@Poland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 10,046,993; fit for military service 7,856,680; reach
military age (19) annually 316,339 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
30.8 trillion zlotych, 1.8% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results


@Portugal, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean west of Spain
Map references: 
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
92,080 sq km 
land area: 
91,640 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Indiana
note: 
includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Land boundaries: 
total 1,214 km, Spain 1,214 km 
Coastline: 
1,793 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with
Indonesia
Climate: 
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain: 
mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south
Natural resources: 
fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble 
Land use: 
arable land: 
32% 
permanent crops: 
6% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
40% 
other: 
16% 
Irrigated land: 
6,340 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle
emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
natural hazards: 
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western
sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Portugal, People

Population: 
10,524,210 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.36% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.7 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
9.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.2 years 
male: 
71.77 years 
female: 
78.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Portuguese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Portuguese 
Ethnic divisions: 
homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands;
citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during
decolonization number less than 100,000
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2% 
Languages: 
Portuguese 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
85% 
male: 
89% 
female: 
82% 
Labor force: 
4,605,700 
by occupation: 
services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture 20% (1988)

@Portugal, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Portuguese Republic 
conventional short form: 
Portugal 
local long form: 
Republica Portuguesa 
local short form: 
Portugal 
Digraph: 
PO
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Lisbon 
Administrative divisions: 
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous
regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro,
Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra,
Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto,
Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Dependent areas: 
Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on
20 December 1999)
Independence: 
1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
National holiday: 
Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580) 
Constitution: 
25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989
Legal system: 
civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the
constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since 9 March 1986);
election last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held NA February
1996); results - Dr. Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos
CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos MARQUES 3%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6 November 1985) 
Council of State: 
acts as a consultative body to the president
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica): 
elections last held 6 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995);
results - PSD 50.4%, PS 29.3%, CDU 8.8%, Center Democrats 4.4%,
National Solidarity Party 1.7%, PRD 0.6%, other 4.8%; seats - (230
total) PSD 136, PS 71, CDU 17, Center Democrats 5, National Solidarity
Party 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justica) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal CAVACO Silva; Portuguese
Socialist Party (PS), Antonio GUTERRES; Party of Democratic Renewal
(PRD), Pedro CANAVARRO; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Carlos
CARVALHAS; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Manuel MONTEIRO; National
Solidarity Party (PSN), Manuel SERGIO; Center Democratic Party (CDS);
United Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists)
Member of: 
AfDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ,
UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Francisco Jose Laco Treichler KNOPFLI 
chancery: 
2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 328-8610 
FAX: 
(202) 462-3726 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco 
consulate(s): 
Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode
Island) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sharon P. WILKINSON 
embassy: 
Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon 
mailing address: 
PSC 83, Lisbon; APO AE 09726 
telephone: 
[351] (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880 
FAX: 
[351] (1) 726-9109 
consulate(s): 
Ponta Delgada (Azores) 
Flag: 
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the
dividing line

@Portugal, Economy

Overview: 
Portugal's economy registered only 1.1% growth in 1992 and contracted
by 0.4% in 1993, in contrast to the 4.5% average of the fast-paced
1986-90 period. Recession in the European Union, which accounts for
75% of Portugal's international trade, is the key factor in the
downturn. The government's long-run economic goal is the modernization
of Portuguese markets, industry, infrastructure, and workforce in
order to catch up with productivity and income levels of the more
advanced EU countries. Per capita income now equals only 55% of the EU
average. The government's medium-term economic objective is to be in
the first tier of EU countries eligible to join the economic and
monetary union (EMU) as early as 1997. Economic policy in 1993 focused
on reducing inflationary pressures by lowering the fiscal deficit,
maintaining a stable escudo, moderating wage increases, and
encouraging increased competition. Resumption of growth in the short
run depends on the revival of growth in Europe as a whole, not a
likely prospect in the immediate future.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $91.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$8,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
7% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$27.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$33.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.5 billion (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$17.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
cotton textiles, cork and paper products, canned fish, wine, timber
and timber products, resin, machinery, appliances
partners: 
EC 75.4%, other developed countries 12.4%, US 3.8% (1992)
Imports: 
$28 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
petroleum, textiles
partners: 
EC 72%, other developed countries 10.9% less developed countries
12.9%, US 3.4%
External debt: 
$20 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 9.1% (1990); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,624,000 kW
production: 
26.4 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,520 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil
refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 6.1% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small, inefficient
farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops - grain,
potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle, goats,
poultry, meat, dairy products
Illicit drugs: 
increasingly important gateway country for Latin American cocaine
entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from
North Africa to Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8 billion 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.2 billion 
Currency: 
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 176.16 (January 1994), 160.80
(1993), 135.00 (1992), 144.48 (1991), 142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Portugal, Communications

Railroads: 
3,625 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP) operates
2,858 km 1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double
track), 755 km 1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge)
electrified, double track, privately owned
Highways: 
total: 
73,661 km 
paved and gravel: 
61,599 km (including 453 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
earth 12,062 km 
Inland waterways: 
820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by
shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity
Pipelines: 
crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km 
Ports: 
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas (Azores),
Setubal, Sines
Merchant marine: 
61 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 962,293 GRT/1,779,855 DWT, bulk
3, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 3, liquified gas 2, oil
tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 2 
note: 
Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for
Portuguese-owned ships that will have the taxation and crewing
benefits of a flag of convenience; although only one ship currently is
known to fly the Portuguese flag on the MAR register, it is likely
that a majority of Portuguese flag ships will transfer to this
subregister in a few years
Airports: 
total: 
65 
usable: 
63 
with permanent-surface runways: 
37 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
11 
Telecommunications: 
generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire and
microwave radio relay; 2,690,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 57
AM, 66 (22 repeaters) FM, 66 (23 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine cables; 3
INTELSAT earth stations (2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT,
domestic satellite systems (mainland and Azores); tropospheric link to
Azores

@Portugal, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard,
Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,723,987; fit for military service 2,207,637; reach
military age (20) annually 89,380 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1993)


@Puerto Rico

Header
Affiliation: 
(commonwealth associated with the US) 

@Puerto Rico, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the North Caribbean Sea, between the Dominican Republic
and the Virgin Islands group
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
9,104 sq km 
land area: 
8,959 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
501 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains
precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal
areas
Natural resources: 
some copper and nickel, potential for onshore and offshore crude oil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
9% 
meadows and pastures: 
41% 
forest and woodland: 
20% 
other: 
22% 
Irrigated land: 
390 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the
Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors
in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure
land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal
plain belt in north

@Puerto Rico, People

Population: 
3,801,977 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.13% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-7.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.95 years 
male: 
70.42 years 
female: 
77.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.04 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Puerto Rican(s) 
adjective: 
Puerto Rican 
Ethnic divisions: 
Hispanic 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), English widely understood
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
89% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
88% 
Labor force: 
1.17 million (1992)
by occupation: 
government 20%, manufacturing 14%, trade 17%, construction 5%,
communications and transportation 5%, other 39% (1992)

@Puerto Rico, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
conventional short form: 
Puerto Rico 
Digraph: 
RQ
Type: 
commonwealth associated with the US
Capital: 
San Juan 
Administrative divisions: 
none (commonwealth associated with the US), note: there are 78
municipalities
Independence: 
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
National holiday: 
US Independence Day, 4 July (1776) 
Constitution: 
ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective
25 July 1952
Legal system: 
based on Spanish civil code
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but
do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since NA January 1993); election last held 3
November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Pedro
ROSSELLO (PND) 50%, Victoria MUNOZ (PPD) 46%, Fernando MARTIN (PIP) 4%
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Legislative Assembly
Senate: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) seats
by party NA
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (53 total) seats
by party NA
US House of Representatives: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) seats
by party NA; note - Puerto Rico elects one representative to the US
House of Representatives, Carlos Romero BARCELO
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Republican Party of Puerto Rico, Freddy VALENTIN; Popular
Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon; New Progressive Party
(PNP), Carlos ROMERO Barcelo; Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan
MARI Bras and Carlos GALLISA; Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP),
Ruben BERRIOS Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s)
unknown
Other political or pressure groups: 
all have engaged in terrorist activities - Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance
Member of: 
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU,
INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate), WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Flag: 
five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large
white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag

@Puerto Rico, Economy

Overview: 
Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean
region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary sector of
economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty free access to the US
and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico
since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Important industries
include pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and
processed foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and
other livestock products as the main source of income in the
agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important
source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of nearly 3
million tourists in 1989. Unemployment remains a severe problem at
18%.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $26.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$7,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
18% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$5.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$5.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $258 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$21.8 billion (1992)
commodities: 
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage
concentrates, medical equipment, instruments
partners: 
US 88.3% (1990)
Imports: 
$14.8 billion (1992)
commodities: 
chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners: 
US 68.8% (1990)
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.2% (FY92)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,040,000 kW
production: 
16.1 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,260 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
manufacturing accounts for 55.5% of GDP: manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, instruments;
tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for only 3% of labor force and less than 2% of GDP: crops -
sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock - cattle,
chickens; imports a large share of food needs (1992)
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Puerto Rico, Communications

Railroads: 
96 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger
railroads
Highways: 
total: 
13,762 km 
paved: 
13,762 km (1982)
Ports: 
San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo
Airports: 
total: 
30 
usable: 
23 
with permanent-surface runways: 
19 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern system, integrated with that of the US by high capacity
submarine cable and INTELSAT with high-speed data capability; digital
telephone system with about 1 million lines; cellular telephone
service; broadcast stations - 50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV; cable television
available with US programs (1990)

@Puerto Rico, Defense Forces

Branches: 
paramilitary National Guard, Police Force 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Qatar, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, peninsula jutting into the central Persian Gulf, between
Iran and Saudi Arabia
Map references: 
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
11,000 sq km 
land area: 
11,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
total 60 km, Saudi Arabia 60 km 
Coastline: 
563 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands; maritime
boundary with Bahrain
Climate: 
desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer
Terrain: 
mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
95% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
limited freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale
desalination facilities
natural hazards: 
haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum
deposits

@Qatar, People

Population: 
512,779 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.56% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
18.83 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
3.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
10.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
21.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.64 years 
male: 
70.08 years 
female: 
75.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.74 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Qatari(s) 
adjective: 
Qatari 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14% 
Religions: 
Muslim 95% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 
76% 
male: 
77% 
female: 
72% 
Labor force: 
104,000 (85% non-Qatari in private sector) (1983)

@Qatar, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
State of Qatar 
conventional short form: 
Qatar 
local long form: 
Dawlat Qatar 
local short form: 
Qatar 
Digraph: 
QA
Type: 
traditional monarchy 
Capital: 
Doha 
Administrative divisions: 
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al
Rayyan, Al Wakrah, Ash Shamal, Jarayan al Batnah, Umm Salal
Independence: 
3 September 1971 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 3 September (1971) 
Constitution: 
provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970
Legal system: 
discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil
codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal
matters
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Amir and Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani (since 22 February
1972); Crown Prince HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (appointed 31 May 1977;
son of Amir and Minister of Defense) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the amir
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): 
constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body,
but no elections have been held; seats - (30 total)
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Member of: 
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador ABD AL-RAHMAN bin Saud bin Faud Al Thani 
chancery: 
Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 
telephone: 
(202) 338-0111 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Kenton W. KEITH 
embassy: 
149 Ali Bin Ahmed St., Farig Bin Omran (opposite the television
station), Doha 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 2399, Doha 
telephone: 
(0974) 864701 through 864703 
FAX: 
(0974) 861669 
Flag: 
maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the
hoist side

@Qatar, Economy

Overview: 
Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for roughly 85% of
export earnings and 75% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of
3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels
for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to
the leading industrial countries. Production and export of natural gas
are becoming increasingly important.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$17,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$3 billion, including capital expenditures of $440 million (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum products 85%, steel, fertilizers
partners: 
Japan 61%, Brazil 6%, South Korea 5%, UAE 4%, Singapore 3% (1991)
Imports: 
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
partners: 
Japan 14%, UK 12%, US 12%, Germany 9%, France 5% (1991)
External debt: 
$1.5 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for 64% of GDP, including oil
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,596,000 kW
production: 
4.818 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
9,655 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel
(rolls reinforcing bars for concrete construction), cement
Agriculture: 
farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP; agricultural
area is small and government-owned; commercial fishing increasing in
importance; most food imported
Economic aid: 
donor: 
pledged in ODA to less developed countries (1979-88), $2.7 billion 
Currency: 
1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams
Exchange rates: 
Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Qatar, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,500 km 
paved: 
1,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, natural surface 500 km (est.)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km 
Ports: 
Doha, Umm Sa'id, Halul Island
Merchant marine: 
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 373,491 GRT/567,294 DWT,
container 4, cargo 11, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern system centered in Doha; 110,000 telephones; tropospheric
scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE;
submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV

@Qatar, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 217,538; fit for military service 114,468; reach
military age (18) annually 3,737 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA%, of GDP


@Reunion

Header

Affiliation: 
(overseas department of France) 

@Reunion, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 750 km east of
Madagascar
Map references: 
World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,510 sq km 
land area: 
2,500 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
201 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to
November, hot and rainy from November to April
Terrain: 
mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
Natural resources: 
fish, arable land 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
35% 
other: 
39% 
Irrigated land: 
60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
periodic, devastating cyclones
international agreements: 
NA 

@Reunion, People

Population: 
652,857 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.03% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.14 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.07 years 
male: 
71 years 
female: 
77.29 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Reunionese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Reunionese 
Ethnic divisions: 
French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 94% 
Languages: 
French (official), Creole widely used
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
69% 
male: 
67% 
female: 
74% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981)
note: 
63% of population of working age (1983)

@Reunion, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Department of Reunion 
conventional short form: 
Reunion 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ile de la Reunion 
Digraph: 
RE
Type: 
overseas department of France 
Capital: 
Saint-Denis 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas department of France)
Independence: 
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: 
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
Prefect of Reunion Island Hubert FOURNIER (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council
General Council: 
elections last held 22 March 1991 (next to be held March 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total) seats by
party NA
Regional Council: 
elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held by NA March 1998);
results - UPF 25.6%, PCR 17.9%, PS 10.5%, Independent 33.4%, other
12.6%; seats - (45 total) Sudre 17, UPF 14, PCR 9, PS 5
French Senate: 
elections last held 24 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (3 total) RPR 1, FRA 1,
independent 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (5 total) PS 1, PCR 1,
UPF 1, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1; note - 5 members to the French National
Assembly who are voting members
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeals (Cour d'Appel) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Francois MAS; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Gilbert GERARD; Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Elie HOARAU;;
France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON; Reunion Communist
Party (PCR); Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude FRUTEAU; Social
Democrats (CDS); other small parties
Member of: 
FZ, WFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (overseas department of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@Reunion, Economy

Overview: 
The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has
been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it
accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing the
development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment, which
recently amounted to one-third of the labor force. The gap in Reunion
between the well-off and the poor is extraordinary and accounts for
the persistent social tensions. The white and Indian communities are
substantially better off than other segments of the population, often
approaching European standards, whereas indigenous groups suffer the
poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer nations of the African
continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991 illustrates
the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions. The economic well-being of
Reunion depends heavily on continued financial assistance from France.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$3,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.3% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
35% (February 1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$358 million 
expenditures: 
$914 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)
Exports: 
$166 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%, lobster 3%,
vanilla and tea 1%
partners: 
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
Imports: 
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and
transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners: 
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
245,000 kW
production: 
750 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,230 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing handicraft items
Agriculture: 
accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of economy; cash
crops - sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops - tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $14.8 billion 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Reunion, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,800 km 
paved: 
2,200 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 600 km 
Ports: 
Pointe des Galets
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate system; modern open-wire and microwave network; principal
center Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar;
new microwave route to Mauritius; 85,900 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 13 FM, 1 (18 repeaters) TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

@Reunion, Defense Forces

Branches: 
French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 170,810; fit for military service 88,108; reach
military age (18) annually 5,867 (1994 est.)
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Romania, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea between
Bulgaria and Ukraine
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
237,500 sq km 
land area: 
230,340 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: 
total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362
km, Ukraine (south) 169 km 
Coastline: 
225 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
no official territorial claim by either Moldova or Romania, but
nationalists in Romania seek the merger of Moldova with Romania;
potential future dispute by Moldova and Romania against Ukraine over
former southern and northern Bessarabian areas
Climate: 
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny
summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain: 
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on
the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian
Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Natural resources: 
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
43% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
19% 
forest and woodland: 
28% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
34,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south
from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
natural hazards: 
earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and
climate promote landslides
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note: 
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans,
Moldova, and Ukraine

@Romania, People

Population: 
23,181,415 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
the Romanian census of January 1992 gives the population for that date
as 22.749 million; the government estimates that population declined
in 1993 by 0.3%
Population growth rate: 
0.06% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.02 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
19.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.74 years 
male: 
68.81 years 
female: 
74.84 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Romanian(s) 
adjective: 
Romanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat,
Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6% 
Religions: 
Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate),
Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18% 
Languages: 
Romanian, Hungarian, German 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
10,945,700 
by occupation: 
industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)

@Romania, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Romania 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Romania 
Digraph: 
RO
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Bucharest 
Administrative divisions: 
40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality*
(municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud,
Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin,
Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu,
Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures,
Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman,
Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence: 
1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
National holiday: 
National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990) 
Constitution: 
8 December 1991
Legal system: 
former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory is being
revised to conform with European norms
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of
Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989);
election last held 27 September 1992 - with runoff between top two
candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion
ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate (Senat): 
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - PDSR 27.5%, CDR 22.5%, PP-(FSN) 11%, others 39%; seats -
(143 total) PDSR 49, CDR 34, PP-(FSN) 18, PUNR 14, UDMR 12, PRM 6,
PDAR 5, PSM 5
House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor): 
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - PDSR 27.5%, CDR 22.5%, PP-(FSN) 11%, others 39%; seats -
(341 total) PDSR 117, CDR 82, PP-(FSN) 43, PUNR 30, UDMR 27, PRM 16,
PSM 13, other 13
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Party (PD-(FSN)), Petre ROMAN; Party of Social Democracy in
Romania (PDSR), Adrian NASTASE; Democratic Union of Hungarians in
Romania (UDMR), Bela MARKO; National Liberal Party (PNL), Mircea
IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party
(PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR),
Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie VERDET; Agrarian
Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The Democratic
Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party (PRM),
Corneliu Vadim TUDOR
note: 
numerous other samll parties exist but almost all failed to gain
representation in the most recent election
Other political or pressure groups: 
various human rights and professional associations
Member of: 
ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (participating), CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
chancery: 
1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851 
FAX: 
(202) 232-4748 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John R. DAVIS, Jr. 
embassy: 
Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest 
mailing address: 
AmEmbassy (Buch), Unit 1315, Bucharest; APO AE 09213-1315 
telephone: 
[40] (1) 210-4042 
FAX: 
[40] (1) 210-0395 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has
been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

@Romania, Economy

Overview: 
Despite the continuing difficulties in moving away from the former
command system, the Romanian economy seems to have bottomed out in
1993. Market oriented reforms have been introduced fitfully since the
downfall of CEAUSESCU in December 1989, with the result a growing
private sector, especially in services. The slow pace of structural
reform, however, has exacerbated Romania's high inflation rate and
eroded real wages. Agricultural production rebounded in 1993 from the
previous year's drought-reduced harvest; food supplies are adequate,
but expensive. Bucharest resisted pressure to devalue its currency
despite a $638 million trade deficit in the first half of 1993 and the
emergence of a black market for hard currency. Unable to support the
currency, the national bank, nonetheless, was forced to depreciate the
currency 65% over the course of the year. The return of winter
revealed that much of Romania's infrastructure had deteriorated over
the last four years due to reduced levels of public investment.
Residents of the capital reported frequent disruptions of heating and
water services.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$2,700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6% per month (March 1994)
Unemployment rate: 
11% (March 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$19 billion 
expenditures: 
$20 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
metals and metal products 24%, mineral products 14%, textiles 10.7%,
electric machines and equipment 9.3%, transport materials 9.2% (1993)
partners: 
EC 36.1%, developing countries 27.4%, East and Central Europe 14.9%,
EFTA 5.1%, Russia 5%, Japan 1.4%, US 1.3% (1993)
Imports: 
$5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
minerals 29%, machinery and equipment 17.2%, textiles 10%,
agricultural goods 9% (1993)
partners: 
EC 45.8%, East and Central Europe 8.6%, developing countries 22.6%,
Russia 11%, EFTA 6.2%, US 5.0%, Japan 0.8% (1993)
External debt: 
$4 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1% (1993 est.); accounts for 45% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
22,500,000 kW
production: 
59 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,540 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine
building, food processing, petroleum production and refining
Agriculture: 
accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn
producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes,
milk, eggs, meat, grapes
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
cocaine transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 leu (L) = 100 bani
Exchange rates: 
lei (L) per US$1 - 1,387.16 (January 1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95
(1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990), 14.922 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Romania, Communications

Railroads: 
11,275 km total; 10,860 km 1.435-meter gauge, 370 km narrow gauge, 45
km broad gauge; 3,411 km electrified, 3,060 km double track;
government owned (1987)
Highways: 
total: 
72,799 km 
paved: 
35,970 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 27,729 km; unsurfaced earth
9,100 km (1985)
Inland waterways: 
1,724 km (1984)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km
(1992)
Ports: 
Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are Giurgiu,
Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Orsova
Merchant marine: 
241 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,626,421 GRT/4,017,380 DWT,
bulk 49, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 14, passenger-cargo 1,
rail-car carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7 
Airports: 
total: 
234 
usable: 
74 
with permanent-surface runways: 
26 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
21 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
24 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
poor service; about 2.3 million telephone customers; 89% of phone
network is automatic; cable and open wire; trunk network is microwave;
present phone density is 9.85 per 100 residents; roughly 3,300
villages with no service (February 1990); new digital international
direct dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993); broadcast stations - 12
AM, 5 FM, 13 TV (1990); 1 satellite ground station using INTELSAT

@Romania, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil
Defense 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 5,888,452; fit for military service 4,972,834; reach
military age (20) annually 193,901 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
137 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1993); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@Russia, Geography

Location: 
Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with
Europe), between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Standard Time
Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
17,075,200 sq km 
land area: 
16,995,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundaries: 
total 20,139 km, Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast)
3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km,
Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km,
Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167
km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km 
Coastline: 
37,653 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
inherited disputes from former USSR including: sections of the
boundary with China; islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan and
the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, administered
by Russia, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion
of the Barents Sea; Russia may dispute current de facto maritime
border of midpoint of Caspian Sea from shore; potential dispute with
Ukraine over Crimea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but
has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of
any other nation
Climate: 
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of
European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar
north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in
Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic
coast
Terrain: 
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and
tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Natural resources: 
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural
gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber 
note: 
formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder
exploitation of natural resources
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
note: 
agricultural land accounts for 13% of the total land area
Irrigated land: 
56,000 sq km (1992)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric
plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial and
agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts;
deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper
application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes
intense radioactive contamination
natural hazards: 
permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea
Note: 
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located
in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of
the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too
dry) for agriculture

@Russia, People

Population: 
149,608,953 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.2% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.67 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.89 years 
male: 
63.85 years 
female: 
74.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Russian(s) 
adjective: 
Russian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%,
Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1% 
Religions: 
Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other 
Languages: 
Russian, other 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
75 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: 
production and economic services 83.9%, government 16.1%

@Russia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Russian Federation 
conventional short form: 
Russia 
local long form: 
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya 
local short form: 
Rossiya 
former: 
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
RS
Type: 
federation 
Capital: 
Moscow 
Administrative divisions: 
21 autonomous republics (avtomnykh respublik, singular - avtomnaya
respublika); Adygea (Maykop), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia
(Ulan-Ude), Chechenia (Groznyy), Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan
(Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Ingushetia (Nazran'),
Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal'chik), Kalmykia (Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia
(Cherkessk), Karelia (Petrozavodsk), Khakassia (Abakan), Komi
(Syktyvkar), Mari El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordovia (Saransk), North Ossetia
(Vladikavkaz), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk),
Yakutia (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Amur
(Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk,
Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka
(Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk,
Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk,
Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Orenburg, Penza,
Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara,
Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula,
Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh,
Yaroslavl'; 6 krays (krayev, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul),
Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok),
Stavropol'
note: 
the autonomous republics of Chechenia and Ingushetia were formerly the
automous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between
Chechenia and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities of
Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; an administrative
division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions
have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 
24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, June 12 (1990) 
Constitution: 
adopted 12 December 1993
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June 1991) election
last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA%; note - no vice president; if the president dies in
office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is
impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as
acting president until a new presidential election, which must be held
within three months
head of government: 
Premier and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Viktor Stepanovich
CHERNOMYRDIN (since 14 December 1992); First Deputy Chairman of the
Council of Ministers Oleg SOSKOVETS (since 30 April 1993) 
Security Council: 
(originally established as a presidential advisory body in June 1991,
but restructured in March 1992 with responsibility for managing
individual and state security)
Presidential Administration: 
(drafts presidential edicts and provides staff and policy support to
the entire executive branch)
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Group of Assistants: 
(schedules president's appointments, processes presidential edicts and
other official documents, and houses the president's press service and
primary speechwriters)
Council of Heads of Republics: 
(includes the leaders of the 21 ethnic-based Republics)
Council of Heads of Administrations: 
(includes the leaders of the 68 autonomous territories and regions,
and the mayors of Moscow and St. Petersburg)
Presidential Council: 
(prepares policy papers for the president)
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Federal Assembly
Federation Council: 
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); note - two
members elected from each of Russia's 89 territorial units for a total
of 176 deputies; 2 seats unfilled as of 15 May 1994 (Chechenia did not
participate in the election); Speaker Vladimir SHUMEYKO (Russia's
Choice)
State Duma: 
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA December
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total)
Russia's Choice 78, New Regional Policy 66, Liberal Democrats 63,
Agrarian Party 55, Communist Party of the Russian Federation 45, Unity
and Accord 30, Yavlinskiy Bloc 27, Women of Russia 23, Democratic
Party of Russia 15, Russia's Path 12, other parties 23, affiliation
unknown 12, unfilled (as of 13 March 1994; Chechnya did not
participate in the election) 1; Speaker Ivan RYBKIN (Agrarian Party)
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (highest court for criminal,
civil, and administrative cases), Superior Court of Arbitration
(highest court that resolves economic disputes)
Political parties and leaders: 
pro-market democrats: 
Party of Russian Unity and Accord, Sergey SHAKHRAY; Russia's Choice
electoral association, Yegor GAYDAR; Russian Movement for Democratic
Reforms electoral association, Anatoliy SOBCHAK;
Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc electoral association, Grigoriy
YAVLINSKIY
centrists/special interest parties: 
Civic Union for Stability, Justice, and Progress, Arkadiy VOL'SKIY;
Constructive-Ecological Movement of Russia, Anatoliy PANFILOV;
Democratic Party of Russia, Nikolay TRAVKIN; Dignity and Charity