(con't 4)

@Iraq, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, between Iran and Saudi Arabia
Map references: 
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
437,072 sq km 
land area: 
432,162 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Land boundaries: 
total 3,631 km, Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi
Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km 
Coastline: 
58 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still
trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes
from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation,
prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the
Shatt al Arab waterway; in April 1991 official Iraqi acceptance of UN
Security Council Resolution 687, which demands that Iraq accept the
inviolability of the boundary set forth in its 1963 agreement with
Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah islands or to all
of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final report of the UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary
Demarcation Commission was welcomed by the Security Council in
Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993, which also reaffirmed that the
decisions of the commission on the boundary were final, bringing to a
completion the official demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi
officials still refuse to unconditionally recognize Kuwaiti
sovereignty or the inviolability of the UN demarcated border; periodic
disputes with upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights;
potential dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate: 
mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers;
northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold
winters with occasionally heavy snows
Terrain: 
mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along
borders with Iran and Turkey
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur 
Land use: 
arable land: 
12% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
9% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
75% 
Irrigated land: 
25,500 sq km (1989 est)
Environment: 
current issues: 
government water control projects drain inhabited marsh areas, drying
up or diverting the streams and rivers that support a sizable
population of Shi'a Muslims who have inhabited these areas for
thousands of years; the destruction of the natural habitat also poses
serious threats to the wildlife populations; damage to water treatment
and sewage facilities during Gulf war; inadequate supplies of potable
water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon
agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water
pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified
- Environmental Modification

@Iraq, People

Population: 
19,889,666 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.73% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
44.11 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.26 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
67.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.74 years 
male: 
64.87 years 
female: 
66.66 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.71 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Iraqi(s) 
adjective: 
Iraqi 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5% 
Religions: 
Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian or other 3% 
Languages: 
Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
60% 
male: 
70% 
female: 
49% 
Labor force: 
4.4 million (1989)
by occupation: 
services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
note: 
severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about 1,600,000
(July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

@Iraq, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Iraq 
conventional short form: 
Iraq 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah 
local short form: 
Al Iraq 
Digraph: 
IZ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Baghdad 
Administrative divisions: 
18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah,
Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At
Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan,
Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Independence: 
3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968) 
Constitution: 
22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional Constitution);
new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system
elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha
Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin
RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Ahmad Husayn Khudayir al-SAMARRAI (since 5 September
1993); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979) 
Revolutionary Command Council: 
Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani): 
elections last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results -
Sunni Arabs 53%, Shi'a Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians 2% est.; seats
- (250 total) number of seats by party NA
note: 
in northern Iraq, a "Kurdish Assembly" was elected in May 1992 and
calls for Kurdish self-determination within a federated Iraq; the
assembly is not recognized by the Baghdad government
Judicial branch: 
Court of Cassation 
Political parties and leaders: 
Ba'th Party 
Other political or pressure groups: 
political parties and activity severely restricted; opposition to
regime from disaffected members of the Baath Party, Army officers, and
Shi'a religious and ethnic Kurdish dissidents; the Green Party
(government-controlled)
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery: 
Iraqi Interests Section, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 483-7500 
FAX: 
(202) 462-5066 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); note - operations have been temporarily suspended; a US
Interests Section is located in Poland's embassy in Baghdad 
embassy: 
Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad 
telephone: 
[964] (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three
green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white
band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script -
Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the
middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script
and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Iraq, Economy

Overview: 
The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning and
management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving
some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to private
enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which
has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In
the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the
eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran,
led the government to implement austerity measures and to borrow
heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments. After the end of
hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the
construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities.
Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages,
salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and
collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded
high priority by the government, also was under financial constraints.
Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international
economic embargoes, and military action by an international coalition
beginning in January 1991 drastically changed the economic picture.
Industrial and transportation facilities suffered severe damage and
have been only partially restored. Oil exports remain at less than 10%
of the previous level. Shortages of spare parts continue. Living
standards deteriorated even further in 1993 and early 1994; consumer
prices at least tripled in 1993. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has
reduced exports and imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in
prices. The government's policies of supporting large military and
internal security forces and of allocating resources to key supporters
of the regime have exacerbated shortages. In brief, per capita output
in 1993-94 is far below the 1989-90 level, but no precise estimate is
available.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $38 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$2,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
200% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
partners: 
US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)
Imports: 
$6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
manufactures, food
partners: 
Germany, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)
External debt: 
$45 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to
Arab Gulf states
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GNP (1989)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
7,300,000 kW available out of 9,902,000 kW due to Gulf war
production: 
12.9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
700 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles, construction
materials, food processing
Agriculture: 
accounted for 11% of GNP and 30% of labor force before the Gulf war;
principal products - wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton, wool; livestock - cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in
food output
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $647
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion 
Currency: 
1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates: 
Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.2 (fixed official rate since 1982);
black-market rate (May 1994) US$1 = 370 Iraqi dinars
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Iraq, Communications

Railroads: 
2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways: 
total: 
34,700 km 
paved: 
17,500 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 5,500 km; unimproved earth 11,700 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for
about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use;
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft
watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft
before closing in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf war
Pipelines: 
crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km 
Ports: 
Umm Qasr reopened in November 1993; Khawr az Zubayr and Al Basrah have
been closed since 1980
Merchant marine: 
37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 805,205 GRT/1,444,810 DWT, cargo
15, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo
1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 
note: 
none of the Iraqi flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as
of 1 January 1993
Airports: 
total: 
118 
usable: 
105 
with permanent-surface runways: 
76 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
51 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
17 
Telecommunications: 
reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after
Desert Storm, most damaged facilities have been rebuilt; the network
consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links; 632,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 16 AM, 1 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Atlantic Ocean GORIZONT in the Intersputnik system and 1 ARABSAT;
coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and
Turkey, Kuwait line is probably non-operational

@Iraq, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border
Guard Force, Internal Security Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,428,193; fit for military service 2,487,319; reach
military age (18) annually 219,641 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GNP


@Ireland, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, in the North Atlantic Ocean, across the Irish Sea from
Great Britain
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
70,280 sq km 
land area: 
68,890 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
total 360 km, UK 360 km 
Coastline: 
1,448 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf
dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK
have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate: 
temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters,
cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain: 
mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and
low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Natural resources: 
zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone,
dolomite, peat, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
14% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
71% 
forest and woodland: 
5% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
strategic location on major air and sea routes between North American
and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 60
miles of Dublin

@Ireland, People

Population: 
3,539,296 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.3% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.59 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.68 years 
male: 
72.85 years 
female: 
78.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.99 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural) 
adjective: 
Irish 
Ethnic divisions: 
Celtic, English 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)
Languages: 
Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the western
seaboard, English is the language generally used
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1.37 million 
by occupation: 
services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 28%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 13.5%, energy and mining 1.5% (1992)

@Ireland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Ireland 
Digraph: 
EI
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Dublin 
Administrative divisions: 
26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway,
Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth,
Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford,
Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow
Independence: 
6 December 1921 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March 
Constitution: 
29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebecite
Legal system: 
based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous
concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990); election last
held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November 1997); results - Mary
Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Albert REYNOLDS (since 11 February 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by president with previous nomination of the prime
minister and approval of the House of Representatives
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas)
Senate (Seanad Eireann): 
elections last held on NA February 1992 (next to be held February
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49
elected) Fianna Fail 26, Fine Gael 16, Labor 9, Progressive Democrats
2, Democratic Left 1, independents 6
House of Representatives (Dail Eireann): 
elections last held on 25 November 1992 (next to be held by June
1995); results - Fianna Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labor Party
19.3%, Progressive Democrats 4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein
1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%, independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total)
Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45, Labor Party 33, Progressive Democrats
10, Democratic Left 4, Greens 1, independents 5
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Left, Proinsias DE ROSSA; Fianna Fail, Albert REYNOLDS;
Labor Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John BRUTON; Communist Party
of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN; Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive
Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY
note: 
Prime Minister REYNOLDS heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna
Fail and the Labor Party
Member of: 
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO,
MTCR, NEA, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNPROFRO, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
(observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER 
chancery: 
2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 462-3939 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jean Kennedy SMITH 
embassy: 
42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[353] (1) 6687122 
FAX: 
[353] (1) 6689946 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange;
similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the
colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar
to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist
side), white, and red

@Ireland, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is small and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most
important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 37%
of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 28% of the labor force.
Since 1987, real GDP growth, led by exports, has averaged 4% annually.
Over the same period, inflation has fallen sharply and chronic trade
deficits have been transformed into annual surpluses. Unemployment
remains a serious problem, however, and job creation is the main focus
of government policy. To ease unemployment, Dublin aggressively courts
foreign investors and recently created a new industrial development
agency to aid small indigenous firms. Government assistance is
constrained by Dublin's continuing deficit reduction measures.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $46.3 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
2.7% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$13,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.7% (1994 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
16% (1994 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$16 billion 
expenditures: 
$16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live
animals, animal products
partners: 
EC 75% (UK 32%, Germany 13%, France 10%), US 9%
Imports: 
$23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery, textiles, clothing
partners: 
EC 66% (UK 41%, Germany 8%, Netherlands 4%), US 15%
External debt: 
$17.6 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 11.5% (1992); accounts for 37% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,000,000 kW
production: 
14.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,120 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and
crystal
Agriculture: 
accounts for 8% of GDP and 13% of the labor force; principal crops -
turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock - meat and
dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include
bread grain, fruits, vegetables
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to the UK and
Netherlands
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million 
Currency: 
1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Irish pounds (#Ir) per US$1 - 0.6978 (January 1994), 0.6816 (1993),
0.5864 (1992), 0.6190 (1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Ireland, Communications

Railroads: 
Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter gauge,
government owned; 485 km double track; 37 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
92,294 km 
paved: 
87,422 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 4,872 km 
Inland waterways: 
limited for commercial traffic
Pipelines: 
natural gas 225 km 
Ports: 
Cork, Dublin, Waterford
Merchant marine: 
53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 139,278 GRT/173,325 DWT, bulk 4,
cargo 32, chemical tanker 2, container 4, oil tanker 3, refrigerated
cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 3 
Airports: 
total: 
44 
usable: 
42 
with permanent-surface runways: 
14 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern system using cable and digital microwave circuits; 900,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 45 FM, 86 TV; 2 coaxial
submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ireland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (Garda
Siochana) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 914,052; fit for military service 739,288; reach
military age (17) annually 33,809 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $500 million, 1.3% of GDP (1993)


@Israel

Header
Affiliation: 
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) 
Note: 
The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included
in the data below. In keeping with the framework established at the
Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being
conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives, Syria, and
Jordan to determine the final status of the occupied territories. On
25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979
Israel-Egypt Peace treaty.

@Israel, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Lebanon
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
20,770 sq km 
land area: 
20,330 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
total 1,006 km, Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon
79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km 
Coastline: 
273 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the 1949 Armistice
Line; differences with Jordan over the location of the 1949 Armistice
Line that separates the two countries; the Gaza Strip and Jericho,
formerly occupied by Israel, are now administered by the Palestinian
Authority; other areas of the West Bank outside Jericho are Israeli
occupied; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan
Climate: 
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain: 
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains;
Jordan Rift Valley
Natural resources: 
copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt,
manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
17% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
40% 
forest and woodland: 
6% 
other: 
32% 
Irrigated land: 
2,140 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
limited arable land and freshwater resources pose serious constraints;
deforestation; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions;
groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical
fertilizers, and pesticides
natural hazards: 
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate
Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
there are 200 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
West Bank, 40 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 24 in the Gaza
Strip, and 25 in East Jerusalem (April 1994)

@Israel, People

Population: 
5,050,850 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
includes 110,500 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 14,000 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 4,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 144,100
in East Jerusalem (1994 est.)
Population growth rate: 
2.22% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
20.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
8.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.96 years 
male: 
75.86 years 
female: 
80.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Israeli(s) 
adjective: 
Israeli 
Ethnic divisions: 
Jewish 83%, non-Jewish 17% (mostly Arab)
Religions: 
Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%, Druze and
other 2% 
Languages: 
Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English
most commonly used foreign language
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
total population: 
92% 
male: 
95% 
female: 
89% 
Labor force: 
1.9 million (1992)
by occupation: 
public services 29.3%, industry 22.1%, commerce 13.9%, finance and
business 10.4%, personal and other services 7.4%, construction 6.5%,
transport, storage, and communications 6.3%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 3.5%, other 0.6% (1992)

@Israel, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
State of Israel 
conventional short form: 
Israel 
local long form: 
Medinat Yisra'el 
local short form: 
Yisra'el 
Digraph: 
IS
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Jerusalem 
note: 
Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US, like
nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions: 
6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem,
Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence: 
14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 14 May 1948 (Israel declared independence on 14 May
1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in
April or May)
Constitution: 
no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are
filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of
the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Legal system: 
mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in
personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in
December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no
longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993) election last held 24 March
1993 (next to be held NA March 1999); results - Ezer WEIZMAN elected
by Knesset
head of government: 
Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN (since NA July 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; selected from and approved by the Knesset
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
parliament (Knesset): 
elections last held NA June 1992 (next to be held by NA 1996); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Labor Party 44,
Likud bloc 32, Meretz 12, Tzomet 8, National Religious Party 6, Shas
6, United Torah Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality
(Hadash) 3, Moledet 3, Arab Democratic Party 2; note - in 1994 three
new parties were formed, Yi'ud (from Tzomet), Histadrut List (from the
Labor Party), and Peace Guard (from Moledet), resulting in the
following new distribution of seats - Labor Party 41, Likud bloc 32,
Meretz 12, National Religious Party 6, Shas 6, Tzomet 5, United Torah
Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) 3, Yi'ud 3,
Histadrut List 3, Moledet 2, Arab Democratic Party 2, Peace Guard 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
members of the government: 
Labor Party, Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN; MERETZ, Minister of
Communications Shulamit ALONI
not in coalition, but voting with the government: 
SHAS, Arieh DERI; Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash),
Hashim MAHAMID; Arab Democratic Party, Abd al Wahab DARAWSHAH;
Histadrut List, Haim RAMON
opposition parties: 
Likud Party, Binyamin NETANYAHU; Tzomet, Rafael EITAN; National
Religious Party, Zevulun HAMMER; United Torah Jewry, Avraham SHAPIRA;
Moledet, Rehavam ZEEVI; Yi'ud, Gonen SEGEV; Peace Guard, Shoul GUTMAN
note: 
Israel currently has a coalition government comprising 3 parties that
hold 56 seats of the Knesset's 120 seats
Other political or pressure groups: 
Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the
West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West
Bank/Gaza Strip and Lebanon policies
Member of: 
AG (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (oberver), EBRD, ECE, FAO,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer),
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Itamar RABINOVICH 
chancery: 
3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 364-5500 
FAX: 
(202) 364-5610 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward DJEREJIAN (expected to resign in August 1994) 
embassy: 
71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv 
mailing address: 
PSC 98, Box 100, Tel Aviv; APO AE 09830 
telephone: 
[972] (3) 517-4338 
FAX: 
[972] (3) 663-449 
Flag: 
white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the
Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal
blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

@Israel, Economy

Overview: 
Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation.
It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and
military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has
intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the
past 20 years. Industry employs about 22% of Israeli workers,
construction 6.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.5%, and
services most of the rest. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and
agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are leading exports.
Israel usually posts current account deficits, which are covered by
large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half
of the government's external debt is owed to the United States, which
is its major source of economic and military aid. To earn needed
foreign exchange, Israel has been targeting high-technology niches in
international markets, such as medical scanning equipment. The influx
of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR, which topped 450,000 during
the period 1990-93, increased unemployment, intensified housing
problems, and strained the government budget. At the same time, the
immigrants bring to the economy valuable scientific and professional
expertise. Economic problems have eased as immigration has declined,
but activity has slowed as the economy shifts from housing to
export-driven growth.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $65.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$13,350 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
10.4% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$33.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$36.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.4 billion (FY93)
Exports: 
$14.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, cut diamonds, chemicals, textiles and
apparel, agricultural products, metals
partners: 
US, EC, Japan
Imports: 
$20.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, oil, other
productive inputs, consumer goods
partners: 
US, EC
External debt: 
$24.8 billion (December 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.5% (1993 est.); accounts for about 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,835,000 kW
production: 
21.84 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,600 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles and apparel,
chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining,
high-technology electronics, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 7% of GDP; largely self-sufficient in food
production, except for grains; principal products - citrus and other
fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products - beef, dairy, poultry
Illicit drugs: 
increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse and trafficking
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.8
billion 
Currency: 
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates: 
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
(1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Israel, Communications

Railroads: 
600 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated
Highways: 
total: 
13,300 km 
paved: 
13,300 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km 
Ports: 
Ashdod, Haifa
Merchant marine: 
33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 637,097 GRT/737,762 DWT, cargo
8, container 22, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
note: 
Israel also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet, which
is normally at least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the Israeli
flag of convenience fleet typically includes all of its oil tankers
Airports: 
total: 
55 
usable: 
48 
with permanent-surface runways: 
30 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
13 
Telecommunications: 
most highly developed in the Middle East although not the largest;
good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; 1,800,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 21 FM, 20 TV; 3 submarine
cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Israel, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Israel Defense Forces (including ground, naval, and air components)
note: 
historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,257,345; females age 15-49 1,280,899; males fit for
military service 1,026,699; females fit for military service
1,049,998; males reach military age (18) annually 47,297 (1994 est.);
females reach military age (18) annually 45,214 (1994 est.); both
sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $12.5 billion, 18% of GDP (1993)


@Italy, Geography

Location: 
Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean
Sea
Map references: 
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
301,230 sq km 
land area: 
294,020 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Arizona
note: 
includes Sardinia and Sicily
Land boundaries: 
total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican
City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km 
Coastline: 
4,996 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain: 
mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Natural resources: 
mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil
reserves, fish, coal 
Land use: 
arable land: 
32% 
permanent crops: 
10% 
meadows and pastures: 
17% 
forest and woodland: 
22% 
other: 
19% 
Irrigated land: 
31,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide;
coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural
effluents; acid rain damaging lakes
natural hazards: 
regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note: 
strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as
southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

@Italy, People

Population: 
58,138,394 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.21% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
10.79 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.71 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.64 years 
male: 
74.44 years 
female: 
81.04 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Italian(s) 
adjective: 
Italian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and
Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians
in the south), Sicilians, Sardinians 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 98%, other 2% 
Languages: 
Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly
German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle
d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the
Trieste-Gorizia area)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
96% 
Labor force: 
23.988 million 
by occupation: 
services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)

@Italy, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Italian Republic 
conventional short form: 
Italy 
local long form: 
Repubblica Italiana 
local short form: 
Italia 
former: 
Kingdom of Italy 
Digraph: 
IT
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Rome 
Administrative divisions: 
20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata,
Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio,
Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna,
Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Independence: 
17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946) 
Constitution: 
1 January 1948
Legal system: 
based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals
treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in
Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age, universal (except in senatorial elections, where
minimum age is 25)
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 11 May 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Parlamento)
Senate (Senato della Repubblica): 
elections last held 27-28 March 1994 (next expected to be held by
spring 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (326
total; 315 elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) PDS 61, Northern
League 60, National Alliance 48, Forza Italia 36, Popular Party 31,
Communist Refounding 18, Greens and The Network 13, Socialist Party
13, Christian Democratic Center 12, Democratic Alliance 8, Christian
Socialists 5, Pact for Italy 4, Radical Party 1, others 5
Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati): 
elections last held 27-28 March 1994 (next expected to be held by
spring 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (630
total) Northern League 117, PDS 114, Forza Italia 113, National
Alliance 109, Communist Refounding 39, Christian Democratic Center 33,
Popular Party 33, Greens and The Network 20, Democratic Alliance 18,
Socialist Party 16, Pact for Italy 13, Christian Socialists 5
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Rightists: 
Forza Italia, Silvio BERLUSCONI; National Alliance (was Italian Social
Movement - MSI - until January 1994), Gianfranco FINI, party
secretary; Lega Nord (Northern League), Umberto BOSSI, president
Leftists: 
Democratic Party of the Left (PDS - was Communist Party, or PCI, until
January 1991), Achille OCCHETTO, secretary; Communist Refounding,
Fausto BERTINOTTI; Greens, Carlo RIPA di MEARA; Radical Party, Marco
PANNELLA; Italian Socialist Party, Ottaviano DELTURCO; The Network,
Leoluca ORLANDO; Christian Socialists, Ermanno GORRIERI
Centrists: 
Pact for Italy, Mario SEGNI; Popular Party, Rosa JERVOLINO; Christian
Democratic Center, Pier Ferdinando CASINI
Other political or pressure groups: 
the Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations
(CGIL - formerly Communist dominated, CISL - Christian Democratic, and
UIL - Social Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Italian
manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria,
Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori,
Confagricoltura)
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB,
ESA, FAO, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI-CHIAPPORI 
chancery: 
1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 328-5500 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
San Francisco 
consulate(s): 
Detroit, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Reginald BARTHOLOMEW 
embassy: 
Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome 
mailing address: 
PSC 59, Box 100, Rome; APO AE 09624 
telephone: 
[39] (6) 46741 
FAX: 
[39] (6) 488-2672 
consulate(s) general: 
Florence, Milan, Naples 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red;
similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist
side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote
d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white,
and green

@Italy, Economy

Overview: 
Since World War II the Italian economy has changed from one based on
agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the
same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is
still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private
companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large
public enterprises. Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 35%,
agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most raw materials
needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be
imported. After growing at an annual average rate of 3% in 1983-90,
growth slowed to about 1% in 1991 and 1992 and fell by 0.7% in 1993.
In the second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of
not qualifying to participate in EC plans for economic and monetary
union later in the decade; thus it finally began to address its huge
fiscal imbalances. Thanks to the determination of Prime Ministers
AMATO and CIAMPI, the government adopted a fairly stringent budget for
1993 and 1994, abandoned its highly inflationary wage indexation
system, and started to scale back its extremely generous social
welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. Monetary
officials were forced to withdraw the lira from the European monetary
system in September 1992 when it came under extreme pressure in
currency markets. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of
refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing pollution in
major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces
accompanying the ongoing economic integration of the European Union.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $967.6 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.7% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$16,700 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.2% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
11.3% (January 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$302 billion 
expenditures: 
$391 billion, including capital expenditures of $48 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$178.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles,
transportation equipment, chemicals, other
partners: 
EC 58.3%, US 6.8%, OPEC 5.1% (1992)
Imports: 
$188.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, petroleum,
metals, food, agricultural products
partners: 
EC 58.8%, OPEC 6.1%, US 5.5% (1992)
External debt: 
$67 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2.8% (1993 est.); accounts for almost 35% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
58,000,000 kW
production: 
235 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,060 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor
vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 4% of GDP and about 9.8% of the work force;
self-sufficient in foods other than meat, dairy products, and cereals;
principal crops - fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990
Illicit drugs: 
important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest
Asian heroin entering the European market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion 
Currency: 
1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates: 
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Italy, Communications

Railroads: 
20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned standard gauge
(8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned - 2,100 km
1.435-meter standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km
0.950-meter narrow gauge (380 km electrified)
Highways: 
total: 
298,000 km 
paved: 
270,000 km (including nearly 7,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 23,000 km; earth 5,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited
overall value
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Ports: 
Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Palermo
(Sicily), Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Merchant marine: 
474 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,055,779 GRT/8,924,779 DWT,
bulk 50, cargo 72, chemical tanker 34, combination bulk 1, combination
ore/oil 5, container 20, liquefied gas 39, multifunction large-load
carrier 1, oil tanker 129, passenger 8, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 62, short-sea passenger 34, specialized tanker
10, vehicle carrier 7 
Airports: 
total: 
137 
usable: 
132 
with permanent-surface runways: 
92 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
36 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
39 
Telecommunications: 
modern, well-developed, fast; 25,600,000 telephones; fully automated
telephone, telex, and data services; high-capacity cable and microwave
radio relay trunks; broadcast stations - 135 AM, 28 (1,840 repeaters)
FM, 83 (1,000 repeaters) TV; international service by 21 submarine
cables, 3 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3
Atlantic Ocean antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates
in INMARSAT and EUTELSAT systems

@Italy, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 14,921,411; fit for military service 12,982,445; reach
military age (18) annually 403,017 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $16.1 billion, 1.3% of GDP (1992)


@Jamaica, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 160 km south of Cuba
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
10,990 sq km 
land area: 
10,830 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,022 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Natural resources: 
bauxite, gypsum, limestone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
19% 
permanent crops: 
6% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
28% 
other: 
29% 
Irrigated land: 
350 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; water pollution
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes (especially July to November)
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main
sea lanes for Panama Canal

@Jamaica, People

Population: 
2,555,064 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.02% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
21.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.62 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
16.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.36 years 
male: 
72.16 years 
female: 
76.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.41 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Jamaican(s) 
adjective: 
Jamaican 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian
3%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2% 
Religions: 
Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United
Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other, including some
spiritual cults 39.1% (1982)
Languages: 
English, Creole 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990 est.)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
1,062,100 
by occupation: 
services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%, unemployed 17.5% (1989)

@Jamaica, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Jamaica 
Digraph: 
JM
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Kingston 
Administrative divisions: 
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint
Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James,
Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Independence: 
6 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day (first Monday in August) (1962) 
Constitution: 
6 August 1962
Legal system: 
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Sir Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister P. J. PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 30 March 1993 (next to be held by February 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) PNP 52, JLP
8
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's National Party (PNP) P. J. PATTERSON; Jamaica Labor Party
(JLP), Edward SEAGA
Other political or pressure groups: 
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New
Beginnings Movement (NBM)
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-19, G-77, GATT, G-15, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL 
chancery: 
Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006 
telephone: 
(202) 452-0660 
FAX: 
(202) 452-0081 
consulate(s) general: 
Miami and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lacy A. WRIGHT, Jr. 
embassy: 
Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston 
mailing address: 
use Embassy street address 
telephone: 
(809) 929-4850 through 4859 
FAX: 
(809) 926-6743 
Flag: 
diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green
(top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

@Jamaica, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In September
1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the
electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy.
By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was largely
complete, and real growth was up to about 3% for 1989. In 1991,
however, growth dropped to 0.2% as a result of the US recession, lower
world bauxite prices, and monetary instability. In 1992, growth was
1.2%, supported by a recovery in tourism and stabilization of the
Jamaican dollar in the second half of 1992.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,200 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
30% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15.4% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$600 million 
expenditures: 
$736 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Exports: 
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum
partners: 
US 40%, UK 14%, Germany 10%, Canada 10%, Norway 7%
Imports: 
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
fuel, other raw materials, construction materials, food, transport
equipment, other machinery and equipment
partners: 
US 53%, UK 5%, Venezuela 6%, Germany 5%, Japan 4.0%
External debt: 
$4.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2% (1990); accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,127,000 kW
production: 
2.736 trillion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,090 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 7% of GDP, 23% of work force, and 17% of exports;
commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes,
vegetables; livestock and livestock products include poultry, goats,
milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South America to
North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government
has an active cannabis eradication program
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2 billion; other
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion 
Currency: 
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 -32.758 (31 December 1993), 22.960
(1992), 12.116 (1991), 7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Jamaica, Communications

Railroads: 
370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
18,200 km 
paved: 
12,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 3,200 km; improved earth 2,400 km 
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 10 km 
Ports: 
Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio
Merchant marine: 
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,618 GRT/16,215 DWT, bulk 2, oil
tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
40 
usable: 
27 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fully automatic domestic telephone network; 127,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

@Jamaica, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Jamaica Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast Guard and Air
Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 664,122; fit for military service 469,982; reach
military age (18) annually 26,103 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $19.3 million, 1% of GDP (FY91/92)


@Jan Mayen

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Norway) 

@Jan Mayen, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe, in the North Atlantic Ocean, north of
the Arctic Circle about 590 km north-northeast of Iceland, between the
Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea
Map references: 
Arctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
373 sq km 
land area: 
373 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
124.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
10 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
4 nm
International disputes: 
dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic
Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
International Court of Justice
Climate: 
arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
Terrain: 
volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the highest
peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
volcanic activity resumed in 1970
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
barren volcanic island with some moss and grass

@Jan Mayen, People

Population: 
no permanent inhabitants; note - there are personnel who man the LORAN
C base and the weather and coastal services radio station

@Jan Mayen, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Jan Mayen 
Digraph: 
JN
Type: 
territory of Norway 
Capital: 
none; administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor (sysselmann)
resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard)
Independence: 
none (territory of Norway)

@Jan Mayen, Economy

Overview: 
Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources.
Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of
Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on the island.
Electricity: 
capacity: 
15,000 kW
production: 
40 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
NA (1992)

@Jan Mayen, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
radio and meteorological station

@Jan Mayen, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Norway


@Japan, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, off the southeast coast of Russia and east of the Korean
peninsula
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
377,835 sq km 
land area: 
374,744 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than California
note: 
includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima,
Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands
(Kazan-retto)
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
29,751 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya,
Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait
International disputes: 
islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotau, and the Habomai group
occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia,
claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea;
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate: 
varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Terrain: 
mostly rugged and mountainous
Natural resources: 
negligible mineral resources, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
13% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
67% 
other: 
18% 
Irrigated land: 
28,680 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain;
acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and
threatening aquatic life
natural hazards: 
many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic
occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location in northeast Asia

@Japan, People

Population: 
125,106,937 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
10.49 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.31 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
79.31 years 
male: 
76.47 years 
female: 
82.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.55 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Japanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Japanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)
Religions: 
observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including 0.7%
Christian)
Languages: 
Japanese 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
63.33 million 
by occupation: 
trade and services 54%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 33%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%, government 3% (1988)

@Japan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Japan 
Digraph: 
JA
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Tokyo 
Administrative divisions: 
47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka,
Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa,
Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie,
Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama,
Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi,
Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi,
Yamanashi
Independence: 
660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
National holiday: 
Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933) 
Constitution: 
3 May 1947
Legal system: 
modeled after European civil law system with English-American
influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Tsutomu HATA (since 25 April 1994); Deputy Prime
Minister (vacant) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Diet (Kokkai)
House of Councillors (Sangi-in): 
elections last held on 26 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (252 total) LDP 95,
SDPJ 68, Shin Ryoku fu-Kai 37, CGP 24, JCP 11, other 17
House of Representatives (Shugi-in): 
elections last held on 18 July 1993 (next to be held by NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (511 total) LDP 206, SDPJ 74,
Shinseito 62, CGP 52, JNP 37, DSP 19, JCP 15, Sakigake 15, others 19,
independents 10, vacant 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Yohei KONO, president; Yoshiro MORI,
secretary general; Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ), Tomiichi
MURAYAMA; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), Tetsuzo FUWA, Presidium chairman; Komeito
(Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman; Japan New
Party (JNP), Morihiro HOSOKAWA, chairman; Shinseito (Japan Renewal
Party, JRP), Tsutomu HATA, chairman; Ichiro OZAWA, secretary general;
Sakigake (Harbinger), Masayoshi TAKEMURA, chairman; Mirai (Future
Party), Michihiko KANO, chairman; The Liberal Party, Koji KAKIZAWA,
chairman
note: 
Shin Ryoku fu-Kai is a new, upper house only, parliamentary alliance
which includes the JRP, JNP, DSP, and a minor labor group
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP,
CSCE (observer), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA 
chancery: 
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-6700 
FAX: 
(202) 328-2187 
consulate(s) general: 
Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Honolulu,
Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle 
consulate(s): 
Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Walter F. MONDALE 
embassy: 
10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo 
mailing address: 
Unit 45004, Box 258, Tokyo; APO AP 96337-0001 
telephone: 
[81] (3) 3224-5000 
FAX: 
[81] (3) 3505-1862 
consulate(s) general: 
Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo 
consulate(s): 
Fukuoka 
Flag: 
white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the
center

@Japan, Economy

Overview: 
Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high
technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped
Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most
powerful economy in the world. Industry, the most important sector of
the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels.
Self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its
requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of
the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the
global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10%
average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic
growth came to a halt in 1992-93 largely because of contractionary
domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the
stock and real estate markets. At the same time, the stronger yen and
slower global growth are containing export growth. Unemployment and
inflation remain remarkably low in comparison with the other
industrialized nations. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus -
$120 billion in 1993, up more than 10% from the year earlier - which
supports extensive investment in foreign assets. The new prime
minister HATA in early 1994 reiterated previous governments' vows of
administrative and economic reform, including reduction in the trade
surplus, but his weak coalition government faces strong resistance
from traditional interest groups. The crowding of the habitable land
area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.549 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
0% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$20,400 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.3% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
2.5% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$490 billion 
expenditures: 
$579 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of
about $68 billion (FY93)
Exports: 
$360.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
manufactures 97% (including machinery 46%, motor vehicles 20%,
consumer electronics 10%)
partners: 
Southeast Asia 33%, US 29%, Western Europe 18%, China 5%
Imports: 
$240.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
manufactures 52%, fossil fuels 20%, foodstuffs and raw materials 28%
partners: 
Southeast Asia 25%, US 23%, Western Europe 15%, China 9%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -4% (1993); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
196,000,000 kW
production: 
835 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,700 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment,
construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts,
electronic and telecommunication equipment and components, machine
tools and automated production systems, locomotives and railroad
rolling stock, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, food processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector,
with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar
beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy
and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of
wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric
tons in 1991
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-93), $123 billion 
note: 
ODA outlay of $9.9 billion in 1994 (est.)
Currency: 
yen (Y)
Exchange rates: 
yen (Y) per US$1 - 111.51 (January 1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65
(1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Japan, Communications

Railroads: 
27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 25,315 km
predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km doubletrack and
multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electrified,
2,012 km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)
Highways: 
total: 
1,115,609 km 
paved: 
782,042 km (including 4,869 km of national expressways)
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, or earth 333,567 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas
Pipelines: 
crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km 
Ports: 
Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo,
Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu,
Himeji, Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu
Merchant marine: 
926 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,383,101 GRT31,007,515 DWT,
bulk 225, cargo 76, chemical tanker 9, combination ore/oil 9,
container 44, liquefied gas 42, multi-function large load carrier 1,
oil tanker 265, passenger 10, passenger cargo 3, refrigerated cargo
66, roll-on/roll-off cargo 44, short-sea passenger 36, specialized
tanker 2, vehicle carrier 94 
note: 
Japan also owns a large flag of convenience fleet, including up to 38%
of the total number of ships under the Panamanian flag
Airports: 
total: 
167 
usable: 
165 
with permanent-surface runways: 
137 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
34 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
52 
Telecommunications: 
excellent domestic and international service; 64,000,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196 major - 1 kw or
greater); satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines,
China, and Russia

@Japan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense
Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Maritime
Safety Agency (Coast Guard) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 32,044,032; fit for military service 27,597,444; reach
military age (18) annually 953,928 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $45.5 billion, less than 1% of GDP (FY94/95
est.)


@Jarvis Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Jarvis Island, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,090 km south of
Honolulu, just south of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and
the Cook Islands
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
4.5 sq km 
land area: 
4.5 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 7.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
8 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain: 
sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources: 
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
lacks fresh water
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily
a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds,
and marine wildlife; feral cats

@Jarvis Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited; note - Millersville settlement on western side of island
occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II,
when it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International
Geophysical Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by
special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and
educators

@Jarvis Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Jarvis Island 
Digraph: 
DQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Jarvis Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Jarvis Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only - one boat landing area in the middle of
the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island
Note: 
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Jarvis Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
Coast Guard


@Jersey

Header

Affiliation: 
(British crown dependency) 

@Jersey, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, 27 km from France in the English Channel
Map references: 
Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
117 sq km 
land area: 
117 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
70 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain: 
gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Natural resources: 
agricultural land 
Land use: 
arable land: 
57% 
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population
concentrated in Saint Helier

@Jersey, People

Population: 
86,048 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.7% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.1 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
4.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.64 years 
male: 
73.54 years 
female: 
80.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.43 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Channel Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Channel Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
UK and Norman-French descent
Religions: 
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church,
Methodist, Presbyterian 
Languages: 
English (official), French (official), Norman-French dialect spoken in
country districts
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA 

@Jersey, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Bailiwick of Jersey 
conventional short form: 
Jersey 
Digraph: 
JE
Type: 
British crown dependency 
Capital: 
Saint Helier 
Administrative divisions: 
none (British crown dependency)
Independence: 
none (British crown dependency)
National holiday: 
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) 
Constitution: 
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system: 
English law and local statute
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
Chief of State: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
Head of Government: 
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON
(since NA 1990); Bailiff Sir Peter L. CRILL (since NA) 
cabinet: 
committees; appointed by the States
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Assembly of the States: 
elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of
vote by party since all are independents; seats - (56 total, 52
elected) 52 independents
Judicial branch: 
Royal Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
none; all independents
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (British crown dependency)
Flag: 
white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of
Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

@Jersey, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture, and
tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are
important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of
dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export
earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. In 1986 the
finance sector overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP,
accounting for 40% of the island's output. In recent years the
government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the
result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the
traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy
requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food
needs.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
8% (1987 est.)
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
8% (1988 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$308 million 
expenditures: 
$284.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985)
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles
partners: 
UK
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs,
mineral fuels, chemicals
partners: 
UK
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
50,000 kW standby
production: 
power supplied by France
consumption per capita: 
NA (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, banking and finance, dairy
Agriculture: 
potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Jersey pound (#J) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Jersey pounds (#J) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); the Jersey
pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Jersey, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
63,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine
cables

@Jersey, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Johnston Atoll

Header

Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Johnston Atoll, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,430 km
west-southwest of Honolulu, about one-third of the way between Hawaii
and the Marshall Islands
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
2.8 sq km 
land area: 
2.8 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
10 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with
little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters
Natural resources: 
guano (deposits worked until about 1890) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and
Sand Island are natural islands; North Island (Akau) and East Island
(Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the
public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll
Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation

@Johnston Atoll, People

Population: 
327 (July 1994 est.) 

@Johnston Atoll, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Johnston Atoll 
Digraph: 
JQ
Type: 
unincorportated territory of the US administered by the US Defense
Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
the flag of the US is used

@Johnston Atoll, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military
personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity: 
supplied by the management and operations contractor

@Johnston Atoll, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
1 with TACAN and beacon
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
excellent system including 60-channel submarine cable, Autodin/SRT
terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System
(MARS station), commercial satellite television system, and UHF/VHF
air-ground radio

@Johnston Atoll, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Jordan

Header
Affiliation: 
(also see separate West Bank entry) 

@Jordan, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, between Israel and Saudi Arabia
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
89,213 sq km 
land area: 
88,884 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries: 
total 1,619 km, Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km, Syria
375 km, West Bank 97 km 
Coastline: 
26 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
differences with Israel over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line
that separates the two countries; water-sharing issues with Israel
Climate: 
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Terrain: 
mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift
Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Natural resources: 
phosphates, potash, shale oil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
0.5% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
0.5% 
other: 
94% 
Irrigated land: 
570 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
lack of adequate natural water resources; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands

@Jordan, People

Population: 
3,961,194 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.5% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
38.77 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.85 years 
male: 
70.04 years 
female: 
73.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.64 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Jordanian(s) 
adjective: 
Jordanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1% 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle
classes
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
80% 
male: 
89% 
female: 
70% 
Labor force: 
600,000 (1992)
by occupation: 
industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 10.5%, construction
10.0%, transport and communications 8.7%, agriculture 7.4%, other
services 52.0% (1992)

@Jordan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 
conventional short form: 
Jordan 
local long form: 
Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah 
local short form: 
Al Urdun 
former: 
Transjordan 
Digraph: 
JO
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Amman 
Administrative divisions: 
8 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak,
Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Ma'an
Independence: 
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 25 May (1946) 
Constitution: 
8 January 1952
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative
acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King HUSSEIN Bin Talal Al Hashimi (since 11 August 1952) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Abd al-Salam al-MAJALI (since May 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-'Umma)
House of Notables (Majlis al-A'ayan): 
consists of a 40-member body appointed by the king from designated
categories of public figures
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 8 November 1993 (next to be held NA November
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total)
Muslim Brotherhood (fundamentalist) 16, Independent Islamic bloc
(generally traditionalist) 6, Radical leftist 3, pro-government 55
note: 
the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by the
King several times since 1974 and in November 1989 the first
parliamentary elections in 22 years were held
Judicial branch: 
Court of Cassation 
Political parties and leaders: 
NA; note - political parties were legalized in December 1992
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UNPROFOR, UNTAC,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Fayiz A. TARAWNAH 
chancery: 
3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 966-2664 
FAX: 
(202) 966-3110 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Wesley EGAN, Jr. 
embassy: 
Jabel Amman, Amman 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO AE 09892-0200 
telephone: 
[962] (6) 820-101 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a
red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white
seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven
fundamental laws of the Koran

@Jordan, Economy

Overview: 
Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the
late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual real GNP growth averaged
more than 10%. In the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in
both Arab aid and worker remittances slowed real economic growth to an
average of roughly 2% per year. Imports - mainly oil, capital goods,
consumer durables, and food - outstripped exports, with the difference
covered by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian
Government began debt-rescheduling negotiations and agreed to
implement an IMF-supported program designed to gradually reduce the
budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The
Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated
Jordan's already serious economic problems, forcing the government to
shelve the IMF program, stop most debt payments, and suspend
rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker
remittances and trade contracted, and refugees flooded the country,
producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth,
and straining government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992,
largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning
from the Gulf, but the recovery has been losing steam since mid-1993.
The government is implementing the reform program adopted in 1992 and
continues to secure rescheduling of its heavy foreign debt.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
20% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.7 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $420 million (1993)
Exports: 
$1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures
partners: 
India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EC, Indonesia, UAE
Imports: 
$3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals,
manufactured goods
partners: 
EC, US, Iraq, Japan, Turkey
External debt: 
$6.8 billion (December 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3% (1993 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,030,000 kW
production: 
3.814 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,070 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light
manufacturing
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 10% of GDP; principal products are wheat, barley,
citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock - sheep, goats,
poultry; large net importer of food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $44 million 
Currency: 
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates: 
Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7019 (February 1994), 0.6928
(1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Jordan, Communications

Railroads: 
789 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track
Highways: 
total: 
7,500 km 
paved: 
asphalt 5,500 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 2,000 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 209 km 
Ports: 
Al 'Aqabah
Merchant marine: 
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,566 GRT/129,351 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 1, oil tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
16 
usable: 
14 
with permanent-surface runways: 
13 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
12 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate telephone system of microwave, cable, and radio links; 81,500
telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1
ARABSAT, 1 domestic TV receive-only; coaxial cable and microwave to
Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria; microwave link to Lebanon is inactive;
participant in MEDARABTEL, a microwave radio relay network linking
Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

@Jordan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) includes Royal Jordanian Land Force,
Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Naval Force; Ministry of the
Interior's Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or
crisis situations)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 966,420; fit for military service 685,112; reach
military age (18) annually 42,776 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $435 million, 7.9% of GDP (1993)


@Juan de Nova Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(possession of France) 

@Juan de Nova Island, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the central Mozambique Channel about one-third of
the way between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
4.4 sq km 
land area: 
4.4 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
24.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
NA
Natural resources: 
guano deposits and other fertilizers 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
90% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
wildlife sanctuary

@Juan de Nova Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Juan de Nova Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Juan de Nova Island 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ile Juan de Nova 
Digraph: 
JU
Type: 
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital: 
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
none (possession of France)

@Juan de Nova Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Juan de Nova Island, Communications

Railroads: 
short line going to a jetty
Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,439-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 

@Juan de Nova Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Kazakhstan, Geography

Location: 
Central Asia, between Russia and Uzbekistan, bordering on the Caspian
Sea and the Aral Sea
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,717,300 sq km 
land area: 
2,669,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km,
Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km 
Coastline: 
0 km 
note: 
Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894
km)
Maritime claims: 
landlocked, but borders with Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan in
the Caspian Sea are under negotiation at present
International disputes: 
Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of
Caspian Sea from shore
Climate: 
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrain: 
extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in
western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia
Natural resources: 
major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore,
nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land use: 
arable land: 
15% 
permanent crops: 
NEGL %
meadows and pastures: 
57% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
24% 
Irrigated land: 
23,080 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense
industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose
health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in
some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral
Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving
behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these
substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust
storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of
agricultural chemicals and salinization from faulty irrigation
practices
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
landlocked

@Kazakhstan, People

Population: 
17,267,554 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.64% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.4 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.93 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-5.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
40.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.04 years 
male: 
63.39 years 
female: 
72.93 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Kazakhstani(s) 
adjective: 
Kazakhstani 
Ethnic divisions: 
Kazakh (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%, German 4.7%, Uzbek
2.1%, Tatar 2%, other 7.1% (1991 official data)
Religions: 
Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7% 
Languages: 
Kazakh (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of population,
Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by two-thirds
of population and used in everyday business
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
7.356 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 26%, other 43%
(1992)

@Kazakhstan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Kazakhstan 
conventional short form: 
Kazakhstan 
local long form: 
Kazakhstan Respublikasy 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
KZ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Almaty 
Administrative divisions: 
19 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular - qala)*;
Almaty*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy,
Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy,
Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay
Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Pavlodar Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys
Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik
Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy,
Zhambyl Oblysy, Zhezqazghan Oblysy
note: 
names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from
oblys name
Independence: 
16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 16 December (1991) 
Constitution: 
adopted 28 January 1993
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (since NA April 1990); Vice
President Yerik ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991); election last held
1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); percent of vote by party
NA; Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed
head of government: 
Prime Minister Sergey TERESHCHENKO (since 14 October 1991); First
Deputy Prime Minister Arkezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since NA November 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme Council: 
elections last held 7 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total) Union Peoples' Unity
of Kazakhstan 33, Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of
Kazakhstan 11, People's Congress of Kazakhstan Party 9, Socialist
Party of Kazakhstan 8, Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan 4,
Social Movement "LAD" 4, Organization of Veterans 1, Union of Youth of
Kazakhstan 1, Democratic Committee for Human Rights 1, Association of
Lawyers of Kazakhstan 1, International Public Committee
"Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan" 1, Congress of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan 1,
Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet 40, independents 62
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Peoples Unity Movement (PUU), Kuanysh SULTANOV, chairman; Peoples
Congress, Olzhas SULEYMENOV, chairman; Kazakhstan Socialist Party
(SPK; former Communist Party), Piotr SVOIK, co-chairman; Republican
Party (Azat), Kamal ORMANTAYEV, chairman; Democratic Progress
(Russian) Party, Alexandra DOKUCHAYEVA, chairman; Union Peoples' Unity
of Kazakhstan (SNEK); Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of
Kazakhstan; Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan; Social Movement
LAD (Slavic Rebirth Society), V. MIKHAYLOV, chairman; Union of Youth
of Kazakhstan; Democratic Committee for Human Rights; Association of
Lawyers of Kazakhstan; International Public Committee
"Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan"; Congress of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan;
Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet
Other political or pressure groups: 
Independent Trade Union Center (Birlesu; an association of independent
trade union and business associations), Leonid SOLOMIN, president
Member of: 
CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOD, NACC, OIC (observer), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Tuleutai SULEYMENOV 
chancery: 
3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 333-4504/7 
FAX: 
(202) 333-4509 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William H. COURTNEY 
embassy: 
99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480012 
mailing address: 
American Embassy Almaty, c/o Department of State, Washington, DC,
20521-7030 
telephone: 
(7) (3272) 63-17-70, 63-24-26, 63-28-80, 63-34-05 
FAX: 
(7) (3272) 63-38-83 
Flag: 
sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with
32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the
hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

@Kazakhstan, Economy

Overview: 
Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states in
territory, possesses vast oil, coal, rare metals, and agricultural
resources. While the economy is gradually making the transition from a
Soviet command system to a market system, strong elements of state
control persist including government ownership of most economic assets
and a continued system of mandatory state procurement for the key
products such as grain and energy; likewise, agriculture remains
largely collectivized. On the other hand, new businesses are forming
rapidly, the economy is opening to foreign investment, and 12% of
state-owned commercial enterprises have been privatized. In 1993, a
three-year industrial privatization program was launched; an
independent currency was successfully introduced; and two large joint
ventures were established with western oil companies. These
far-reaching structural transformations have resulted in a cumulative
decline in national income of more than 30% since 1990. Loose monetary
policies have kept the inflation rate high, averaging 28% per month
for 1993 and accelerating at the end with the disruption caused by a
new currency. Since the introduction of its independent currency in
November 1993, the government has renewed its commitment to fiscal
discipline and accelerating economic reform. However, growing economic
hardship and rising ethnic tensions between Kazakhs and Russians over
the division of economic assets will likely lead to strong pressure to
backtrack.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $60.3 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Kazakhstani statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-13% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,510 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
28% per month (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
0.6% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large
numbers of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $1.76 billion (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$1.3 billion to outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat
(1992)
partners: 
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports: 
$358.3 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
commodities: 
machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas (1992)
partners: 
Russia and other former Soviet republics, China
External debt: 
$1.5 billion debt to Russia
Industrial production: 
growth rate -16% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
19,135,000 kW
production: 
81.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,739 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead,
zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur),
iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural
machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Agriculture: 
accounts for almost 40% of net material product; employs about 26% of
the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North
America from Central and Southwest Asia
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
approximately $1 billion in foreign credits to become available in
1994
Currency: 
national currency the tenge introduced on 15 November 1993
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Kazakhstan, Communications

Railroads: 
14,460 km (all 1.520-meter gauge); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways: 
total: 
189,000 km 
paved and graveled: 
108,100 km 
unpaved: 
earth 80,900 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
Syrdariya River, Ertis River
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km
(1992)
Ports: 
inland - Atyrau (formerly Gur'yev; on Caspian Sea)
Airports: 
total: 
365 
usable: 
152 
with permanent-surface runways: 
49 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
38 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
71 
Telecommunications: 
telephone service is poor, with only about 17 telephones for each 100
persons in urban areas and 7.6 telephones per 100 persons in rural
areas; of the approximately 2.2 million telephones, Almaty has
184,000; broadcast receivers - TVs 4,750,000, radios 4,088,000, radio
receiver systems with multiple speakers for program diffusion
6,082,000; international traffic with other former USSR republics and
China carried by landline and microwave, and with other countries by
satellite and through 8 international telecommunications circuits at
the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations -
INTELSAT and Orbita (TV receive only); new satellite ground station
established at Almaty with Turkish financial help (December 1992) with
2500 channel band width

@Kazakhstan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,432,716; fit for military service 3,554,209; reach
military age (18) annually 154,989 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
69,326 million rubles, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results


@Kenya, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern India Ocean between
Tanzania and Somalia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
582,650 sq km 
land area: 
569,250 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries: 
total 3,446 km, Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km,
Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km 
Coastline: 
536 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with
international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on unification
of ethnic Somalis
Climate: 
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain: 
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley;
fertile plateau in west
Natural resources: 
gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets,
wildlife 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
85% 
Irrigated land: 
520 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water
quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers;
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change
Note: 
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique
physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and
economic value

@Kenya, People

Population: 
28,240,658 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.07% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
42.44 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.74 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
74.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
53.23 years 
male: 
51.48 years 
female: 
55.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.91 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Kenyan(s) 
adjective: 
Kenyan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%,
Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%, other 15% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 28%, Protestant (including Anglican) 26%, indigenous
beliefs 18%, Muslim 6% 
Languages: 
English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
69% 
male: 
80% 
female: 
58% 
Labor force: 
9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total employed is 1,370,000
(14.8% of the labor force)
by occupation: 
agriculture 75-80% (1993 est.), non-agriculture 20-25% (1993 est.)

@Kenya, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Kenya 
conventional short form: 
Kenya 
former: 
British East Africa 
Digraph: 
KE
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Nairobi 
Administrative divisions: 
8 provinces; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza,
Rift Valley, Western
Independence: 
12 December 1963 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 12 December (1963) 
Constitution: 
12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments
1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992
Legal system: 
based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial
review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure
one-party state repealed in 1991
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Daniel Teroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice
President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989); election last held on 29
December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - President Daniel T.
arap MOI was reelected with 37% of the vote; Kenneth Matiba
(FORD-ASILI) 26%; Mwai Kibaki (SP) 19%, Oginga Odinga (FORD-Kenya) 17%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge): 
elections last held on 29 December 1992; results - (188 total) KANU
100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3; president
nominates 12 additional members
note: 
first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law in 1991
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party is Kenya African National Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap
MOI, president; opposition parties include Forum for the Restoration
of Democracy (FORD-Kenya), Michael WAMALWA; Forum for the Restoration
of Democracy (FORD-Asili), Kenneth MATIBA; Democratic Party of Kenya
(DP), Mwai KIBAKI; Kenya National Congress (KNC), Titus MBATHI; Kenya
Social Congress (KSC), George ANYONA; Kenya National Democratic
Alliance (KENYA), Mukara NG'ANG'A; Party for Independent Candidates of
Kenya (PKK), Otieno OTOERA
Other political or pressure groups: 
labor unions; Roman Catholic Church
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
chancery: 
2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 387-6101 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL 
embassy: 
corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi or APO AE 09831 
telephone: 
[254] (2) 334141 
FAX: 
[254] (2) 340838 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red
band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed
spears is superimposed at the center

@Kenya, Economy

Overview: 
Kenya's 3.1% annual population growth rate - one of the highest in the
world - has led to a decline in per capita output in each of the last
three years, 1991-93. Undependable weather conditions and a shortage
of arable land hamper long-term growth in agriculture, the leading
economic sector. In industry and services, Nairobi's reluctance to
embrace IMF-supported reforms has held back investment. Ethnic clashes
and continued suspension of quick disbursing aid by the international
donors kept growth at only 0.5% in 1993.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $33.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
55% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
23.8% urban (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $740 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
tea 25%, coffee 18%, petroleum products 11% (1990)
partners: 
EC 47%, Africa 23%, Asia 11%, US 4%, Middle East 3% (1991)
Imports: 
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and petroleum
products 15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and consumer
goods (1989)
partners: 
EC 46%, Asia 23%, Middle East 20%, US 5% (1991)
External debt: 
$7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
730,000 kW
production: 
2.54 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
100 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles,
soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining,
cement, tourism
Agriculture: 
most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and 65% of exports;
cash crops - coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products - corn,
wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork,
poultry, eggs; food output not keeping pace with population growth,
and crop production has been extended into marginal land
Illicit drugs: 
widespread wild, small-plot cultivation of marijuana and gat; most
locally consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian heroin moving to
West Africa and onward to Europe and North America; Indian
methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.49
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $83 million 
Currency: 
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 68.413 (December 1993), 32.217
(1992), 27.508 (1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Kenya, Communications

Railroads: 
2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
64,590 km 
paved: 
7,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 4,150 km; improved earth 53,440 km 
Inland waterways: 
part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 483 km 
Ports: 
coastal - Mombasa, Lamu; inland - Kisumu
Merchant marine: 
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT, barge
carrier 1, oil tanker ship 1 
Airports: 
total: 
248 
usable: 
213 
with permanent-surface runways: 
28 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
44 
Telecommunications: 
in top group of African systems; consists primarily of radio relay
links; over 260,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 16 AM; 4 FM, 6
TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT

@Kenya, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,144,891; fit for military service 3,799,202 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $294 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY88/89 est.)


@Kingman Reef

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Kingman Reef, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,600 km
south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and American
Samoa
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
1 sq km 
land area: 
1 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
3 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds
Terrain: 
low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1 meter
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of about 1 meter
makes this a maritime hazard
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public

@Kingman Reef, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Kingman Reef, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Kingman Reef 
Digraph: 
KQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy,
however it is awash the majority of the time, so it is not usable and
uninhabited.
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Kingman Reef, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Kingman Reef, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa
by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

@Kingman Reef, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Kiribati, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, straddling the equator in the Pacific Ocean,
about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
717 sq km 
land area: 
717 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix
Islands
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,143 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Natural resources: 
phosphate (production discontinued in 1979) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
51% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
46% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; subject to
occasional tornadoes
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Climate Change
Note: 
20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati
is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean
- the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and Nauru

@Kiribati, People

Population: 
77,853 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.99% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
31.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.31 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
98.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
54.16 years 
male: 
52.56 years 
female: 
55.78 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
I-Kiribati (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
I-Kiribati 
Ethnic divisions: 
Micronesian 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)
Languages: 
English (official), Gilbertese 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (1985
est.)

@Kiribati, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Kiribati 
conventional short form: 
Kiribati 
former: 
Gilbert Islands 
Digraph: 
KR
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Tarawa 
Administrative divisions: 
3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands
note: 
a new administrative structure of 6 districts (Banaba, Central
Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa)
may have been changed to 21 island councils (one for each of the
inhabited islands) named Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba,
Beru, Butaritari, Canton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei,
Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa,
Teraina
Independence: 
12 July 1979 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 12 July (1979) 
Constitution: 
12 July 1979
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President (Beretitenti) Teatao TEANNAKI (since 8 July 1991); Vice
President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Taomati IUTA (since 8 July 1991);
election last held on 8 July 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - Teatao TEANNAKI 52%, Roniti TEIWAKI 28%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from an elected parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu): 
elections last held on 8 May 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total; 39 elected)
percent of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Progressive Party, Teatao TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic
Party, Teburoro TITO; New Movement Party, leader NA; Liberal Party,
Tewareka TENTOA; Maneaba Party, Roniti TEIWAKI
note: 
there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in
Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups
because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party
structures
Member of: 
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Kiribati has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation: 
the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
Flag: 
the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow
rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy
white stripes to represent the ocean

@Kiribati, Economy

Overview: 
The country has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and
fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has
fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP declined about 8% in 1987,
as the fish catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986
and copra production was hampered by repeated rains. Output rebounded
strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in economic
growth came from an increase in copra production and a good fish
catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GNP increased 1%
in both 1989 and 1990.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $36.8 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$525 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$29.9 million 
expenditures: 
$16.3 million, including capital expenditures of $14 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$4.2 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
copra 50%, seaweed 16%, fish 15%
partners: 
Denmark, Fiji, US
Imports: 
$33.1 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods,
fuel
partners: 
Australia 40%, Japan 18%, Fiji 17%, NZ 6%, US 4% (1991)
External debt: 
$2 million (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0.7% (1992 est.); accounts for less than 4% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,000 kW
production: 
13 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
190 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
accounts for 23% of GDP (including fishing); copra and fish contribute
about 65% to exports; subsistence farming predominates; food crops -
taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; not self-sufficient in
food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $273 million 
Currency: 
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
NA

@Kiribati, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
640 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Inland waterways: 
small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands
Ports: 
Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)
Merchant marine: 
1 passenger-cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,291 GRT/1,295
DWT
Airports: 
total: 
21 
usable: 
20 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
1,400 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Kiribati, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and paramilitary
duties; there are small police posts on all islands); no military
force is maintained
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Korea, North, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, between China and South Korea
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
120,540 sq km 
land area: 
120,410 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Mississippi
Land boundaries: 
total 1,673 km, China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km 
Coastline: 
2,495 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
military boundary line: 
50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the
Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission
are banned
International disputes: 
short section of boundary with China is indefinite; Demarcation Line
with South Korea
Climate: 
temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
Terrain: 
mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal
plains wide in west, discontinuous in east
Natural resources: 
coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper,
gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
18% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
74% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
14,000 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
localized air pollution attributable to inadequate industrial controls
natural hazards: 
late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; subject to
occasional typhoons which occur during the early fall
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Environmental Modification, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia;
mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and sparsely
populated

@Korea, North, People

Population: 
23,066,573 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.83% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
23.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
27.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.78 years 
male: 
66.69 years 
female: 
73.02 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.37 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Korean(s) 
adjective: 
Korean 
Ethnic divisions: 
racially homogeneous
Religions: 
Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo 
note: 
autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent;
government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of
religious freedom
Languages: 
Korean 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
9.615 million 
by occupation: 
agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%
note: 
shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

@Korea, North, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
conventional short form: 
North Korea 
local long form: 
Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk 
local short form: 
none 
Abbreviation: 
DPRK 
Digraph: 
KN
Type: 
Communist state; Stalinist dictatorship
Capital: 
P'yongyang 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3 special cities* (jikhalsi,
singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto
(North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong Province),
Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South
Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon
Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan
Province), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si*
(P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do (Yanggang Province)
Independence: 
9 September 1948 
note: 
15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and celebrated
in North Korea as National Liberation Day
National holiday: 
DPRK Foundation Day, 9 September (1948) 
Constitution: 
adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972, revised again in
April 1992
Legal system: 
based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and
Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President KIM Il-song (national leader since 1948, president since 28
December 1972); designated successor KIM Chong-il (son of president,
born 16 February 1942); election last held 24 May 1990 (next to be
held by NA 1995); results - President KIM Il-song was reelected
without opposition
head of government: 
Premier KANG Song-san (since December 1992) 
cabinet: 
State Administration Council; appointed by the Supreme People's
Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui): 
elections last held on 7-9 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a
single list of candidates who are elected without opposition; minor
parties hold a few seats
Judicial branch: 
Central Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
major party - Korean Workers' Party (KWP), KIM Il-song, general
secretary, and his son, KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee;
Korean Social Democratic Party, KIM Pyong-sik, chairman; Chondoist
Chongu Party, YU Mi-yong, chairwoman
Member of: 
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none
US diplomatic representation: 
none
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a
white disk with a red five-pointed star

@Korea, North, Economy

Overview: 
More than 90% of this command economy is socialized; agricultural land
is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of
manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually
tight even for a Communist country because of the small size and
homogeneity of the society and the strict rule of KIM Il-song and his
son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during the period 1984-88 averaged
2%-3%, but output declined by 3%-5% annually during 1989-92 because of
systemic problems and disruptions in socialist-style economic
relations with the former USSR and China. In 1992, output dropped
sharply, by perhaps 7%-9%, as the economy felt the cumulative effect
of the reduction in outside support. The leadership insisted on
maintaining its high level of military outlays from a shrinking
economic pie. Moreover, a serious drawdown in inventories and critical
shortages in the energy sector have led to increasing interruptions in
industrial production. Abundant mineral resources and hydropower have
formed the basis of industrial development since WWII. Output of the
extractive industries includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite,
copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals. Manufacturing is centered on
heavy industry, including military industry, with light industry
lagging far behind. Despite the use of improved seed varieties,
expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea
has not yet become self-sufficient in food production. Six consecutive
years of poor harvests, coupled with distribution problems, have led
to chronic food shortages. North Korea remains far behind South Korea
in economic development and living standards.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $22 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-7 to -9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$19.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$19.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and fishery products,
manufactures (including armaments)
partners: 
China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong, Mexico
Imports: 
$1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment, consumer goods
partners: 
China, Russia, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore
External debt: 
$8 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -7% to -9% (1992 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
7,300,000 kW
production: 
26 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,160 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
machine building, military products, electric power, chemicals,
mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force; principal crops -
rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock
products - cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s, but very little
now
Currency: 
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon
Exchange rates: 
North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.15 (May 1994), 2.13 (May 1992),
2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Korea, North, Communications

Railroads: 
4,915 km total; 4,250 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 665 km
0.762-meter narrow gauge; 159 km double track; 3,084 km electrified;
government owned (1989)
Highways: 
total: 
30,000 km 
paved: 
1,440 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 28,560 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only
Pipelines: 
crude oil 37 km 
Ports: 
primary - Ch'ongjin, Hungnam (Hamhung), Najin, Namp'o, Wonsan;
secondary - Haeju, Kimch'aek, Kosong, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong
(formerly Unggi), Ungsang
Merchant marine: 
83 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 706,497 GRT/1,114,827 DWT, bulk
9, cargo 67, combination bulk 1, oil tanker 2, passenger 1,
passenger-cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1 
Airports: 
total: 
55 
usable: 
55 (est.)
with permanent-surface runways: 
about 30 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
fewer than 5 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
20 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
30 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 300,000 TV sets (1989);
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Korea, North, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Korean People's Army (including the Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil
Security Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,658,529; fit for military service 4,044,355; reach
military age (18) annually 196,763 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - about $5 billion, 20%-25% of GNP (1991
est.); note - the officially announced but suspect figure is $2.2
billion (1994), about 12% of total spending


@Korea, South, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, between North Korea and Japan
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
98,480 sq km 
land area: 
98,190 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Indiana
Land boundaries: 
total 238 km, North Korea 238 km 
Coastline: 
2,413 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm; 3 nm in the Korea Strait
International disputes: 
Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks claimed by Japan
Climate: 
temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Terrain: 
mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Natural resources: 
coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower 
Land use: 
arable land: 
21% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
67% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
13,530 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution in large cities; water pollution from the discharge of
sewage and industrial effluents
natural hazards: 
occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes in
southwest
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea

@Korea, South, People

Population: 
45,082,880 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.04% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.7 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.17 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.59 years 
male: 
67.39 years 
female: 
73.98 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.65 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Korean(s) 
adjective: 
Korean 
Ethnic divisions: 
homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese) 
Religions: 
Christianity 48.6%, Buddhism 47.4%, Confucianism 3%, pervasive folk
religion (shamanism), Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way) 0.2% 
Languages: 
Korean, English widely taught in high school
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
96% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
99% 
Labor force: 
20 million 
by occupation: 
services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing 27%, agriculture,
fishing, forestry 21% (1991)

@Korea, South, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Korea 
conventional short form: 
South Korea 
local long form: 
Taehan-min'guk 
local short form: 
none 
Abbreviation: 
ROK 
Digraph: 
KS
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Seoul 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6 special cities* (jikhalsi,
singular and plural); Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo,
Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo,
Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*, Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*
Independence: 
15 August 1948 
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 15 August (1948) 
Constitution: 
25 February 1988
Legal system: 
combines elements of continental European civil law systems,
Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President KIM Yong-sam (since 25 February 1993); election last held on
18 December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1997); results - KIM
Yong-sam (DLP) 41.9%, KIM Tae-chung (DP) 33.8%, CHONG Chu-yong (UPP)
16.3%, other 8%
head of government: 
Prime Minister YI Yong-tok (since 29 April 1994); Deputy Prime
Minister CHONG Chae-sok (since 21 December 1993) and Deputy Prime
Minister YI Hong-ku (since 30 April 1994) 
cabinet: 
State Council; appointed by the president on the prime minister's
recommendation
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Kukhoe): 
elections last held on 24 March 1992; results - DLP 38.5%, DP 29.2%,
Unification National Party (UNP) 17.3% (name later changed to UPP),
other 15%; seats - (299 total) DLP 149, DP 97, UNP 31, other 22; the
distribution of seats as of January 1994 was DLP 172, DP 96, UPP 11,
other 20
note: 
the change in the distribution of seats reflects the fluidity of the
current situation where party members are constantly switching from
one party to another
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
majority party: 
Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), KIM Yong-sam, president
opposition: 
Democratic Party (DP), YI Ki-taek, executive chairman; United People's
Party (UPP), KIM Tong-kil, chairman; several smaller parties
note: 
the DLP resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party (DJP),
Reunification Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic Republican
Party (NDRP) on 9 February 1990
Other political or pressure groups: 
Korean National Council of Churches; National Democratic Alliance of
Korea; National Federation of Student Associations; National
Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Council of Labor Unions;
Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association;
Federation of Korean Industries; Korean Traders Association
Member of: 
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, COCOM (cooperating), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OAS
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador HAN Sung-su 
chancery: 
2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-5600 
consulate(s) general: 
Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador James T. LANEY 
embassy: 
82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul 
mailing address: 
American Embassy, Unit 15550, Seoul; APO AP 96205-0001 
telephone: 
[82] (2) 397-4000 through 4008 and 397-4114 
FAX: 
[82] (2) 738-8845 
consulate(s): 
Pusan 
Flag: 
white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there
is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of
Changes) in each corner of the white field

@Korea, South, Economy

Overview: 
The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth has been the
planned development of an export-oriented economy in a vigorously
entrepreneurial society. Real GNP increased more than 10% annually
between 1986 and 1991. This growth ultimately led to an overheated
situation characterized by a tight labor market, strong inflationary
pressures, and a rapidly rising current account deficit. As a result,
in 1992, economic policy focused on slowing the growth rate of
inflation and reducing the deficit. Annual growth slowed to 5%, still
above the rate in most other countries of the world. Growth increased
to 6.3% in 1993 as a result of fourth quarter manufacturing production
growth of over 10% and is expected to be in the 8% range for 1994.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $424 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.3% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$9,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.8% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
2.6% (October 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$48.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$48.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$81 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, steel, automobiles,
ships, textiles, clothing, footwear, fish
partners: 
US 26%, Japan 17%, EC 14%
Imports: 
$78.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport
equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners: 
Japan 26%, US 24%, EC 15%
External debt: 
$42 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5% (1992 est.); accounts for about 45% of GNP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
27,016 kW (1993)
production: 
105 billion kWh (1992)
consumption per capita: 
2,380 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
electronics, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel,
textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 8% of GNP and employs 21% of work force (including
fishing and forestry); principal crops - rice, root crops, barley,
vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products - cattle, hogs,
chickens, milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat; fish
catch of 2.9 million metric tons, seventh-largest in world
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9 billion; non-US
countries (1970-89), $3 billion 
Currency: 
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chun (theoretical)
Exchange rates: 
South Korean won (W) per US$1 - 810.48 (January 1994), 802.68 (1993),
780.65 (1992), 733.35 (1991), 707.76 (1990), 671.46 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Korea, South, Communications

Railroads: 
3,091 km total (1991); 3,044 km 1.435 meter standard gauge, 47 km
0.610-meter narrow gauge, 847 km double track; 525 km electrified,
government owned
Highways: 
total: 
63,201 km 
paved: 
expressways 1,551 km 
unpaved: 
NA 
undifferentiated: 
national highway 12,190 km; provincial, local roads 49,460 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 455 km 
Ports: 
Pusan, Inch'on, Kunsan, Mokp'o, Ulsan
Merchant marine: 
417 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,425,920 GRT/10,535,850 DWT,
bulk 123, cargo 132, chemical tanker 16, combination bulk 2,
combination ore/oil 2, container 60, liquefied gas 13, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 47, refrigerated cargo 11, short-sea
passenger 1, vehicle carrier 9 
Airports: 
total: 
104 
usable: 
95 
with permanent-surface runways: 
61 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
23 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
18 
Telecommunications: 
excellent domestic and international services; 13,276,449 telephone
subscribers; broadcast stations - 79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or
greater); satellite earth stations - 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Korea, South, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 13,435,598; fit for military service 8,623,325; reach
military age (18) annually 417,055 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $13.0 billion, 3.6% of GNP (1994 est.)


@Kuwait, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, at the head of the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi
Arabia
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
17,820 sq km 
land area: 
17,820 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
total 464 km, Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km 
Coastline: 
499 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
in April 1991 Iraq officially accepted UN Security Council Resolution
687, which demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary
set forth in its 1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to
Bubiyan and Warbah islands, or to all of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final
report of the UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission was
welcomed by the Security Council in Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993,
which also reaffirmed that the decisions of the commission on the
boundary were final, bringing to a completion the official demarcation
of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi officials still refuse to
unconditionally recognize Kuwaiti sovereignty of the inviolability of
the UN demarcated border; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim
islands disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate: 
dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Terrain: 
flat to slightly undulating desert plain
Natural resources: 
petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
8% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
92% 
Irrigated land: 
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping
Note: 
strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

@Kuwait, People

Population: 
1,819,322 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
5.24% (1994 est.) 
note: 
this rate reflects the continued post-Gulf crisis return of nationals
and expatriates
Birth rate: 
29.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
2.37 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
25.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.99 years 
male: 
72.83 years 
female: 
77.25 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Kuwaiti(s) 
adjective: 
Kuwaiti 
Ethnic divisions: 
Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7% 
Religions: 
Muslim 85% (Shi'a 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi,
and other 15% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), English widely spoken
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
73% 
male: 
77% 
female: 
67% 
Labor force: 
566,000 (1986)
by occupation: 
services 45.0%, construction 20.0%, trade 12.0%, manufacturing 8.6%,
finance and real estate 2.6%, agriculture 1.9%, power and water 1.7%,
mining and quarrying 1.4%
note: 
70% of labor force non-Kuwaiti (1986)

@Kuwait, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
State of Kuwait 
conventional short form: 
Kuwait 
local long form: 
Dawlat al Kuwayt 
local short form: 
Al Kuwayt 
Digraph: 
KU
Type: 
nominal constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Kuwait 
Administrative divisions: 
5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al 'Ahmadi, Al
Jahrah, Al Kuwayt, Hawalli, Al Farwaniyah
Independence: 
19 June 1961 (from UK)
National holiday: 
National Day, 25 February (1948) 
Constitution: 
16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29 August 1962)
Legal system: 
civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male
descendants at age 21
note: 
only 10% of all citizens are eligible to vote
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Amir Shaykh JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31 December 1977) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister and Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdallah al-Salim Al Sabah
(since 8 February 1978); Deputy Prime Minister SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir
Al Sabah (since 17 October 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the Prime Minister and approved by
the Amir
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Majlis al-umma): 
dissolved 3 July 1986; new elections were held on 5 October 1992 with
a second election in the 14th and 16th constituencies held February
1993
Judicial branch: 
High Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Other political or pressure groups: 
small, clandestine leftist and Shi'a fundamentalist groups are active;
several groups critical of government policies are publicly active
Member of: 
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah 
chancery: 
2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 966-0702 
FAX: 
(202) 966-0517 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Ryan CROCKER 
embassy: 
Bneid al-Gar (opposite the Kuwait International Hotel), Kuwait City 
mailing address: 
P.O. Box 77 SAFAT, 13001 SAFAT, Kuwait; Unit 69000, Kuwait; APO AE
09880-9000 
telephone: 
[965] 242-4151 through 4159 
FAX: 
[956] 244-2855 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
black trapezoid based on the hoist side

@Kuwait, Economy

Overview: 
Kuwait is a small and relatively open economy with proven crude oil
reserves of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world reserves. Kuwait
has rebuilt its war-ravaged petroleum sector; its crude oil production
reached at least 2.0 million barrels per day by the end of 1993. The
government ran a sizable fiscal deficit in 1993. Petroleum accounts
for nearly half of GDP and 90% of export and government revenues.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $25.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
15% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$15,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
NEGL% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$9 billion 
expenditures: 
$13 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports: 
$10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
oil
partners: 
France 16%, Italy 15%, Japan 12%, UK 11%
Imports: 
$6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing
partners: 
US 35%, Japan 12%, UK 9%, Canada 9%
External debt: 
$7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)
note: 
external debt has grown substantially in 1991 and 1992 to pay for
restoration of war damage
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,873,000 kW available out of 7,398,000 kW due to Persian Gulf war
production: 
12.264 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,890 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, building
materials, salt, construction
Agriculture: 
practically none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of potable
water must be distilled or imported
Economic aid: 
donor: 
pledged bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89), $18.3
billion 
Currency: 
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates: 
Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1 - 0.2982 (January 1994), 0.3017 (1993),
0.2934 (1992), 0.2843 (1991), 0.2915 (1990), 0.2937 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Kuwait, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
3,900 km 
paved: 
bituminous 3,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, sand, earth 900 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 877 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 165 km 
Ports: 
Ash Shu'aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Mina' al Ahmadi, Mina' 'Abd Allah, Mina'
Su'ud
Merchant marine: 
46 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 2,153,693 GRT/3,561,568 DWT,
cargo 10, container 2, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 4, oil
tanker 23 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
civil network suffered extensive damage as a result of the Gulf war
and reconstruction is still under way with some restored international
and domestic capabilities; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 0 FM, 3 TV;
satellite earth stations - destroyed during Gulf war and not rebuilt
yet; temporary mobile satellite ground stations provide international
telecommunications; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi
Arabia; service to Iraq is nonoperational

@Kuwait, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 537,696; fit for military service 321,767; reach
military age (18) annually 15,354 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 7.3% of GDP (FY92/93)


@Kyrgyzstan, Geography

Location: 
Central Asia, between China and Kazakhstan
Map references: 
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
198,500 sq km 
land area: 
191,300 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries: 
total 3,878 km, China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,099 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara
Valley area
Climate: 
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest
(Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrain: 
peaks of Tien Shan rise to 7,000 meters, and associated valleys and
basins encompass entire nation
Natural resources: 
small amounts of coal abundant hydroelectric potential; significant
deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil
and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead,
and zinc, natural gas, oil, nepheline, rare earth metals, mercury,
bismuth, gold, lead, zinc, hydroelectric power 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
NEGL%
meadows and pastures: 
42% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
51% 
Irrigated land: 
10,320 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution; many people get their water directly from
contaminated streams and wells and as a result, water-borne diseases
are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation
practices
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
landlocked

@Kyrgyzstan, People

Population: 
4,698,108 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.53% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
26.33 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
46.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.92 years 
male: 
63.69 years 
female: 
72.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.35 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Kyrgyz(s) 
adjective: 
Kyrgyz 
Ethnic divisions: 
Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 21.5%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German
2.4%, other 8.3% 
Religions: 
Muslim 70%, Russian Orthodox NA%
Languages: 
Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian widely used
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
1.836 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and forestry 38%, industry and construction 21%, other 41%
(1990)

@Kyrgyzstan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kyrgyz Republic 
conventional short form: 
Kyrgyzstan 
local long form: 
Kyrgyz Respublikasy 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
KG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Bishkek 
Administrative divisions: 
6 oblasttar (singular - oblast); Chuy Oblasty, Jalal-Abad Oblasty,
Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty
note: 
the administrative center for Chuy Oblasty is Bishkek; the
administrative center for Ysyk-Kol Oblasty may be Ksyk-Kol or Karakol;
all other oblasttar have administrative centers of the same name as
the oblast
Independence: 
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31 August (1991) 
Constitution: 
adopted 5 May 1993
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990); election last held 12
October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Askar AKAYEV won in
uncontested election with 95% of vote and with 90% of electorate
voting; note - president elected by Supreme Soviet 28 October 1990,
then by popular vote 12 October 1991; note - AKAYEV won 96% of the
vote in a referendum on his status as president on 30 January 1993
head of government: 
Prime Minister Apas DZHUMAGULOV (since NA December 1993); First Deputy
Prime Minister Almambet MATURBRAIMOV (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet of Ministers; subordinate to the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Zhogorku Keneshom: 
elections last held 25 February 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next to
be held no later than NA November 1994 for the Zhogorku Keneshom);
results - Communists 90%; seats - (350 total) Communists 310
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Social Democrats, Ishenbai KADYRBEKOV, chairman; Kyrgyzstan Democratic
Movement (KDM), Kazat AKHMATOV, chairman; National Unity, German
KUZNETSOV; Communist Party, Dzhumalbek AMANBAYEV, chairman; Erkin
(Free) Kyrgyzstan Party, Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Unity Democratic Movement; Peasant Party; Council of Free
Trade Unions; Union of Entrepreneurs; Agrarian Party
Member of: 
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IOC, NACC, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant) 
chancery: 
(temporary) Suite 705, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 347-3732/3 
FAX: 
(202) 347-3718 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward HURWITZ 
embassy: 
Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek 720002 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
7-3312 22-29-20, 22-26-93, 22-29-89 
FAX: 
7-3312 22-35-51 
Flag: 
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing
the 40 Krygyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run
counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun
is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized
representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt

@Kyrgyzstan, Economy

Overview: 
Kyrgyzstan is one of the smallest and poorest states of the former
Soviet Union. Its economy is heavily agricultural, producing cotton
and tobacco on irrigated land in the south, grain in the foothills of
the north, and sheep and goats on mountain pastures. Its small and
obsolescent industrial sector, concentrated around Bishkek, is heavily
dependent on Russia and other CIS countries for customers and for
inputs, including most of its fuel. Since 1990, the economy has
contracted by almost 40%. Kyrgyzstan's inflation was high in 1993,
about 23% per month, but rates were declining at the end of the year.
Kyrgyzstan introduced its national currency, the som, in May 1993, it
has privatized 28% of its former state assets, and plans call for a
massive voucher privatization in 1994. Although Kyrgyzstan will
receive relatively large flows of foreign aid, ongoing economic
restructuring will continue to be painful with an anticipated increase
in unemployment as uneconomic enterprises close. President AKAYEV will
be under strong political pressure to backtrack on some reform
measures.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $11.3 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Kirghiz statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-13.4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,440 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
23% per month (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
0.2% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$100.4 million to countries outside the FSU (1993 est.)
commodities: 
wool, chemicals, cotton, ferrous and nonferrous metals, shoes,
machinery, tobacco
partners: 
Russia 70%, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and others
Imports: 
$105.8 million from countries outside the FSU (1993 est.)
commodities: 
grain, lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery,
textiles, footwear
partners: 
other CIS republics
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -27% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
4,100,000 kW
production: 
11.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,551 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
small machinery, textiles, food-processing industries, cement, shoes,
sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, and rare
earth metals
Agriculture: 
wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle), vegetables,
meat, grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS
consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North
America from Central and Southwest Asia
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
$80 million in 1993 and an anticipated $400 million in 1994
Currency: 
introduced national currency, the som (10 May 1993)
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Kyrgyzstan, Communications

Railroads: 
370 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
30,300 km 
paved and graveled: 
22,600 km 
unpaved: 
earth 7,700 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
natural gas 200 km 
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Airports: 
total: 
52 
usable: 
27 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
13 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
poorly developed; 342,000 telephones in 1991 (also about 100,000
unsatisfied applications for household telephones); 76 telephones per
1,000 persons (31 December 1991); microwave radio relay is principal
means of intercity telephone links; connections with other CIS
countries by landline or microwave and with other countries by leased
connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite;
2 satellite earth stations - 1 GORIZONT and 1 INTELSAT (links through
Ankara to 200 other countries and receives Turkish broadcasts);
broadcast receivers - radios 825,000, TVs 875,000, radio receiver
systems with multiple speakers for program diffusion 748,000

@Kyrgyzstan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops), Civil
Defense 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,123,959; fit for military service 912,516; reach
military age (18) annually 44,528 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Laos, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, between Vietnam and Thailand
Map references: 
Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
236,800 sq km 
land area: 
230,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Utah
Land boundaries: 
total 5,083 km, Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China 423 km, Thailand
1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
boundary dispute with Thailand
Climate: 
tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December
to April)
Terrain: 
mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
Natural resources: 
timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
58% 
other: 
35% 
Irrigated land: 
1,200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
subject to floods, drought, and blight
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but
not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked

@Laos, People

Population: 
4,701,654 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.85% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
14.74 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
101.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
51.68 years 
male: 
50.16 years 
female: 
53.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.07 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Lao(s) or Laotian(s) 
adjective: 
Lao or Laotian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Lao 50%, Phoutheung (Kha) 15%, tribal Thai 20%, Meo, Hmong, Yao, and
other 15% 
Religions: 
Buddhist 85%, animist and other 15% 
Languages: 
Lao (official), French, English 
Literacy: 
age 15-45 can read and write (1993)
total population: 
64% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1-1.5 million
by occupation: 
agriculture 85-90% (est.)

@Laos, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Lao People's Democratic Republic 
conventional short form: 
Laos 
local long form: 
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao 
local short form: 
none 
Digraph: 
LA
Type: 
Communist state 
Capital: 
Vientiane 
Administrative divisions: 
16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 municipality*
(kampheng nakhon, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai,
Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang,
Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet, Xekong, Vientiane,
Viangchan*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang
Independence: 
19 July 1949 (from France)
National holiday: 
National Day, 2 December (1975) (proclamation of the Lao People's
Democratic Republic)
Constitution: 
promulgated 14 August 1991
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President NOUHAK PHOUMSAVAN (since 25 November 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Gen. KHAMTAI SIPHANDON (since 15 August 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president, approved by the
Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Third National Assembly: 
elections last held on 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (85 total) number of seats by
party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme People's Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), KHAMTAI Siphandon, party
president; includes Lao Front for National Construction (LFNC); other
parties moribund
Other political or pressure groups: 
non-Communist political groups moribund; most leaders fled the country
in 1975
Member of: 
ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador HIEM PHOMMACHANH 
chancery: 
2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-6416 or 6417 
FAX: 
(202) 332-4923 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Victor TOMSETH 
embassy: 
Rue Bartholonie, Vientiane 
mailing address: 
B. P. 114, Vientiane, or American Embassy, Box V, APO AP 96546 
telephone: 
[851] 2220, 2357, or 3570, 16-9581 
FAX: 
[851] 4675 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with
a large white disk centered in the blue band

@Laos, Economy

Overview: 
Laos has had a Communist centrally planned economy with government
ownership and control of major productive enterprises. Since 1986,
however, the government has been decentralizing control and
encouraging private enterprise. Laos is a landlocked country with a
primitive infrastructure; it has no railroads, a rudimentary road
system, limited external and internal telecommunications, and
electricity available in only a limited area. Subsistence agriculture
is the main occupation, accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing
about 85-90% of total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For
the foreseeable future the economy will continue to depend for its
survival on foreign aid from the IMF and other international sources;
aid from the former USSR and Eastern Europe has been cut sharply.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.8% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
21% (1989 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$83 million 
expenditures: 
$188.5 million, including capital expenditures of $94 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$133 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
electricity, wood products, coffee, tin
partners: 
Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, FSU, US, China
Imports: 
$266 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures
partners: 
Thailand, FSU, Japan, France, Vietnam, China
External debt: 
$1.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 12% (1991 est.); accounts for about 18% of GDP (1991 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
226,000 kW
production: 
990 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
220 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural
processing, construction
Agriculture: 
accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force;
subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient in
nondrought years; principal crops - rice (80% of cultivated land),
sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, cotton; livestock
- buffaloes, hogs, cattle, poultry
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis, opium poppy for the international drug
trade, third-largest opium producer (180 metric tons in 1993)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $605
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $995 million 
Currency: 
1 new kip (NK) = 100 at
Exchange rates: 
new kips (NK) per US$1 - 720 (July 1993). 710 (May 1992), 710
(December 1991), 700 (September 1990), 576 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Laos, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
27,527 km 
paved: 
bituminous 1,856 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 7,451 km; unimproved earth
18,220 km (often impassable during rainy season mid-May to
mid-September)
Inland waterways: 
about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional
kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 136 km 
Ports: 
none
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,370 GRT/3,000 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
53 
usable: 
41 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
15 
Telecommunications: 
service to general public practically non-existant; radio
communications network provides generally erratic service to
government users; 7,390 telephones (1986); broadcast stations - 10 AM,
no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

@Laos, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Lao People's Army (LPA; including naval, aviation, and militia
elements), Air Force, National Police Department 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,015,357; fit for military service 547,566; reach
military age (18) annually 49,348 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Latvia, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Europe, bordering on the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
64,100 sq km 
land area: 
64,100 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
total 1,078 km, Belarus 141 km, Estonia 267 km, Lithuania 453 km,
Russia 217 km 
Coastline: 
531 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
the Abrene section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist
Republic to Russia in 1944
Climate: 
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain: 
low plain
Natural resources: 
minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
27% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
13% 
forest and woodland: 
39% 
other: 
21% 
Irrigated land: 
160 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air and water pollution because of a lack of waste conversion
equipment; Gulf of Riga and Daugava River heavily polluted;
contamination of soil and groundwater with chemicals and petroleum
products at military bases
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Latvia, People

Population: 
2,749,211 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.5% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.84 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
21.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.44 years 
male: 
64.37 years 
female: 
74.75 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.98 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Latvian(s) 
adjective: 
Latvian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Latvian 51.8%, Russian 33.8%, Byelorussian 4.5%, Ukrainian 3.4%,
Polish 2.3%, other 4.2% 
Religions: 
Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox 
Languages: 
Lettish (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
1.407 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 16%, other 43%
(1990)

@Latvia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Latvia 
conventional short form: 
Latvia 
local long form: 
Latvijas Republika 
local short form: 
Latvija 
former: 
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
LG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Riga 
Administrative divisions: 
26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles
Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons,
Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons,
Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas
Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Leipaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons,
Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preiju Rajons, Rezekne*,
Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons,
Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils
Rajons
Independence: 
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 18 November (1918) 
Constitution: 
newly elected Parliament in 1993 restored the 1933 constitution
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Guntis ULMANIS (since 7 July 1993); Saeima elected President
ULMANIS in the third round of balloting on 7 July 1993
head of government: 
Prime Minister Valdis BIRKAVS (since 20 July 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the Supreme Council
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Saeima): 
elections last held 5-6 June 1993 (next to be held NA June 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (100 total) LC 36, LNNK
15, Concord for Latvia 13, LZS 12, Equal Rights 7, LKDS 6, TUB 6, DCP
5
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Latvian Way Union (LC), Valdis BIRKAVS; Latvian Farmers Union (LZS),
Alvars BERKIS; Latvian National Independence Movement (LNNK), Andrejs
KRASTINS, Aristids LAMBERGS, cochairmen; Concord for Latvia, Janis
JURKANS; Equal Rights, Sergejs DIMANIS; Christian Democrat Union
(LKDS), Peteris CIMDINS, Andris SAULITIS, Janis RUSKO; Fatherland and
Freedom (TUB), Maris GRINBLATS, Roberts MILBERGS, Oigerts DZENTIS;
Democratic Center (DCP), Ints CALITIS; Popular Front of Latvia (LTF),
Uldis AUGSTKALNS
Member of: 
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, LORCS, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ojars Eriks KALNINS 
chancery: 
4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 
telephone: 
(202) 726-8213 and 8214 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ints M, SILINS 
embassy: 
Raina Boulevard 7, Riga 226050 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
46-9-882-0046 
FAX: 
46-9-882-0047 
Flag: 
two horizontal bands of maroon (top and bottom), white (middle,
narrower than other two bands)

@Latvia, Economy

Overview: 
Latvia is rapidly becoming a dynamic market economy, rivaled only by
Estonia among the former Soviet states in the speed of its
transformation. The transition has been painful with GDP falling over
45% in 1992-93, according to official statistics, and industrial
production experiencing even steeper declines. Nevertheless, the
government's tough monetary policies and reform program, which foster
the development of the private sector and market mechanisms, have kept
inflation low, created a dynamic private sector - much of which is not
captured in official statistics - and expanded trade ties with the
West. Much of agriculture is already privatized and the government
plans to step up the pace of privatization of state enterprises. The
economy is now poised for recovery and will benefit from the country's
strategic location on the Baltic Sea, its well-educated population,
and its diverse - albeit largely obsolete - industrial structure.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $13.2 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Latvian statistics, which are very
uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,810 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate: 
5.6% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$429 million from non-FSU countries (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
oil products, timber, ferrous metals, dairy products, furniture,
textiles
partners: 
Russia, other CIS countries, Western Europe
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
fuels, cars, ferrous metals, chemicals
partners: 
Russia, other CIS countries, Western Europe
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -38% (1992 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,140,000 kW
production: 
5.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,125 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
employs 41% of labor force; highly diversified; dependent on imports
for energy, raw materials, and intermediate products; produces buses,
vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural
machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics,
pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles
Agriculture: 
employs 16% of labor force; principally dairy farming and livestock
feeding; products - meat, milk, eggs, grain, sugar beets, potatoes,
vegetables; fishing and fish packing
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer of illicit
opium; mostly for domestic consumption; also produces illicit
amphetamines for export
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 lat = 100 cents; introduced NA March 1993
Exchange rates: 
lats per US$1 - 0.5917 (January 1994), 1.32 (March 1993)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Latvia, Communications

Railroads: 
2,400 km (1,524-mm gauge); 270 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
59,500 km 
paved and graveled: 
33,000 km 
unpaved: 
earth 26,500 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
300 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil 750 km; refined products 780 km; natural gas 560 km (1992)
Ports: 
coastal - Riga, Ventspils, Liepaja; inland - Daugavpils
Merchant marine: 
93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 850,840 GRT/1,107,403 DWT, cargo
15, container 2, oil tanker 41, refrigerated cargo 27,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 8 
Airports: 
total: 
50 
usable: 
15 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
Latvia is better provided with telephone service than most of the
other former Soviet republics; subscriber circuits 660,000; subscriber
density 240 per 1,000 persons (1993); an NMT-450 analog cellular
telephone network covers 75% of Latvia's population; international
traffic carried by leased connection to the Moscow international
gateway switch and through the new Ericsson AXE local/transit digital
telephone exchange in Riga and through the Finnish cellular net;
electronic mail capability by Sprint data network; broadcasting
services NA

@Latvia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border
troops), Border Guard, Home Guard (Zemessardze) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 652,444; fit for military service 514,055; reach
military age (18) annually 18,803 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
176 million rubles, 3%-5% of GDP; note - conversion of the military
budget into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@Lebanon

Header
Note: 
Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions
and regaining its national sovereignty since the end of the
devastating 16-year civil war in October 1990. Under the Ta'if accord
- the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have
established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving
Muslims a greater say in the political process. Since December 1990,
the Lebanese have formed three cabinets and conducted the first
legislative election in 20 years. Most of the militias have been
weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has seized vast
quantities of weapons used by the militias during the war and extended
central government authority over about one-half of the country.
Hizballah, the radical Sh'ia party, retains most of its weapons.
Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops
in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia, The Army
of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous
to its border. The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared
security zone and about 20 kilometers north to the strategic town of
Jazzine. As of December 1993, Syria maintained about 30,000-35,000
troops in Lebanon. These troops are based mainly in Beirut, North
Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment was legitimized by
the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if accord.
Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and
failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the
constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far
refused to withdraw its troops from Beirut.

@Lebanon, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and
Syria
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
10,400 sq km 
land area: 
10,230 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
total 454 km, Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km 
Coastline: 
225 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern, central,
and eastern Lebanon since October 1976
Climate: 
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers;
Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain: 
narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Natural resources: 
limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit
region 
Land use: 
arable land: 
21% 
permanent crops: 
9% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
8% 
other: 
61% 
Irrigated land: 
860 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air and water pollution
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation
Note: 
Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an
international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate,
protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion,
clan, and ethnicity

@Lebanon, People

Population: 
3,620,395 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.98% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
27.89 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
39.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.35 years 
male: 
66.92 years 
female: 
71.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Lebanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Lebanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Islam 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Alawite or Nusayri,
Druze, Isma'ilite, Shi'a, Sunni), Christian 30% (11 legally recognized
Christian groups - 4 Orthodox Christian, 6 Catholic, 1 Protestant),
Judaism NEGL%
Languages: 
Arabic (official), French (official), Armenian, English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
80% 
male: 
88% 
female: 
73% 
Labor force: 
650,000 
by occupation: 
industry, commerce, and services 79%, agriculture 11%, government 10%
(1985)

@Lebanon, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Lebanon 
conventional short form: 
Lebanon 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah 
local short form: 
none 
Digraph: 
LE
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Beirut 
Administrative divisions: 
5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Biqa, 'Al Janub,
Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan
Independence: 
22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French
administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 22 November (1943) 
Constitution: 
23 May 1926, amended a number of times
Legal system: 
mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no
judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age
21 with elementary education
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989); note - by custom, the
president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni
Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim
head of government: 
Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 22 October 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; chosen by the president in consultation with the members of
the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
(Arabic - Majlis Alnuwab, French - Assemblee Nationale) Lebanon's
first legislative election in 20 years was held in the summer of 1992;
the National Assembly is composed of 128 deputies, one-half Christian
and one-half Muslim; its mandate expires in 1996
Judicial branch: 
four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases
and one court for criminal cases)
Political parties and leaders: 
political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines;
numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political
figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic
considerations
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Riad TABBARAH 
chancery: 
2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-6300 
FAX: 
(202) 939-6324 
consulate(s) general: 
Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mark HAMBLEY 
mailing embassy: 
Antelias, Beirut 
address: 
P. O. Box 70-840, PSC 815, Box 2, Beirut; FPO AE 09836-0002 
telephone: 
[961] 417774 or 415802 through 415803, 402200, 403300 
FAX: 
[961] (1) 407-112 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red
with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

@Lebanon, Economy

Overview: 
Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's economic
infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended
Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub.
Following October 1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the
central government to begin restoring control in Beirut, collect
taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. The
battered economy has also been propped up by a financially sound
banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers.
Family remittances, banking transactions, manufactured and farm
exports, the narcotics trade, and international emergency aid are the
main sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of
1991, industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed
substantial gains. The further rebuilding of the war-ravaged country
was delayed in 1992 because of an upturn in political wrangling. In
October 1992, Rafiq HARIRI was appointed Prime Minister. HARIRI, a
wealthy entrepreneur, has announced ambitious plans for Lebanon's
reconstruction which involve a substantial influx of foreign aid and
investment. Progress on restoring basic services is limited. Since
Prime Minister HARIRI's appointment, the most significant improvement
lies in the stabilization of the Lebanese pound, which had gained over
30% in value by yearend 1993. The year 1993 was marked by efforts of
the new administration to encourage domestic and foreign investment
and to obtain additional international assistance.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.2% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$1,720 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
35% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
35% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$990 million 
expenditures: 
$1.98 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$925 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious
metals and jewelry, metals and metal products
partners: 
Saudi Arabia 21%, Switzerland 9.5%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 12%, US 5%
Imports: 
$4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
Consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
partners: 
Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%
External debt: 
$700 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 25% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,300,000 kW
production: 
3.413 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
990 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals,
jewelry, some metal fabricating
Agriculture: 
accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products - citrus
fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep,
goats; not self-sufficient in grain
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of hashish and heroin for the international drug
trade; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, the Middle
East, and North and South America; increasingly a key locus of cocaine
processing and trafficking
Economic aid: 
aid for Lebanon's reconstruction programs currently totals $1.3
billion since October 1992, including a $175 million loan from the
World Bank
Currency: 
1 Lebanese pound (#L) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates: 
Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 1,713.00 (December 1993), 2,200.00
(1992), 928.23 (1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Lebanon, Communications

Railroads: 
system in disrepair, considered inoperable
Highways: 
total: 
7,300 km 
paved: 
6,200 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 450 km; improved earth 650 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 72 km (none in operation)
Ports: 
Beirut, Tripoli, Ra'Sil'ata, Juniyah, Sidon, Az Zahrani, Tyre, Jubayl,
Shikka Jadidah
Merchant marine: 
63 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,268 GRT/399,054 DWT, bulk 4,
cargo 39, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, container 2,
livestock carrier 9, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 2, combination ore/oil 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding
still underway; 325,000 telephones (95 telephones per 1,000 persons);
domestic traffic carried primarily by microwave radio relay and a
small amount of cable; international traffic by satellite - 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station (erratic operations), coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio
relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan, 3 submarine
coaxial cables; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV (numerous AM
and FM stations are operated sporadically by various factions)

@Lebanon, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; including Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 827,267; fit for military service 514,291 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $271 million, 8.2% of GDP (1992 budget)


@Lesotho, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
30,350 sq km 
land area: 
30,350 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 909 km, South Africa 909 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain: 
mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains
Natural resources: 
water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds and other minerals
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
66% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
24% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in
overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification
natural hazards: 
subject to periods of drought
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note: 
landlocked; surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will
control, store, and redirect water to South Africa
Population: 
1,944,493 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.48% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.19 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
69.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
62.14 years 
male: 
60.32 years 
female: 
64.01 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.5 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural) 
adjective: 
Basotho 
Ethnic divisions: 
Sotho 99.7%, Europeans 1,600, Asians 800
Religions: 
Christian 80%, rest indigenous beliefs
Languages: 
Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
total population: 
59% 
male: 
44% 
female: 
68% 
Labor force: 
689,000 economically active
by occupation: 
86.2% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture;
roughly 60% of active male labor force works in South Africa

@Lesotho, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Lesotho 
conventional short form: 
Lesotho 
former: 
Basutoland 
Digraph: 
LT
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Maseru 
Administrative divisions: 
10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's
Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
Independence: 
4 October 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 4 October (1966) 
Constitution: 
2 April 1993
Legal system: 
based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of
legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King LETSIE III (since 12 November 1990) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Ntsu MOKHEHLE (since 2 April 1993 ) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament consisting of the Assembly or lower house whose
members are chosen by popular election and the Senate or upper house
whose members consist of the 22 principal chiefs and 10 other members
appointed by the ruling party; election held in March 1993 (first
since 1971); all 65 seats in the Assembly were won by the BCP
Judicial branch: 
High Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
Basotho National Party (BNP), Evaristus SEKHONYANA; Basutholand
Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu MOKHEHLE; National Independent Party (NIP),
A. C. MANYELI; Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), Vincent MALEBO; United
Democratic Party, Charles MOFELI; Communist Party of Lesotho (CPL),
Jacob M. KENA
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Teboho KITLELI 
chancery: 
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 797-5533 through 5536 
FAX: 
(202) 234-6815 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Karl HOFMANN 
embassy: 
address NA, Maseru 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho 
telephone: 
[266] 312-666 
FAX: 
[266] 310-116 
Flag: 
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half is
white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed
spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green
triangle in the corner

@Lesotho, Economy

Overview: 
Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important natural
resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture, light
manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa
(recently equal to about 45% of GDP). The great majority of households
gain their livelihoods from subsistence farming and migrant labor; a
large portion of the adult male workforce is employed in South African
mines. Manufacturing depends largely on farm products to support the
milling, canning, leather, and jute industries; other industries
include textile, clothing, and construction (in particular, a major
water improvement project which will permit the sale of water to South
Africa). Industry's share of GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 13% in 1991.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2.4% (FY 93)
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
17% (FY93)
Unemployment rate: 
at least 55% among adult males (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$438 million 
expenditures: 
$430 million, including capital expenditures of $155 million (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$109 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets
partners: 
South Africa 42%, EC 28%, North and South America 25% (1991)
Imports: 
$964 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery,
medicines, petroleum
partners: 
South Africa 94%, Asia 3%, EC 1% (1991)
External debt: 
$428 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 
power supplied by South Africa
Industries: 
food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 15% of GDP (1991 est.) and employs 60-70% of all
households; exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and
livestock; principal crops corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $268 million; US (1992),
$10.3 million; US (1993 est.), $10.1 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $819 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $14 million 
Currency: 
1 loti (L) = 100 lisente
Exchange rates: 
maloti (M) per US$1 - 3.4096 (January 1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497
(1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989); note - the
Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Lesotho, Communications

Railroads: 
2.6 km; owned, operated by, and included in the statistics of South
Africa
Highways: 
total: 
7,215 km 
paved: 
572 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, stabilized earth 2,337 km; improved earth 1,806 km; unimproved
earth 2,500 km (1988)
Airports: 
total: 
28 
usable: 
28 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
rudimentary system consisting of a few landlines, a small microwave
system, and minor radio communications stations; 5,920 telephones;
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Lesotho, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Lesotho Defense Force (RLDF; including Army, Air Wing), Royal
Lesotho Mounted Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 438,096; fit for military service 236,324 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 13% of GDP (1990 est.)


@Liberia, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Cote
d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
111,370 sq km 
land area: 
96,320 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
total 1,585 km, Guinea 563 km, Cote d'Ivoire 716 km, Sierra Leone 306
km 
Coastline: 
579 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold
nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
Terrain: 
mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and
low mountains in northeast
Natural resources: 
iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
2% 
forest and woodland: 
39% 
other: 
55% 
Irrigated land: 
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to deforestation;
soil erosion; loss of biodiversity
natural hazards: 
dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March)
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation

@Liberia, People

Population: 
2,972,766 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.34 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
113.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
57.73 years 
male: 
55.27 years 
female: 
60.25 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.36 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Liberian(s) 
adjective: 
Liberian 
Ethnic divisions: 
indigenous African tribes 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru,
Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella),
Americo-Liberians 5% (descendants of repatriated slaves)
Religions: 
traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10% 
Languages: 
English 20% (official), Niger-Congo language group about 20 local
languages come from this group
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
40% 
male: 
50% 
female: 
29% 
Labor force: 
510,000 including 220,000 in the monetary economy
by occupation: 
agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other
14.2%
note: 
non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and
engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

@Liberia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Liberia 
conventional short form: 
Liberia 
Digraph: 
LI
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Monrovia 
Administrative divisions: 
13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand
Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe
Independence: 
26 July 1847 
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 26 July (1847) 
Constitution: 
6 January 1986
Legal system: 
dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for
the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal
practices for indigenous sector
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Chairman of the Council of State David KPOMAKPOR (since March 1994);
election last held on 15 October 1985 (next scheduled to be held
September 1994); results - Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%,
Jackson DOE (LAP) 26.4%, other 22.7%; note - President Doe was killed
by rebel forces on 9 September 1990
cabinet: 
Cabinet; selected by the leaders of the major factions in the civil
war
note: 
a transitional coalition government was formed as part of a July 1993
Cotonou Peace Treaty negotiated under UN auspices by the leaders of
the major factions in the civil war; elections now scheduled for
September 1994
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Transitional Legislative Assembly, the members of which are
appointed by the leaders of the major factions in the civil war
note: 
the former bicameral legislature no longer exists and there is no
assurance that it will ever be reconstituted
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman; Unity Party
(UP), Joseph KOFA, chairman; United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel
Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman; National Patriotic Party (NPP), Charles
TAYLOR, chairman; Liberian Peoples Party (LPP), Dusty WOLOKOLLIE,
chairman
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Konah K. BLACKETT 
chancery: 
5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 
telephone: 
(202) 723-0437 through 0440 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d' Affaires William P. TWADDELL 
embassy: 
111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 100098, Mamba Point, Monrovia, or APO AE 09813 
telephone: 
[231] 222991 through 222994 
FAX: 
[231] 223710 
Flag: 
11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the
upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag

@Liberia, Economy

Overview: 
Civil war since 1990 has destroyed much of Liberia's economy,
especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Businessmen have
fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them. Many will
not return. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and
a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and
exporter of basic products, while local manufacturing, mainly foreign
owned, had been small in scope. Political instability threatens
prospects for economic reconstruction and repatriation of some 750,000
Liberian refugees who have fled to neighboring countries. The
political impasse between the interim government and rebel leader
Charles Taylor has prevented restoration of normal economic life,
including the re-establishment of a strong central government with
effective economic development programs.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1.5% (1988)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
12% (1989)
Unemployment rate: 
43% urban (1988)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$242.1 million 
expenditures: 
$435.4 million, including capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities: 
iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee
partners: 
US, EC, Netherlands
Imports: 
$394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
commodities: 
rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment,
other foodstuffs
partners: 
US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS
External debt: 
$2.1 billion (September 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA% (1993-94); much industrial damage caused by factional
warfare
Electricity: 
capacity: 
410,000 kW
production: 
750 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
275 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture,
palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
principal products - rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava,
palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, goats; not self-sufficient in
food, imports 25% of rice consumption
Illicit drugs: 
increasingly a transshipment point for heroin and cocaine
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $870
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $77 million 
Currency: 
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.00 (officially fixed rate since
1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$7 = US$1, January 1992
(unofficial rate floats against the US dollar)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Liberia, Communications

Railroads: 
480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km 1.067-meter
narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and operated
by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian
Government
Highways: 
total: 
10,087 km 
paved: 
603 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 5,171 km (includes 2323km of private roads of rubber and timber
firms, open to the public); earth 4,313 km 
Ports: 
Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)
Merchant marine: 
1,595 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,923,236 GRT/97,692,316
DWT, barge carrier 3, bulk 423, cargo 126, chemical 122, combination
bulk 30, combination ore/oil 64, container 112, liquefied gas 67, oil
tanker 468, passenger 32, refrigerated cargo 61, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 19, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier
59 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry; all ships are foreign owned; the top 4
owning flags are US 14%, Japan 13%, Norway 10%, and Hong Kong 8%
Airports: 
total: 
59 
usable: 
41 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telephone and telegraph service via radio relay network; main center
is Monrovia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station; most telecommunications services inoperable
due to insurgency movement

@Liberia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
the ultimate structure of the Liberian military force will depend on
who is the victor in the ongoing civil war
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 707,927; fit for military service 377,950 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Libya, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea,
between Egypt and Tunisia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,759,540 sq km 
land area: 
1,759,540 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries: 
total 4,383 km, Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger
354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km 
Coastline: 
1,770 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
Gulf of Sidra closing line: 
32 degrees 30 minutes north
International disputes: 
the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that
the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad,
and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had
withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June
1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; maritime
boundary dispute with Tunisia; claims part of northern Niger and part
of southeastern Algeria
Climate: 
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain: 
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
8% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
90% 
Irrigated land: 
2,420 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources; the Great
Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the
world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the
Sahara to coastal cities
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four
days in spring and fall
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the
Sea

@Libya, People

Population: 
5,057,392 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.72% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.29 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.14 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
63.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
63.88 years 
male: 
61.73 years 
female: 
66.13 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.38 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Libyan(s) 
adjective: 
Libyan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis,
Turks, Indians, Tunisians 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 97% 
Languages: 
Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major
cities
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
64% 
male: 
75% 
female: 
50% 
Labor force: 
1 million (includes about 280,000 resident foreigners)
by occupation: 
industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%

@Libya, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 
conventional short form: 
Libya 
local long form: 
Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishirakiyah 
local short form: 
none 
Digraph: 
LY
Type: 
Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace
through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Capital: 
Tripoli 
Administrative divisions: 
25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular - baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al
'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al
Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi,
Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt,
Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan
Independence: 
24 December 1951 (from Italy)
National holiday: 
Revolution Day, 1 September (1969) 
Constitution: 
11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977
Legal system: 
based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious
courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Revolutionary Leader Col. Mu'ammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1
September 1969) 
head of government: 
Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Abd al Majid
al-Qa'ud (since 29 January 1994) 
cabinet: 
General People's Committee; established by the General People's
Congress
note: 
national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples'
committees
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
General People's Congress: 
national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples'
committees
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Other political or pressure groups: 
various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships
may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements
Member of: 
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none
US diplomatic representation: 
none
Flag: 
plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state
religion)

@Libya, Economy

Overview: 
The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from
the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and
about one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was the highest in
Africa at $5,410, but GDP growth rates have slowed and fluctuate
sharply in response to changes in the world oil market. Import
restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to
shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. Windfall revenues from the
hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved the foreign payments
position and resulted in a current account surplus through 1992. The
nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about
20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products
to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although
agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it employs about 20% of the
labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm
output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. The UN
sanctions imposed in April 1992 have not yet had a major impact on the
economy because Libya's oil revenues generate sufficient foreign
exchange that, along with Libya's large currency reserves, sustain
food and consumer goods imports as well as equipment for the oil
industry and ongoing development projects.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $32 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$6,600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$8.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$9.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989
est.)
Exports: 
$7.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
partners: 
Italy, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Turkey, Greece, Egypt
Imports: 
$8.26 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners: 
Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern Europe
External debt: 
$3.5 billion excluding military debt (1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 10.5% (1990)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
4,935,000 kW
production: 
14.385 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,952 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Agriculture: 
5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits,
peanuts; 75% of food is imported
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $242 million 
note: 
no longer a recipient
Currency: 
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams
Exchange rates: 
Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.3233 (January 1994), 0.3250 (1993),
0.3013 (1992), 0.2684 (1991), 0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year
Railroads: 
Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous
systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a
standard gauge (1.435 m) line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli
and Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral rich area, but
there has been no progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would
establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt to Tobruk with completion
set for mid-1994, progress unknown
Highways: 
total: 
19,300 km 
paved: 
bituminous 10,800 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 8,500 km 
Inland waterways: 
none
Pipelines: 
crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquified
petroleum gas 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km 
Ports: 
Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa al Burayqah, Ra's Lanuf,
Ra's al Unif
Merchant marine: 
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 690,703 GRT/1,211,184 DWT, cargo
10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 2, oil tanker 10,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 4 
Airports: 
total: 
145 
usable: 
132 
with permanent-surface runways: 
57 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
28 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
52 
Telecommunications: 
modern telecommunications system using radio relay, coaxial cable,
tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations; 370,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 17 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14
domestic; submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia
and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and
Intersputnik satellite stations

@Libya, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (including Army, Navy,
Air and Air Defense Command)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,094,052; fit for military service 649,976; reach
military age (17) annually 52,723 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion, 15% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Liechtenstein, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
160 sq km 
land area: 
160 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 78 km, Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
claims 620 square miles of Czech territory confiscated from its royal
family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not
go back before February 1948, when the Communists seized power
Climate: 
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to
moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain: 
mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Natural resources: 
hydroelectric potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
25% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
38% 
forest and woodland: 
19% 
other: 
18% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Hazardous
Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

@Liechtenstein, People

Population: 
30,281 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.26% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.08 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.46 years 
male: 
73.76 years 
female: 
81.03 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Liechtensteiner(s) 
adjective: 
Liechtenstein 
Ethnic divisions: 
Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other 2.8% (1988)
Languages: 
German (official), Alemannic dialect 
Literacy: 
age 10 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
19,905 of which 11,933 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and
Switzerland to work each day
by occupation: 
industry, trade, and building 53.2%, services 45%, agriculture,
fishing, forestry, and horticulture 1.8% (1990)

@Liechtenstein, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Principality of Liechtenstein 
conventional short form: 
Liechtenstein 
local long form: 
Furstentum Liechtenstein 
local short form: 
Liechtenstein 
Digraph: 
LS
Type: 
hereditary constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Vaduz 
Administrative divisions: 
11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen,
Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen,
Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence: 
23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established)
National holiday: 
Assumption Day, 15 August 
Constitution: 
5 October 1921
Legal system: 
local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers
26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein
(born 11 June 1968) 
head of government: 
Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993); Deputy Head of Government Dr.
Thomas BUECHEL (since 15 December 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; elected by the Diet; confirmed by the sovereign
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Diet (Landtag): 
elections last held on 24 October 1993 (next to be held by March
1997); results - VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL 8.5%; seats - (25 total) VU
13, FBP 11, FL 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases, Superior
Court (Obergericht) for civil cases
Political parties and leaders: 
Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto HASLER; Progressive Citizens' Party
(FBP), Emanuel VOGT; Free Electoral List (FL)
Member of: 
CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US
by the Swiss Embassy
US diplomatic representation: 
the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the
US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation
at Vaduz
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on
the hoist side of the blue band

@Liechtenstein, Economy

Overview: 
The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light
industry and tourism. Industry accounts for 53% of total employment,
the service sector 45% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and
forestry 2%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at
$10 million annually. Low business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%)
and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or
so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes,
provide 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to
Switzerland's economy in a customs union, and incomes and living
standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $630 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$22,300 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
1.5% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$259 million 
expenditures: 
$292 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
partners: 
EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%), EC countries 42.7%, other
36.4% (1990)
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
23,000 kW
production: 
150 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,230 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals,
food products, precision instruments, tourism
Agriculture: 
livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or
centesimi
Exchange rates: 
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.4715 (January
1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990),
1.6359 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Liechtenstein, Communications

Railroads: 
18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and
included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways
Highways: 
total: 
322.93 km 
paved: 
322.93 km 
Airports: 
none
Telecommunications: 
limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay for international
telephone, radio, and TV services

@Liechtenstein, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is responsibility of Switzerland


@Lithuania, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references: 
Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
65,200 sq km 
land area: 
65,200 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
total 1,273 km, Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia
(Kaliningrad) 227 km 
Coastline: 
108 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
dispute with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) over the position of the
Nemunas (Nemen) River border presently located on the Lithuanian bank
and not in midriver as by international standards
Climate: 
maritime; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain: 
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Natural resources: 
peat 
Land use: 
arable land: 
49.1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
22.2% 
forest and woodland: 
16.3% 
other: 
12.4% 
Irrigated land: 
430 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and
chemicals at military bases
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change
Population: 
3,848,389 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.74% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.24 years 
male: 
66.53 years 
female: 
76.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.01 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Lithuanian(s) 
adjective: 
Lithuanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Polish 7.7%, Byelorussian 1.5%, other
2.1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic, Lutheran, other 
Languages: 
Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1989)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
1.836 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40%
(1990)

@Lithuania, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Lithuania 
conventional short form: 
Lithuania 
local long form: 
Lietuvos Respublika 
local short form: 
Lietuva 
former: 
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
LH
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Vilnius 
Administrative divisions: 
44 regions (rajonai, singular - rajonas) and 11 municipalities*:
Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*, Anyksciu Rajonas,
Birsionas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos Rajonas, Jonavos
Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas, Kaisiadoriu Rajonas,
Marijampoles Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes
Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Ragonas, Kupiskio
Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Mazeikiu Ragonas, Moletu
Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*, Panevezio Rajonas,
Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas, Prienu Rajonas,
Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio Rajonas, Sakiu
Rajonas, Salcininky Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu Rajonas, Silales
Rajonas, Siltues Rajonas, Sirvinty Rajonas, Skuodo Rajonas, Svencioniu
Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traky Rajonas, Ukmerges
Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas, Vilkaviskio Rajonas,
Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas
Independence: 
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 16 February (1918) 
Constitution: 
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 25 November 1992; elected
acting president by Parliament 25 November 1992 and elected by direct
vote 15 February 1993); election last held 14 February 1993 (next to
be held NA 1997); results - Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS was elected; note - on
25 November 1992 BRAZAUSKAS was elected chairman of Parliament and, as
such, acting president of the Republic; he was confirmed in office by
direct balloting 15 February 1993
head of government: 
Premier Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS (since 10 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the nomination of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Seimas (parliament): 
elections last held 26 October and 25 November 1992 (next to be held
NA); results - LDDP 51%; seats - (141 total) LDDP 73, Conservative
Party 30, LKDP 17, LTS 8, Farmers' Union 4, LLS 4, Center Union 2,
others 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Court of Appeals 
Political parties and leaders: 
Christian Democratic Party (LKDP), Povilas KATILIUS, chairman;
Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania (LDDP), Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS,
chairman; Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LTS), Rimantas SMETONA,
chairman; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (LSDP), Aloyzas SAKALAS,
chairman; Farmers' Union, Jonas CIULEVICIUS, chairman; Center Union,
Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman; Conservative Party, Vytautas LANDSBERGIS,
chairman; Lithuanian Polish Union (LLS), Rytardas MACIKIANEC, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
Homeland Union; Lithuanian Future Forum; Farmers Union
Member of: 
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Alfonsas EIDINTAS 
chancery: 
2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 234-5860, 2639 
FAX: 
(202) 328-0466 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Darryl N. JOHNSON 
embassy: 
Akmenu 6, Vilnius 232600 
mailing address: 
APO AE 09723 
telephone: 
370-2-223-031 
FAX: 
370-2-222-779 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

@Lithuania, Economy

Overview: 
Since independence in September 1991, Lithuania has made steady
progress in developing a market economy. Over 40% of state property
has been privatized and trade is diversifying with a gradual shift
away from the former Soviet Union to Western markets. Nevertheless,
the process has been painful with industrial output in 1993 less than
half the 1991 level. Inflation, while lower than in most ex-Soviet
states, has exceeded rates in the other Baltic states. Full monetary
stability and economic recovery are likely to be impeded by periodic
government backtracking on key elements of its reform and
stabilization program as it seeks to ease the economic pain of
restructuring. Recovery will build on Lithuanian's strategic location
with its ice-free port at Klaipeda and its rail and highway hub in
Vilnius connecting it with Eastern Europe, Belarus, Russia, and
Ukraine, and on its agriculture potential, highly skilled labor force,
and diversified industrial sector. Lacking important natural
resources, it will remain dependent on imports of fuels and raw
materials.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $12.4 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Lithuanian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-10% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,240 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
188% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
1.8% (July 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$258.5 million 
expenditures: 
$270.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
electronics 18%, petroleum products 5%, food 10%, chemicals 6% (1989)
partners: 
Russia 40%, Ukraine 16%, other FSU countries 32%, West 12%
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
oil 24%, machinery 14%, chemicals 8%, grain NA% (1989)
partners: 
Russia 62%, Belarus 18%, other FSU countries 10%, West 10%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate -52% (1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,925,000 kW
production: 
25 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,600 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
employs 42% of the labor force; accounts for 23% of GOP shares in the
total production of the former USSR are: metal-cutting machine tools
6.6%; electric motors 4.6%; television sets 6.2%; refrigerators and
freezers 5.4%; other branches: petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small
ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers,
agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components,
computers, and amber
Agriculture: 
employs around 18% of labor force; accounts for 25% of GDP; sugar,
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables, meat, milk, dairy products,
eggs, fish; most developed are the livestock and dairy branches, which
depend on imported grain; net exporter of meat, milk, and eggs
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer of illicit
opium; mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency: 
introduced the convertible litas in June 1993
Exchange rates: 
litai per US$1 - 4 (fixed rate 1 May 1994); 3.9 (late January 1994)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Lithuania, Communications

Railroads: 
2,000 km (1,524-mm gauge); 120 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
44,200 km 
paved: 
35,500 km 
unpaved: 
earth 8,700 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)
Ports: 
coastal - Klaipeda; inland - Kaunas
Merchant marine: 
44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 276,265 GRT/323,505 DWT, cargo
29, combination bulk 11, railcar carrier 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
96 
usable: 
18 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
11 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
Lithuania ranks among the most modern of the former Soviet republics
in respect to its telecommunications system; telephone subscriber
circuits 900,000; subscriber density 240 per 1,000 persons; land lines
or microwave to former USSR republics; international connections no
longer depend on the Moscow gateway switch, but are established by
satellite through Oslo from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from
Kaunas; 2 satellite earth stations - 1 EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT; an
NMT-450 analog cellular network operates in Vilnius and other cities
and is linked internationally through Copenhagen by EUTELSAT;
international electronic mail is available; broadcast stations - 13
AM, 26 FM, 1 SW, 1 LW, 3 TV

@Lithuania, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border
troops), National Guard (Skat) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 941,273; fit for military service 744,867; reach
military age (18) annually 27,375 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 5.5% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Luxembourg, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, between Belgium and Germany
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,586 sq km 
land area: 
2,586 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 
total 359 km, Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain: 
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to
slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
floodplain in the southeast
Natural resources: 
iron ore (no longer exploited) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
24% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
21% 
other: 
34% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked

@Luxembourg, People

Population: 
401,900 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.8% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.47 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.69 years 
male: 
73.01 years 
female: 
80.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.64 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Luxembourger(s) 
adjective: 
Luxembourg 
Ethnic divisions: 
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, and
European (guest and worker residents)
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3% 
Languages: 
Luxembourgisch, German, French, English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
177,300 (one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from
Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and Germany)
by occupation: 
services 65%, industry 31.6%, agriculture 3.4% (1988)

@Luxembourg, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 
conventional short form: 
Luxembourg 
local long form: 
Grand-Duche de Luxembourg 
local short form: 
Luxembourg 
Digraph: 
LU
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Luxembourg 
Administrative divisions: 
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence: 
1839 
National holiday: 
National Day, 23 June (1921) (public celebration of the Grand Duke's
birthday) 
Constitution: 
17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI
(son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Vice Prime
Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the sovereign
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): 
elections last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994);
results - CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL
5.1%, other 4.1%; seats - (60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4,
PAC 4, KPL 1
note: 
the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views
are considered by the Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch: 
Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de Justice) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques SANTER; Socialist Workers Party
(LSAP), Jacques POOS; Liberal (DP), Colette FLESCH; Communist (KPL),
Andre HOFFMANN; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean HUSS
Other political or pressure groups: 
group of steel companies representing iron and steel industry;
Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and
Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and
Shopkeepers Federation
Member of: 
ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE,
EIB, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU,
WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Alphonse BERNS 
chancery: 
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-4171 
FAX: 
(202) 328-8270 
consulate(s) general: 
New York and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL 
embassy: 
22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City 
mailing address: 
PSC 11, Luxembourg City; APO AE 09132-5380 
telephone: 
[352] 460123 
FAX: 
[352] 461401 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue;
similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and
is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

@Luxembourg, Economy

Overview: 
The stable, prosperous economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small
but highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade,
growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the
decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing
proportion of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic
union with Belgium on trade and most financial matters, is also
closely connected economically to the Netherlands, and as a member of
the 12-member European Union enjoys the advantages of the open
European market.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$22,600 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
5.1% (March 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$3.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$3.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum,
other industrial products
partners: 
EC 76%, US 5%
Imports: 
$8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners: 
Belgium 37%, FRG 31%, France 12%, US 2%
External debt: 
$131.6 million (1989 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -0.5% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,238,750 kW
production: 
1.375 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,450 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products,
engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Agriculture: 
accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal
products - barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle
raising widespread
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 36.242 (January 1994), 34.597
(1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989);
note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which
circulates freely in Luxembourg
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Luxembourg, Communications

Railroads: 
Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 272 km 1,435-mm standard
gauge; 178 km double track; 197 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
5,108 km 
paved: 
4,995 km (including 80 km of limited access divided highway)
unpaved: 
gravel 57 km; earth 56 km 
Inland waterways: 
37 km; Moselle River
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 48 km 
Ports: 
Mertert (river port)
Merchant marine: 
50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,477,998 GRT/2,424,994 DWT,
bulk 8, cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 6, combination
ore/oil 2, container 4, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 5, passenger 2,
refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly
buried cables; 230,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3
TV; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable; 1
direct-broadcast satellite earth station; nationwide mobile phone
system

@Luxembourg, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 103,872; fit for military service 86,026; reach
military age (19) annually 2,235 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.2% of GDP (1992)


@Macau

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas territory of Portugal) 

@Macau, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, 27 km west-southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast
of China bordering the South China Sea
Map references: 
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
16 sq km 
land area: 
16 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 0.34 km, China 0.34 km 
Coastline: 
40 km 
Maritime claims: 
not specified
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Terrain: 
generally flat
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Ozone Layer Protection
Note: 
essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands
to the peninsula on mainland

@Macau, People

Population: 
484,557 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.35% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.78 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
79.75 years 
male: 
77.33 years 
female: 
82.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Macanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Macau 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2% 
Religions: 
Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%, other 1.2%
(1981)
Languages: 
Portuguese (official), Cantonese is the language of commerce
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 
90% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
86% 
Labor force: 
180,000 (1986)
by occupation: 
NA

@Macau, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Macau 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ilha de Macau 
Digraph: 
MC
Type: 
overseas territory of Portugal scheduled to revert to China in 1999
Capital: 
Macau 
Administrative divisions: 
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Ilhas, Macau
Independence: 
none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an agreement with China
on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the
joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social
and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 year after transition)
National holiday: 
Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580) 
Constitution: 
17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by
Beijing awaiting final approval
Legal system: 
Portuguese civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986) 
head of government: 
Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA (since 20 March 1991) 
cabinet: 
Consultative Council; consists of five members appointed by the
governor, two nominated by the governor, five members elected for a
four-year term (2 represent administrative bodies, 1 represents moral,
cultural, and welfare interests, and 2 economic interests), and three
statuatory members
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly: 
elections last held on 10 March 1991; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (23 total; 8 elected by universal suffrage, 8 by
indirect suffrage, and 7 appointed by the governor) number of seats by
party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Association to Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Democratic Center;
Group to Study the Development of Macau; Macau Independent Group
Other political or pressure groups: 
wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy
pro-Communist merchants representing China's interests; in January
1967 the Macau Government acceded to Chinese demands that gave China
veto power over administration
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), GATT, IMO (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), WTO
(associate) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (Chinese territory under Portuguese administration)
US diplomatic representation: 
the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the
US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Flag: 
the flag of Portugal is used

@Macau, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and
textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned
other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics.
The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the
clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings;
the gambling industry represented well over 40% of GDP in 1992. Macau
depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy
imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials
and capital goods.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
12% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$7,300 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
2% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$305 million 
expenditures: 
$298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports: 
$1.8 billion (1992 est.)
commodities: 
textiles, clothing, toys
partners: 
US 35%, Hong Kong 12.5%, Germany 12%, China 9.9%, France 8% (1992
est.)
Imports: 
$2 billion (1992 est.)
commodities: 
raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
partners: 
Hong Kong 33%, China 20%, Japan 18% (1992 est.)
External debt: 
$91 million (1985)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
258,000 kW
production: 
855 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,806 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism
Agriculture: 
rice, vegetables; food shortages - rice, vegetables, meat; depends
mostly on imports for food requirements
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 pataca (P) = 100 avos
Exchange rates: 
patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.034 (1991-93), 8.024 (1990), 8.030 (1989);
note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per
Hong Kong dollar
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Macau, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
42 km 
paved: 
42 km 
Ports: 
Macau
Airports: 
none usable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station
Telecommunications: 
fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and
international services; 52,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM,
3 FM, no TV (TV programs received from Hong Kong); 115,000 radio
receivers (est.); international high-frequency radio communication
facility; access to international communications carriers provided via
Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Macau, Defense Forces

Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 139,499; fit for military service 77,887 
Note: 
defense is responsibility of Portugal


@Madagascar, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 430 km east of
Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
587,040 sq km 
land area: 
581,540 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
4,828 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Climate: 
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain: 
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Natural resources: 
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands,
semiprecious stones, mica, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
58% 
forest and woodland: 
26% 
other: 
11% 
Irrigated land: 
9,000 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing;
desertification; surface water contaminated with untreated sewage and
other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the
island are endangered
natural hazards: 
subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea
Note: 
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique
Channel

@Madagascar, People

Population: 
13,427,758 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.19% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
13.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
89 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
53.98 years 
male: 
52.06 years 
female: 
55.96 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Malagasy (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Malagasy 
Ethnic divisions: 
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed
African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka,
Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran 
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7% 
Languages: 
French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
80% 
male: 
88% 
female: 
73% 
Labor force: 
4.9 million (90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence
agriculture; 175,000 wage earners)
by occupation: 
agriculture 26%, domestic service 17%, industry 15%, commerce 14%,
construction 11%, services 9%, transportation 6%, other 2%
note: 
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Madagascar, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Madagascar 
conventional short form: 
Madagascar 
local long form: 
Republique de Madagascar 
local short form: 
Madagascar 
former: 
Malagasy Republic 
Digraph: 
MA
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Antananarivo 
Administrative divisions: 
6 provinces - Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga,
Toamasina, Toliary
Independence: 
26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 26 June (1960) 
Constitution: 
19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Albert ZAFY (since 9 March 1993); election last held on 10
February 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - Albert ZAFY (UNDD),
67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA), 33%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Francisque RAVONY (since 9 August 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
(Senat) two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled by an
electoral college made up of representatives of territorial
collectivities; the remaining third is to be filled by presidential
appointment, following nomination by economic, social, and cultural
groups; the selection of senators was scheduled for March 1994
National Assembly: 
(Assemblee Nationale) elections last held on 16 June 1993 (next to be
held June 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (138
total) CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7,
various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8
note: 
the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 and
early 1993 in preparation for new legislative elections. In its place,
an interim High Authority of State and a Social and Economic Recovery
Council have been established
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour
Constitutionnelle) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Committee of Living Forces (CFV), an alliance of National Union for
Development and Democracy (UNDD), Support Group for Democracy and
Development in Madagascar (CSDDM), Action and Reflection Group for the
Development of Madagascar (Grad), Congress Party for Madagascar
Independence - Renewal (AKFM-Fanavaozana), and some 12 other
anti-Ratsiraka oppositon parties, trade unions, and religious groups;
leader Dr. Albert ZAFY; Militant Party for the Development of
Madagascar (PMDM/MFM; formerly the Movement for Proletarian Power),
Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA; Confederation of Civil Societies for
Development (CSCD), Guy Willy RAZANAMASY; Association of United
Malagasys (Famima); Rally for Social Democracy (RPSD), Pierre
TSIRANANA
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Council of Christian Churches (FFKM); Federalist Movement
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO 
chancery: 
2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-5525 or 5526 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dennis P. BARRETT 
embassy: 
14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 
mailing address: 
B. P. 620, Antananarivo 
telephone: 
[261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18 
FAX: 
261-234-539 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical
white band of the same width on hoist side

@Madagascar, Economy

Overview: 
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Agriculture,
including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy,
accounting for over 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% of total
export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of
agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1991 it accounted
for only 13% of GDP. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year
development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice)
by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.
Subsequently, growth in output has been held back because of
protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political
reform.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $10.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
20% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$250 million 
expenditures: 
$265 million, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$312 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, shellfish, sugar, petroleum
products
partners: 
France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US
Imports: 
$350 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%,
consumer goods 14%, food 13%
partners: 
France, Germany, UK, other EC, US
External debt: 
$4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
125,000 kW
production: 
450 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
35 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries,
tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries
(textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper,
petroleum
Agriculture: 
accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane,
cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts;
cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used
mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$3.125 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million 
Currency: 
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,965.8 (January 1994), 1,864.0
(1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Madagascar, Communications

Railroads: 
1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
40,000 km 
paved: 
4,694 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 811 km; other earth 34,495 km
(est.)
Inland waterways: 
of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal
des Pangalanes
Ports: 
Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara
Merchant marine: 
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,620 GRT/33,173 DWT, cargo 5,
chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 2 
Airports: 
total: 
140 
usable: 
105 
with permanent-surface runways: 
30 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
37 
Telecommunications: 
above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio
relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite
earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and broadcast stations - 17
AM, 3 FM, 1 (36 repeaters) TV

@Madagascar, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Popular Armed Forces (including Intervention Forces, Development
Forces, Aeronaval Forces - including Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie,
Presidential Security Regiment 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,924,829; fit for military service 1,739,830; reach
military age (20) annually 124,652 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1991 est.)


@Malawi, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and Zambia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
118,480 sq km 
land area: 
94,080 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
total 2,881 km, Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
Climate: 
tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain: 
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some
mountains
Natural resources: 
limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
25% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
50% 
other: 
5% 
Irrigated land: 
200 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural
runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds
endangers fish population
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked

@Malawi, People

Population: 
9,732,409 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-1.09% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
50.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
23.19 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-38.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
141.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
39.73 years 
male: 
38.93 years 
female: 
40.55 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
7.43 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Malawian(s) 
adjective: 
Malawian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian,
European 
Religions: 
Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional indigenous
beliefs 
Languages: 
English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important
regionally
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
total population: 
22% 
male: 
34% 
female: 
12% 
Labor force: 
428,000 wage earners
by occupation: 
agriculture 43%, manufacturing 16%, personal services 15%, commerce
9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous services 4%, other permanently
employed 6% (1986)

@Malawi, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Malawi 
conventional short form: 
Malawi 
former: 
Nyasaland 
Digraph: 
MI
Type: 
multiparty democracy following a referendum on 14 June 1993; formerly
a one-party republic
Capital: 
Lilongwe 
Administrative divisions: 
24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa,
Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji,
Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje,
Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Independence: 
6 July 1964 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 6 July (1964) 
Constitution: 
6 July 1966; republished as amended January 1974
Legal system: 
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994), leader of the United
Democratic Front 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; named by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elections last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held NA); seats - (177
total) UDF 84, AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5
Judicial branch: 
High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party: 
United Democratic Front (UDF), Bakili MULUZI
opposition groups: 
Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Gwanda CHAKUAMBA Phiri, secretary general
(top party position); Alliance for Democracy (Aford), Chakufwa
CHIHANA; Socialist League of Malawi (Lesoma), Kapote MWAKUSULA,
secretary general; Malawi Democratic Union (MDU), Harry BWANAUSI;
Congress for the Second Republic (CSR), Kanyama CHIUME; Malawi
Socialist Labor Party (MSLP), Stanford SAMBANEMANJA
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA 
chancery: 
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 797-1007 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Michael T. F. PISTOR 
embassy: 
address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi 
telephone: 
[265] 783-166 
FAX: 
[265] 780-471 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a
radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the
flag of Afghanistan, which is longer and has the national coat of arms
superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

@Malawi, Economy

Overview: 
Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries.
The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the
population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP
and 90% of export revenues. After two years of weak performance,
economic growth improved significantly in 1988-91 as a result of good
weather and a broadly based economic adjustment effort by the
government. Drought cut overall output sharply in 1992. The economy
depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF,
the World Bank, and individual donor nations.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
21% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$416 million 
expenditures: 
$498 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$413 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products
partners: 
US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, Germany
Imports: 
$737 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods,
transportation equipment
partners: 
South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe
External debt: 
$1.8 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.5% (1992 est.); accounts for about 15% of GDP (1992
est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
190,000 kW
production: 
620 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
65 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement,
consumer goods
Agriculture: 
accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea,
and corn; subsistence crops - potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses;
livestock - cattle, goats
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15
billion 
Currency: 
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala
Exchange rates: 
Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 4.4598 (November 1993), 3.6033 (1992),
2.8033 (1991), 2.7289 (1990), 2.7595 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Malawi, Communications

Railroads: 
789 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
13,135 km 
paved: 
2,364 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 251 km; earth, improved earth
10,520 km 
Inland waterways: 
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km
Ports: 
Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota - all on Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi)
Airports: 
total: 
47 
usable: 
41 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
10 
Telecommunications: 
fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and radio
communications stations; 42,250 telephones; broadcast stations - 10
AM, 17 FM, no TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
Note: 
a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the
Beira, Nacala, and Limgogo railroads, but now most go through South
Africa because of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

@Malawi, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including
paramilitary Mobile Force Unit), 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,046,413; fit for military service 1,043,674 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Malaysia, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Vietnam and
Indonesia
Map references: 
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
329,750 sq km 
land area: 
328,550 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km 
Coastline: 
4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the
South China Sea
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah
claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian
salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute
with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia
Climate: 
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October
to February) monsoons
Terrain: 
coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Natural resources: 
tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
10% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
63% 
other: 
24% 
Irrigated land: 
3,420 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air and water pollution; deforestation
natural hazards: 
subject to flooding
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China
Sea

@Malaysia, People

Population: 
19,283,157 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.28% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
25.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.15 years 
male: 
66.26 years 
female: 
72.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.51 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Malaysian(s) 
adjective: 
Malaysian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9% 
Religions: 
Peninsular Malaysia: 
Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians)
Sabah: 
Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45% 
Sarawak: 
tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%,
Christian 16%, other 5% 
Languages: 
Peninsular Malaysia: 
Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects, Tamil 
Sabah: 
English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka
dialects predominate)
Sarawak: 
English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages 
*** No data for this item ***
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
78% 
male: 
86% 
female: 
70% 
Labor force: 
7.258 million (1991 est.)

@Malaysia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Malaysia 
former: 
Malayan Union 
Digraph: 
MY
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
note: 
Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the
paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular
Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where
governors are appointed by
Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are
limited by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds
20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense,
internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government;
Sarawak - self-governing state, holds 27 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government
Capital: 
Kuala Lumpur 
Administrative divisions: 
13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal
territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah
persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri
Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak,
Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*
Independence: 
31 August 1957 (from UK)
National holiday: 
National Day, 31 August (1957) 
Constitution: 
31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963
Legal system: 
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in
the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994);
Deputy Paramount Ruler SALAHUDDIN ibni Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26
April 1994) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy
Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the Paramount Ruler from members of parliament
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Parlimen)
Senate (Dewan Negara): 
consists of a 58-member body, 32 appointed by the paramount ruler and
16 elected by the state legislatures
House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat): 
elections last held 21 October 1990 (next to be held by August 1995);
results - National Front 52%, other 48%; seats - (180 total) National
Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4, other 22; note - within the
National Front, UMNO got 71 seats and MCA 18 seats
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Peninsular Malaysia: 
National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by
United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin
Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik; Gerakan
Rakyat Malaysia, LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), S.
Samy VELLU
Sabah: 
National Front, Tan Sri SAKARAN, Sabah Chief Minister; United Sabah
National Organizaton (USNO), leader NA
Sarawak: 
coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka
Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud;
Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar James WONG Soon Kai;
Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa
Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE; major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic
Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR
Member of: 
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Abdul MAJID bin Mohamed 
chancery: 
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 328-2700 
FAX: 
(202) 483-7661 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John S. WOLF 
embassy: 
376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; APO AP 96535-5000 
telephone: 
[60] (3) 248-9011 
FAX: 
[60] (3) 242-2207 
Flag: 
fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white
(bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the
crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was
based on the flag of the US

@Malaysia, Economy

Overview: 
The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a soundly
managed public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 8%-9% average
growth in 1987-93. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction
in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Despite sluggish growth in
the major world economies in 1992-93, demand for Malaysian goods
remained strong, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums
in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential
of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and
monetary policies.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $141 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$7,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.6% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
3% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$19.6 billion 
expenditures: 
$18 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$46.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, palm oil, wood
and wood products, rubber, textiles
partners: 
Singapore 23%, US 15%, Japan 13%, UK 4%, Germany 4%, Thailand 4%
(1991)
Imports: 
$40.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum products
partners: 
Japan 26%, Singapore 21%, US 16%, Taiwan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 3%,
Australia 3% (1991)
External debt: 
$18.4 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 13% (1992); accounts for 43% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
8,000,000 kW
production: 
30 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,610 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
Peninsular Malaysia: 
rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing
industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing
timber
Sabah: 
logging, petroleum production
Sarawak: 
agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Agriculture: 
accounts for 17% of GDP
Peninsular Malaysia: 
natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah: 
mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice
Sarawak: 
rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas
Illicit drugs: 
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western
Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for drug
trafficking
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.7
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million 
Currency: 
1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen
Exchange rates: 
ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.7123 (January 1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474
(1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Malaysia, Communications

Railroads: 
Peninsular Malaysia: 
1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track, government owned
Sabah: 
136 km 1.000-meter gauge
Sarawak: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
29,026 km (Peninsular Malaysia 23,600 km, Sabah 3,782 km, Sarawak
1,644 km)
paved: 
NA (Peninsular Malaysia 19,352 km mostly bituminous treated)
unpaved: 
NA (Peninsular Malaysia 4,248 km)
Inland waterways: 
Peninsular Malaysia: 
3,209 km
Sabah: 
1,569 km
Sarawak: 
2,518 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km 
Ports: 
Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port
Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau
Merchant marine: 
183 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,935,210 GRT/2,913,808 DWT,
bulk 29, cargo 69, chemical tanker 6, container 26, liquefied gas 6,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 39, passenger-cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 2 
Airports: 
total: 
113 
usable: 
104 
with permanent-surface runways: 
33 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
18 
Telecommunications: 
good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by
microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay
network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service
good; good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 994,860
telephones (1984); broadcast stations - 28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV; submarine
cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to
Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

@Malaysia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal
Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,942,387; fit for military service 3,001,972; reach
military age (21) annually 182,850 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 3% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Maldives, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, in the Indian Ocean off the southwest coast of India
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
300 sq km 
land area: 
300 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
644 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
35-310 nm as defined by geographic coordinates; segment of zone
coincides with maritime boundary with India
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March);
rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain: 
flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
84% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies
natural hazards: 
low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea level rise
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls; archipelago of strategic
location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

@Maldives, People

Population: 
252,077 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.61% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
53.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
64.67 years 
male: 
63.24 years 
female: 
66.17 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.26 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Maldivian(s) 
adjective: 
Maldivian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 
Languages: 
Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic), English
spoken by most government officials
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population: 
92% 
male: 
92% 
female: 
92% 
Labor force: 
66,000 (est.)
by occupation: 
fishing industry 25%

@Maldives, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Maldives 
conventional short form: 
Maldives 
Digraph: 
MV
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Male 
Administrative divisions: 
19 districts (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu
Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani,
Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu
Independence: 
26 July 1965 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 26 July (1965) 
Constitution: 
4 June 1968
Legal system: 
based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily
in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); election last
held 1 October 1993 (next to be held NA); results - President Maumoon
Abdul GAYOOM was reelected with 92.76% of the vote
cabinet: 
Ministry of Atolls; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Citizens' Council (Majlis): 
elections last held on 7 December 1989 (next to be held 7 December
1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (48 total, 40 elected)
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
no organized political parties; country governed by the Didi clan for
the past eight centuries
Member of: 
AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Maldives has no embassy in the US, but does have a UN mission in New
York; Permanent Representative to the UN Ahmed ZAKI
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes
periodic visits there 
consular agency: 
Midhath Hilmy, Male 
telephone: 
2581 
Flag: 
red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical
white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side
of the flag

@Maldives, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping. Agriculture is
limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide only
10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing
25% of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is
also an important source of government revenue. During the 1980s
tourism became one of the most important and highest growth sectors of
the economy. In 1988 industry accounted for about 5% of GDP. Real GDP
is officially estimated to have increased by about 10% annually during
the period 1974-90.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $140 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$620 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
15% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NEGL%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$95 million (excluding foreign transfers)
expenditures: 
$143 million, including capital expenditures of $71 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$56.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
fish, clothing
partners: 
US, UK, Sri Lanka
Imports: 
$173.6 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products
partners: 
Singapore, Germany, Sri Lanka, India
External debt: 
$148 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 24% (1990); accounts for 6% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,000 kW
production: 
11 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
50 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, some
coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope), handicrafts
Agriculture: 
accounts for almost 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing more
important than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn, sweet
potatoes; most staple foods must be imported; fish catch of 67,000
tons (1990 est.)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $125
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million 
Currency: 
1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari
Exchange rates: 
rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 11.105 (January 1994), 10.957 (1993), 10.569
(1992), 10.253 (1991), 9.509 (1990), 9.0408 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Maldives, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA (Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city)
Ports: 
Male, Gan
Merchant marine: 
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,848 GRT/58,496 DWT, cargo 12,
container 1, oil tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
minimal domestic and international facilities; 2,804 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Maldives, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Security Service (paramilitary police force)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 55,369; fit for military service 30,919 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Mali, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, between Mauritania and Niger
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1.24 million sq km 
land area: 
1.22 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km,
Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419
km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983
and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides
agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate: 
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and
mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain: 
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in
south, rugged hills in northeast
Natural resources: 
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore,
manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
25% 
forest and woodland: 
7% 
other: 
66% 
Irrigated land: 
50 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of
safe drinking water; poaching
natural hazards: 
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring
droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
landlocked

@Mali, People

Population: 
9,112,950 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.78% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
51.79 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
20.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-3.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
106.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
45.91 years 
male: 
44.29 years 
female: 
47.57 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
7.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Malian(s) 
adjective: 
Malian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai
6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5% 
Religions: 
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1% 
Languages: 
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
17% 
male: 
26% 
female: 
9% 
Labor force: 
2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)
note: 
50% of population of working age (1985)

@Mali, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Mali 
conventional short form: 
Mali 
local long form: 
Republique de Mali 
local short form: 
Mali 
former: 
French Sudan 
Digraph: 
ML
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Bamako 
Administrative divisions: 
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro,
Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence: 
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960) 
Constitution: 
new constitution adopted in constitutional referendum in 12 January
1992
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally
established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992); election last held
in April 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in
runoff race against Montaga TALL
head of government: 
Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elections last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (total 116) Adema 76, CNID 9,
US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West
Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Association for Democracy (Adema), Alpha Oumar KONARE; National
Congress for Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese
Union/African Democratic Rally (US/RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA;
Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa;
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for
Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Balla COULIBALY; Rally for
Democracy and Labor (RDT); Union of Democratic Forces for Progress
(UFDP), Dembo DIALLO; Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa
TRAORE; Malian Union for Democracy and Development (UMDD)
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Siragatou Ibrahim CISSE 
chancery: 
2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-2249 or 939-8950 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William H. DAMERON III 
embassy: 
Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V., Bamako 
mailing address: 
B. P. 34, Bamako 
telephone: 
[223] 225470 
FAX: 
[223] 228059 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Mali, Economy

Overview: 
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 70% of
its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely
confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the
population live as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged
in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities. In consultation with international
lending agencies, the government has adopted a structural adjustment
program for 1992-95, aiming at GDP annual growth of 4.6%, inflation of
no more than 2.5% on average, and a substantial reduction in the
external current account deficit.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - 5.8 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-6.1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$650 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$376 million 
expenditures: 
$697 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$330 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
cotton, livestock, gold
partners: 
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
Imports: 
$682 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials,
petroleum, textiles
partners: 
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
External debt: 
$2.6 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1.4% (1992 est.); accounts for 13.0% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
260,000 kW
production: 
750 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
90 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate,
gold, fishing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence
farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports;
other crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock -
cattle, sheep, goats
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.02
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $190 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Mali, Communications

Railroads: 
642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail system through
Kayes
Highways: 
total: 
15,700 km 
paved: 
1,670 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 3,670 km; unimproved earth 10,360 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,815 km navigable
Airports: 
total: 
33 
usable: 
27 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
11 
Telecommunications: 
domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service with
radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of
radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM,
2 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

@Mali, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police
(Surete Nationale)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,803,301; fit for military service 1,027,780 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $41 million, 2% of GDP (1989)


@Malta, Geography

Location: 
Southern Europe, in the central Mediterranean Sea, 93 km south of
Sicily (Italy), 290 km north of Libya
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
320 sq km 
land area: 
320 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
140 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
25 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain: 
mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Natural resources: 
limestone, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
38% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
59% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
fresh water very scarce; increasing reliance on desalination
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity
Note: 
the country comprises an archipelago, with only the 3 largest islands
(Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good
harbors

@Malta, People

Population: 
366,767 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.79% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.56 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.77 years 
male: 
74.53 years 
female: 
79.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Maltese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Maltese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 98% 
Languages: 
Maltese (official), English (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population: 
84% 
male: 
86% 
female: 
82% 
Labor force: 
127,200 
by occupation: 
government (excluding job corps) 37%, services 26%, manufacturing 22%,
training programs 9%, construction 4%, agriculture 2% (1990)

@Malta, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Malta 
conventional short form: 
Malta 
Digraph: 
MT
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Valletta 
Administrative divisions: 
none (administration directly from Valletta)
Independence: 
21 September 1964 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 21 September (1964) 
Constitution: 
1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December 1974
Legal system: 
based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI (since 4 April 1994) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO (since 14 May 1987) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on advice of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Representatives: 
elections last held on 22 February 1992 (next to be held by February
1997); results - NP 51.8%, MLP 46.5%; seats - (usually 65 total) MLP
36, NP 29; note - additional seats are given to the party with the
largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total
69 (MLP 33, NP 36 after adjustment)
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
Nationalist Party (NP), Edward FENECH ADAMI; Malta Labor Party (MLP),
Alfred SANT
Member of: 
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Albert BORG OLIVIER DE PUGET 
chancery: 
2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 462-3611 or 3612 
FAX: 
(202) 387-5470 
consulate(s): 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires William A. MOFFITT (new ambassador
nominated, but not confirmed)
embassy: 
2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 535, Valletta 
telephone: 
[356] 235960 
FAX: 
[356] 243229 
Flag: 
two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper
hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in
red

@Malta, Economy

Overview: 
Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location,
and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its
food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic
energy sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on
foreign trade and services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest
contributors to the economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 27% of
GDP, with the electronics and textile industries major contributors
and the state-owned Malta drydocks which employs about 4,300 people.
In 1992, about 1,000,000 tourists visited the island. Per capita GDP
at $6,600 places Malta in the middle-income range of the world's
nations.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.5% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$6,600 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.64% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
4% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $182 million (FY94
est.)
Exports: 
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, clothing and footware, printed
matter
partners: 
Italy 30%, Germany 22%, UK 11%
Imports: 
$1.93 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners: 
Italy 30%, UK 16%, Germany 13%, US 4%
External debt: 
$118 million (1990)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 5.4% (1992); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
328,000 kW
production: 
1.11 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,000 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, electronics, ship repair yard, construction, food
manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco
Agriculture: 
accounts for 3% of GDP and 2% of the work force (1992); overall, 20%
self-sufficient; main products - potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat,
barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry,
eggs; generally adequate supplies of vegetables, poultry, milk, pork
products; seasonal or periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder,
fruits, other basic foodstuffs
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $336
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist
countries (1970-88), $48 million 
Currency: 
1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3951 (January 1994), 0.3821 (1993),
0.3178 (1992), 0.3226 (1991), 0.3172 (1990), 0.3483 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Malta, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,291 km 
paved: 
asphalt 1,179 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 77 km; earth 35 km 
Ports: 
Valletta, Marsaxlokk
Merchant marine: 
897 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,959,195 GRT/24,038,587 DWT,
barge carrier 3, bulk 259, cargo 296, chemical tanker 25, combination
bulk 28, combination ore/oil 18, container 26, liquefied gas 2,
multifunction large load carrier 3, oil tanker 157, passenger 6,
passenger-cargo 3, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 17,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 19, specialized tanker
5, vehicle carrier 9 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry; China owns 11 ships, Russia owns 42
ships, Cuba owns 10, Vietnam owns 6, Croatia owns 63, Romania owns 4
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
automatic system satisfies normal requirements; 153,000 telephones;
excellent service by broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, and 2 TV;
submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands;
international service by 1 submarine cable and 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Malta, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 98,241; fit for military service 78,071 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $21.9 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Man, Isle of

Header

Affiliation: 
(British crown dependency) 

@Man, Isle of, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, in the Irish Sea, between Ireland and Great Britain
Map references: 
Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
588 sq km 
land area: 
588 sq km 
comparative area: 
nearly 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
113 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain: 
hills in north and south bisected by central valley
Natural resources: 
lead, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA% (extensive arable land and forests)
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird
sanctuary

@Man, Isle of, People

Population: 
72,017 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.04% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.58 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
9.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.25 years 
male: 
73.51 years 
female: 
79.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.8 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Manxman, Manxwoman 
adjective: 
Manx 
Ethnic divisions: 
Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton 
Religions: 
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of
Friends 
Languages: 
English, Manx Gaelic 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
25,864 (1981)
by occupation: 
NA 

@Man, Isle of, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Isle of Man 
Digraph: 
IM
Type: 
British crown dependency 
Capital: 
Douglas 
Administrative divisions: 
none (British crown dependency)
Independence: 
none (British crown dependency)
National holiday: 
Tynwald Day, 5 July 
Constitution: 
1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act
Legal system: 
English law and local statute
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence JONES (since NA 1990) 
head of government: 
President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles KERRUISH (since NA
1990) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Tynwald
Legislative Council: 
consists of a 10-member body composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and
Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of
Keys
House of Keys: 
elections last held in 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (24 total) independents 24
Judicial branch: 
Court of Tynwald 
Political parties and leaders: 
there is no party system and members sit as independents
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (British crown dependency)
Flag: 
red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the
three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to
have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a
two-sided emblem is used

@Man, Isle of, Economy

Overview: 
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the
economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to
high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the
island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in
high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the
mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GNP.
Banking now contributes about 45% to GNP. Trade is mostly with the UK.
The Isle of Man enjoys free access to European Union markets.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $490 million (1988)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$7,500 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
1% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$130.4 million 
expenditures: 
$114.4 million, including capital expenditures of $18.1 million (1985
est.)
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, meat
partners: 
UK
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
timber, fertilizers, fish
partners: 
UK
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
61,000 kW
production: 
190 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,965 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
an important offshore financial center; financial services, light
manufacturing, tourism
Agriculture: 
cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 Manx pound (#M) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Manx pounds (#M) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); the Manx
pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Man, Isle of, Communications

Railroads: 
60 km; 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track
Highways: 
total: 
640 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Douglas, Ramsey, Peel
Merchant marine: 
67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,359,951 GRT/2,316,628 DWT,
bulk 11, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, container 5, liquefied gas 7,
oil tanker 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, vehicle carrier 3 
note: 
a captive register of the United Kingdom, although not all ships on
the register are British owned
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
24,435 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

@Man, Isle of, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Marshall Islands, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of
the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
181.3 sq km 
land area: 
181.3 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: 
includes the atolls of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
370.4 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims US territory of Wake Island
Climate: 
wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt
Terrain: 
low coral limestone and sand islands
Natural resources: 
phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
60% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
40% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
inadequate supplies of safe drinking water
natural hazards: 
occasionally subject to typhoons
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
Note: 
two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini
and Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous
World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

@Marshall Islands, People

Population: 
54,031 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
46.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.68 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
49.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
63.13 years 
male: 
61.6 years 
female: 
64.74 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Marshallese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Marshallese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Micronesian 
Religions: 
Christian (mostly Protestant)
Languages: 
English (universally spoken and is the official language), two major
Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
88% 
Labor force: 
4,800 (1986)
by occupation: 
NA


@Marshall Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of the Marshall Islands 
conventional short form: 
Marshall Islands 
former: 
Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) 
Digraph: 
RM
Type: 
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact
of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986
Capital: 
Majuro 
Administrative divisions: 
none
Independence: 
21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: 
Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1 May (1979) 
Constitution: 
1 May 1979
Legal system: 
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Amata KABUA (since 1979); election last held 6 January 1992
(next to be held NA; results - President Amata KABUA was reelected)
cabinet: 
Cabinet; president selects from the parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Nitijela): 
elections last held 18 November 1991 (next to be held November 1995);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (33 total)
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
no formal parties; President KABUA is chief political (and
traditional) leader
Member of: 
AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL 
chancery: 
2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-5414 
FAX: 
(202) 232-3236 
consulate(s) general: 
Honolulu and Los Angeles 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador David C. FIELDS 
embassy: 
NA address, Majuro 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379 
telephone: 
(692) 625-4011 
FAX: 
(692) 625-4012 
Flag: 
blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner -
orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and
20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

@Marshall Islands, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Agricultural
production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important
commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few
cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry
is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist
industry is the primary source of foreign exchange and employs about
10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural resources, and
imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US Government provided grants
of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of $55 million.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1992 est)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1992 est)
Unemployment rate: 
16% (1991 est)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$55 million 
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)
Exports: 
$3.9 million (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities: 
coconut oil, fish, live animals, trichus shells
partners: 
US, Japan, Australia
Imports: 
$62.9 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, beverages and tobacco, fuels
partners: 
US, Japan, Australia
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
42,000 kW
production: 
80 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,840 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearls;
offshore banking (embryonic)
Agriculture: 
coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, pigs, chickens
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to
provide approximately $40 million in aid annually
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Marshall Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
note: 
paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-,
coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks
Ports: 
Majuro
Merchant marine: 
40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,255,348 GRT/4,351,997 DWT,
bulk carrier 23, cargo 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, oil
tanker 13 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
16 
usable: 
16 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telephone network - 570 lines (Majuro) and 186 (Ebeye); telex
services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for
government purposes); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1
shortwave; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government
satellite communications system on Kwajalein

@Marshall Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Martinique

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas department of France) 

@Martinique, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America 
Area: 
total area: 
1,100 sq km 
land area: 
1,060 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
290 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain: 
mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Natural resources: 
coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
8% 
meadows and pastures: 
30% 
forest and woodland: 
26% 
other: 
26% 
Irrigated land: 
60 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that result in
an average of one major natural disaster every five years
international agreements: 
NA 

@Martinique, People

Population: 
392,362 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.2% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
17.96 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.01 years 
male: 
74.88 years 
female: 
81.2 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.92 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Martiniquais (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Martiniquais 
Ethnic divisions: 
African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture 90%, Caucasian 5%, East
Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5% 
Languages: 
French, Creole patois 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
92% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
100,000 
by occupation: 
service industry 31.7%, construction and public works 29.4%,
agriculture 13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%, other 16.3%

@Martinique, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Department of Martinique 
conventional short form: 
Martinique 
local long form: 
Departement de la Martinique 
local short form: 
Martinique 
Digraph: 
MB
Type: 
overseas department of France 
Capital: 
Fort-de-France 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas department of France)
Independence: 
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French legal system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
Prefect Michel MORIN (since NA); President of the General Council
Claude LISE (since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council
Emile CAPGRAS (since 22 March 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Assembly
General Council: 
elections last held in 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be
held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total)
number of seats by party NA; note - a leftist coalition obtained a
one-seat margin
Regional Assembly: 
elections last held on 22 March 1992 (next to be held by March 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) RPR-UDF 16,
MIM 9, PPM 9, PCM 5, independents 2
French Senate: 
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held on NA June 1993 (next to be held June 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) RPR 3, FSM 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen BAGOE; Union for a Martinique of
Progress (UMP); Martinique Progressive Party (PPM), Aime CESAIRE and
Camille DARSIERES; Socialist Federation of Martinique (FSM), Jean
CRUSOL; Martinique Communist Party (PCM); Martinique Patriots (PM);
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Jean MARAN; Martinique Independence
Movement (MIM), Alfred MARIE-JEANNE
Other political or pressure groups: 
Proletarian Action Group (GAP); Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist
Revolution Group (GRS); Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC);
Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc PULVAR; Frantz Fanon
Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Parti Martiniquais Socialiste
(PMS)
Member of: 
FZ, WCL, WFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
the post closed in August 1993 (overseas department of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@Martinique, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light
industry. Agriculture accounts for about 10% of GDP and the small
industrial sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of
the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are
increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and
grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade
deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France.
Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a
source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed
in the service sector and in administration. Banana workers launched
protests late in 1992 because of falling banana prices and fears of
greater competition in the European market from other producers.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$9,500 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.9% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
32.1% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$268 million 
expenditures: 
$268 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports: 
$201.5 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners: 
France 57.1%, Guadeloupe 31.5%, French Guiana 6.2%
Imports: 
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction materials,
vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods
partners: 
France 62.2%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
113,100 kW
production: 
588 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,580 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism
Agriculture: 
including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 10% of GDP;
principal crops - pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables,
sugarcane for rum; dependent on imported food, particularly meat and
vegetables
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $10.1 billion 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9305 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Martinique, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,680 km 
paved: 
1,300 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 380 km 
Ports: 
Fort-de-France
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones; interisland
microwave radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

@Martinique, Defense Forces

Branches: 
French Forces, Gendarmerie 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Mauritania, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, along the North Atlantic Ocean, between Western
Sahara and Senegal
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,030,700 sq km 
land area: 
1,030,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 5,074 km, Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western
Sahara 1,561 km 
Coastline: 
754 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
boundary with Senegal
Climate: 
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Terrain: 
mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
Natural resources: 
iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
38% 
forest and woodland: 
5% 
other: 
56% 
Irrigated land: 
120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are
contributing to desertification; water scarcity away from the Senegal
which is the only perennial river
natural hazards: 


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