(con't 3)

current issues: 
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine
natural hazards: 
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de
jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia, People

Population: 
54,927,108 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth
rate, include Eritrea
Population growth rate: 
3.4% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
13.89 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
106.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
52.67 years 
male: 
51 years 
female: 
54.38 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ethiopian(s) 
adjective: 
Ethiopian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%,
Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5%
Languages: 
Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic,
English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy: 
age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 
24% 
male: 
33% 
female: 
16% 
Labor force: 
18 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%,
industry and construction 8% (1985)

@Ethiopia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Ethiopia 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ityop'iya 
Digraph: 
ET
Type: 
transitional government 
note: 
on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
(EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam
and took control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of
Ethiopia (TGE), announced a two-year transitional period
Capital: 
Addis Ababa 
Administrative divisions: 
14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela,
Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali,
Tigray, Wolayta
Independence: 
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the
world - at least 2,000 years
National holiday: 
National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)
Constitution: 
to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); election last held 10
September 1987; next election planned after new constitution drafted;
results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
head of government: 
Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; designated by the chairman of the Council of
Representatives
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Constituent Assembly: 
elections were held on 5 June 1994 (next to be held NA); results - NA;
a major task of the new Assembly will be to ratify the constitution to
drafted by the end of 1994
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES
Zenawi; Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), Kuma DEMEKSA
Other political or pressure groups: 
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party
(EPRP); numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since
Mengistu's resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos 
chancery: 
2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-2281 or 2282 
FAX: 
(202) 328-7950 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Marc A. BAAS 
embassy: 
Entoto Street, Addis Ababa 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa 
telephone: 
[251] (1) 550-666 
FAX: 
[251] (1) 552-191 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia
is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her
flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

@Ethiopia, Economy

Overview: 
With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues
to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least
developed countries in Africa. (The accompanying analysis and figures
predate the independence of Eritrea.) Its economy is based on
subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of
exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export
earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from
the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less
than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the government is considering
selling off a portion of state-owned plants. Favorable agricultural
weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89, whereas
drought and deteriorating internal security conditions prevented
growth in FY90. In 1991 the lack of law and order, particularly in the
south, interfered with economic development and growth. In 1992,
because of some easing of civil strife and aid from the outside world,
the economy substantially improved.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $22.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7.8% (FY93 est)
National product per capita: 
$400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
21% (1992 est)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$189 million (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities: 
coffee, leather products, gold, petroleum products
partners: 
Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy
Imports: 
$472 million (c.i.f., FY91)
commodities: 
capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners: 
US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan
External debt: 
$3.48 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -3.3% (FY92); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
330,000 kW
production: 
650 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
10 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing,
cement
Agriculture: 
accounts for 47% of GDP and is the most important sector of the
economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices
keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and
oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural
production at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock -
cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other
vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats
Illicit drugs: 
transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and
destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for
southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and
regional export
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $2 billion 
Currency: 
1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.0000 (fixed rate since 1992); fixed at 2.070
before 1992
Fiscal year: 
8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
24,127 km 
paved: 
3,289 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 6,664 km; improved earth 1,652 km; unimproved earth 12,522 km
(1993)
Ports: 
none; landlocked
Merchant marine: 
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT, cargo 8,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2, roll on/roll off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
120 
usable: 
84 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
15 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
83 
Telecommunications: 
open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use;
open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets;
9,000,000 radios; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

@Ethiopia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 13,229,078; fit for military service 6,867,582; reach
military age (18) annually 596,691 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Europa Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(possession of France) 

@Europa Island, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
28 sq km 
land area: 
28 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
22.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
NA
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA% (heavily wooded)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Europa Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Europa Island 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ile Europa 
Digraph: 
EU
Type: 
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic;
resident in Reunion
Capital: 
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
none (possession of France)

@Europa Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Europa Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,439-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
1 meteorological station

@Europa Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Geography

Location: 
Southern South America, in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the southern
coast of Argentina
Map references: 
Antarctic Region, South America 
Area: 
total area: 
12,170 sq km 
land area: 
12,170 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Connecticut
note: 
includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200
small islands
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,288 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
100-m depth
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate: 
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more
than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January
and February, but does not accumulate
Terrain: 
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources: 
fish, wildlife 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
99% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
1% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing
season

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), People

Population: 
2,261 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.43% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
NA
Death rate: 
NA
Net migration rate: 
NA
Infant mortality rate: 
NA
Life expectancy at birth: 
NA
Total fertility rate: 
NA
Nationality: 
noun: 
Falkland Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Falkland Island 
Ethnic divisions: 
British 
Religions: 
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist
Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1,100 (est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Colony of the Falkland Islands 
conventional short form: 
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 
Digraph: 
FA
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Stanley 
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982) 
Constitution: 
3 October 1985
Legal system: 
English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; 3 members elected by the Legislative Council, 2
ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and
the governor
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Council: 
elections last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected)
number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
NA
Member of: 
ICFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising
is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose
crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the
motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly
employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet
domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are
primarily those for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments
of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins.
Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently
exploited by the islanders. So far, efforts to establish a domestic
fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In 1987 the government began
selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the
Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees amount to more
than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income for the
government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the
abundant wildlife and trout fishing.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%; labor shortage
Budget: 
revenues: 
$62.7 million 
expenditures: 
$42.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports: 
at least $14.7 million 
commodities: 
wool, hides and skins, and meat
partners: 
UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports: 
at least $13.9 million 
commodities: 
food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
partners: 
UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
9,200 kW
production: 
17 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,940 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
wool and fish processing
Agriculture: 
predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and
vegetable crops
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1992-93), $87 million 
Currency: 
1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
Falkland pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Communications

Highways: 
total: 
510 km 
paved: 
30 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 80 km; unimproved earth 400 km 
Ports: 
Stanley
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks
provide effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590
telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Defense Forces

Branches: 
British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force,
Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Faroe Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(part of the Danish realm) 

@Faroe Islands, Geography

Location: 
Nordic States, Northern Europe in the north Atlantic Ocean, located
half way between Norway and Iceland
Map references: 
Arctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
1,400 sq km 
land area: 
1,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
764 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain: 
rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
98% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets;
strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern
Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
lowlands

@Faroe Islands, People

Population: 
48,427 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.83% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
17.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.56 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.1 years 
male: 
74.71 years 
female: 
81.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Faroese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Faroese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Scandinavian 
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 
Languages: 
Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
17,585 
by occupation: 
largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and
commerce

@Faroe Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Faroe Islands 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Foroyar 
Digraph: 
FO
Type: 
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark
Capital: 
Torshavn 
Administrative divisions: 
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence: 
none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)
National holiday: 
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940) 
Constitution: 
5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: 
Danish
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High
Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Marita PETERSEN (since 18 January 1993) 
cabinet: 
Landsstyri; elected by the local legislature
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Faroese Parliament (Lgting): 
elections last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994);
results - Social Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation
Coalition Party 18.9%, Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%,
PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats - (32 total) two-party coalition 17
(Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7), Cooperation Coalition Party
6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Danish Parliament: 
elections last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social
Democratic 1, People's Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two
representatives to the Danish Parliament
Judicial branch: 
none
Political parties and leaders: 
three-party ruling coalition: 
Social Democratic Party, Marita PETERSEN; Republican Party, Signer
HANSEN; Home Rule Party, Hilmar KASS
opposition: 
Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Progressive and Fishing
Industry Party-Christian People's Party (PFIP-CPP), leader NA;
Progress Party, leader NA; People's Party, Jogvan SUND-STEIN
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag: 
white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living standards of
the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of
the all-important fishing industry and one of the world's heaviest per
capita external debts of nearly $30,000. When the nations of the world
extended their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s,
the Faroese no longer could continue their traditional long-distance
fishing and subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas. The
government's tight controls on fish stocks and its austerity measures
have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will force nationalization
in the fishing industry, which has already been plagued with
bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to withhold its annual subsidy
of $130 million - roughly one-third of the islands' budget revenues -
unless the Faroese make significant efforts to balance their budget.
To this extent the Faroe government is expected to continue its tough
policies, including introducing a 20% value-added tax (VAT) in 1993,
and has agreed to an IMF economic-political stabilization plan. In
addition to its annual subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out
the second largest Faroe bank to the tune of $140 million since
October 1992.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $662 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1989 est.)
National product per capita: 
$14,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
2.5% (1993 est)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$425 million 
expenditures: 
$480 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities: 
fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment
(ships) (1989)
partners: 
Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US
4.5%
Imports: 
$322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
partners: 
Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt: 
$1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
80,000 kW
production: 
280 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,760 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal
crops - potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch
about 360,000 metric tons
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million
Currency: 
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Faroe Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
200 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine: 
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,943 GRT/18,399 DWT, cargo 5,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 
note: 
a subset of the Danish register
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29
repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

@Faroe Islands, Defense Forces

Branches: 
small Police Force, no organized native military forces 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Denmark


@Fiji, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Melanesia, 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific
Ocean
Map references: 
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
18,270 sq km 
land area: 
18,270 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,129 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources: 
timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
65% 
other: 
19% 
Irrigated land: 
10 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
Note: 
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

@Fiji, People

Population: 
764,382 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.05% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.18 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-7.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
18.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.14 years 
male: 
62.88 years 
female: 
67.51 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.92 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Fijian(s) 
adjective: 
Fijian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas
Chinese, and other 5% 
Religions: 
Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim
8%, other 2% 
note: 
Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim
minority (1986)
Languages: 
English (official), Fijian, Hindustani 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)
total population: 
86% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
81% 
Labor force: 
235,000 
by occupation: 
subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15%
(1987)

@Fiji, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Fiji 
conventional short form: 
Fiji 
Digraph: 
FJ
Type: 
republic 
note: 
military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji
a republic on 6 October 1987
Capital: 
Suva 
Administrative divisions: 
4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*,
Western
Independence: 
10 October 1970 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 10 October (1970) 
Constitution: 
10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was
proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; the
1990 Constitution is under review; the review will be complete by 1997
Legal system: 
based on British system
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 12 January 1994); First Vice
President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994); Second
Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994); note -
President GANILAU died on 15 December 1993 and Vice President MARA
became acting president; MARA was elected president by the Great
Council of Chiefs on 12 January 1994
head of government: 
Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992) 
Presidential Council: 
appointed by the governor general
Great Council of Chiefs: 
(highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system)
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by prime minister from members of Parliament and
responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch: 
the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following the coup of 14 May
1987
Senate: 
nonelective body containing 34 seats, 24 reserved for Melanesians, 9
for Indians and others, 1 for the island of Rotuma
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 18-25 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic
Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents
and other 6 seats) number of seats by party SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FA
5, GVP 4, independents 2, ANC 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen.
Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian),
Jai Ram REDDY; Christian Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi
BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY; All National
Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA; General Voters Party (GVP), Max OLSSON;
Fiji Conservative Party (FCP), Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of
Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal
Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party, Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji
Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, David
TULVANUAVOU; Fijian Association (FA), Josevata KAMIKAMICA
Member of: 
ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMUR,
UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA 
chancery: 
Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 337-8320 
FAX: 
(202) 337-1996 
consulate(s): 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires William ROPE 
embassy: 
31 Loftus Street, Suva 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 218, Suva 
telephone: 
[679] 314-466 
FAX: 
[679] 300-081 
Flag: 
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the
shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji, Economy

Overview: 
Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence
sector. Sugar exports and tourism are the major sources of foreign
exchange. Industry contributes 13% to GDP, with sugar processing
accounting for one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000
tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought, however,
contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and
sugar. In 1992, growth was approximately 3%, based on growth in
tourism and a lessening of labor-management disputes in the sugar and
gold-mining sectors. In 1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of
3% was not achieved because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural
output and damage from Cyclone Kina.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$455 million 
expenditures: 
$546 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$417 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
sugar 40%, clothing, processed fish, gold, lumber
partners: 
EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%
Imports: 
$517 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, consumer
goods, chemicals
partners: 
Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt: 
$670 million (1994 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
215,000 kW
production: 
420 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
560 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber, small cottage
industries
Agriculture: 
accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small livestock sector
includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch nearly 33,000
tons (1989)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $815 million 
Currency: 
1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.5239 (January 1994), 1.5418 (1993),
1.5030 (1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Fiji, Communications

Railroads: 
644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned
Fiji Sugar Corporation
Highways: 
total: 
3,300 km 
paved: 
1,590 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 1,290 km; unimproved earth 420
km (1984)
Inland waterways: 
203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports: 
Labasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine: 
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,911 GRT/54,490 DWT, cargo 1,
chemical tanker 2, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2
Airports: 
total: 
25 
usable: 
22 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated)
public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter
facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between
US-Canada and NZ-Australia; 53,228 telephones (71 telephones per 1,000
persons); broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Fiji, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; including a naval division,
police)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 197,767; fit for military service 109,026; reach
military age (18) annually 8,154 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about 2% of GDP (FY91/92)


@Finland, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea between Sweden
and Russia
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
337,030 sq km 
land area: 
305,470 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries: 
total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km 
Coastline: 
1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
6 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
12 nm
territorial sea: 
4 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because
of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and
more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain: 
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low
hills
Natural resources: 
timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
76% 
other: 
16% 
Irrigated land: 
620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid
rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals;
habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic
Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital
on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern
coastal plain

@Finland, People

Population: 
5,068,931 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.34% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.93 years 
male: 
72.18 years 
female: 
79.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Finn(s) 
adjective: 
Finnish 
Ethnic divisions: 
Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar 
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1% 
Languages: 
Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and
Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
2.533 million 
by occupation: 
public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%, finance,
insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and forestry 8.6%,
transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

@Finland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Finland 
conventional short form: 
Finland 
local long form: 
Suomen Tasavalta 
local short form: 
Suomi 
Digraph: 
FI
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Helsinki 
Administrative divisions: 
12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame,
Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala,
Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa
Independence: 
6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 6 December (1917) 
Constitution: 
17 July 1919
Legal system: 
civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request
legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994); election last held 31
January - 6 February 1994 (next to be held January 2000); results -
Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
Pertti SALOLAINEN (since at least January 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of State (Valtioneuvosto); appointed by the president,
responsible to Parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Eduskunta): 
elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995);
results - Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%,
Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%; seats -
(200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 19,
Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League
8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus) 
Political parties and leaders: 
government coalition: 
Center Party, Esko AHO; National Coalition (conservative) Party, Perti
SALOLAINEN; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK; Finnish
Christian League, Toimi KANKAANNIEMI
other parties: 
Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN, acting chairman; Leftist
Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative, Claes ANDERSON; Green League, Pekka SAURI; Rural Party,
Tina MAKELA; Liberal People's Party, Kalle MAATTA
Other political or pressure groups: 
Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist
Party; Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo
LAHDENMAKI
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP,
UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI 
chancery: 
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 
telephone: 
(202) 363-2430 
FAX: 
(202) 363-8233 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John H. KELLY 
embassy: 
Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki 
mailing address: 
APO AE 09723 
telephone: 
[358] (0) 171931 
FAX: 
[358] (0) 174681 
Flag: 
white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style
of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

@Finland, Economy

Overview: 
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with
per capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key economic sector
is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering
industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing
about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development
is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. The
economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between
1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in 1991 as growth contracted
by 6.5%. The recession - which continued in 1992 with growth
contracting by 4.1% - has been caused by economic overheating,
depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system
between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and
gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness
and efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in
public expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and
changes in monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka
to the European Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote
stability. Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in
the government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by
about 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in
September 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of
Finnish exports to the extent the recession bottomed out in 1993 with
renewed economic growth expected in 1994. Unemployment probably will
remain a serious problem during the next few years, with the majority
of Finnish firms facing a weak domestic market and the troubled German
and Swedish export markets. Declining revenues, increased transfer
payments, and extensive funding to bail out the banking system pushed
the central government's budget deficit to nearly 13% in 1993.
Helsinki continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of
the EU during Finland's current EU membership bid. In early 1995,
Finland is expected to join the European Union (formerly the European
Community), thus broadening European economic unity.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $81.1 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-2.6% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$16,100 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
22% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$26.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$40.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
partners: 
EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden 12.8%), US
5.9%, Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)
Imports: 
$18 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
grains
partners: 
EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden 11.7%), US 6.1%,
Japan 5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)
External debt: 
$30 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
13,500,000 kW
production: 
55.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
11,050 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp,
paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 5% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops
- cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of
foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric
tons
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion 
Currency: 
1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates: 
markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.6920 (January 1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794
(1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Finland, Communications

Railroads: 
5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863
km 1,524-mm gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,710 km are
electrified
Highways: 
total: 
76,631 km (1991)
paved: 
bituminous concrete, bituminous treated soil 46,745 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 29,886 km 
Inland waterways: 
6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for
steamers
Pipelines: 
natural gas 580 km 
Ports: 
Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku
Merchant marine: 
93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,040,905 GRT/1,143,276 DWT,
bulk 7, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 3, oil tanker 15,
passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 30,
short-sea passenger 9 
Airports: 
total: 
160 
usable: 
157 
with permanent-surface runways: 
66 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
26 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
20 
Telecommunications: 
good service from cable and microwave radio relay network; 3,140,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine
cable; INTELSAT satellite transmission service via Swedish earth
station and a receive-only INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

@Finland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,323,322; fit for military service 1,089,300; reach
military age (17) annually 33,594 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, about 1.5% of GDP (1993)


@France, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Spain and
Germany
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
547,030 sq km 
land area: 
545,630 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
note: 
includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the
overseas administrative divisions
Land boundaries: 
total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy
488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573
km 
Coastline: 
3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12-24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte;
Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island;
Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton
Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre
and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France
Climate: 
generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot
summers along the Mediterranean
Terrain: 
mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources: 
coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash 
Land use: 
arable land: 
32% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
23% 
forest and woodland: 
27% 
other: 
16% 
Irrigated land: 
11,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural
runoff
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Note: 
largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind known as
mistral

@France, People

Population: 
57,840,445 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.47% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.19 years 
male: 
74.27 years 
female: 
82.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.8 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) 
adjective: 
French 
Ethnic divisions: 
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese,
Basque minorities 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African
workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6% 
Languages: 
French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages
(Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
24.17 million 
by occupation: 
services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

@France, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
French Republic 
conventional short form: 
France 
local long form: 
Republique Francaise 
local short form: 
France 
Digraph: 
FR
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Paris 
Administrative divisions: 
22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne,
Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France,
Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees,
Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: 
the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)
Dependent areas: 
Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia,
French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 
note: 
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica 
Independence: 
486 (unified by Clovis)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962,
amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992;
amended to tighten immigration laws 1993
Legal system: 
civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative
but not legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); election last held
8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot
Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the suggestion of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat): 
elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September 1995
- nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan
France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French
nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142 (UREI 51, UC 68, RDE 23), PS 66, PCF
16, independents 2, other 4
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247,
UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24, independents 26
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French
Democracy (UDF, federation of UREI, UC, RDE), Valery Giscard
d'ESTAING; Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social
Democrats (CDS), Pierre MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND;
Socialist Party (PS), Henri EMMAMUELLI, interim party leader; Left
Radical Movement (MRG), Jean-Francois HORY; Communist Party (PCF),
Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; Union of
Republican and Independents (UREI); Centrist Union (UC); Democratic
Assembly (RDE); The Greens, Antoine WAECHTER, Jean-Louis VIDAL, Guy
CAMBOT; Generation Ecology (GE), Brice LALONDE
Other political or pressure groups: 
Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail -
CGT) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor
union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about
800,000 members (est.); independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1
million members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation
Generale des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of
French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or
Patronat)
Member of: 
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN
Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI 
chancery: 
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 944-6000 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN 
embassy: 
2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 
mailing address: 
Unit 21551, Paris; APO AE 09777 
telephone: 
[33] (1) 4296-12-02 or 42-61-80-75 
FAX: 
[33] (1) 4266-9783 
consulate(s) general: 
Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known
as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are similar
to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland,
Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French
dependent areas

@France, Economy

Overview: 
One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial
sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern
technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
Although French GDP contracted by 0.7% in 1993, the economy showed
signs of life by yearend. GDP growth, however, will remain sluggish in
1994 - perhaps reaching only 1.0%. Rapidly increasing unemployment
will still pose a major problem for the government. Paris remains
committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche mark parity, which has
kept French interest rates high despite France's low inflation.
Although the pace of economic integration within the European
Community has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major
force shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.05 trillion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.7% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$18,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.1% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
12.2% (May 1994)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$220.5 billion 
expenditures: 
$249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47 billion (1993
budget)
Exports: 
$270.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
partners: 
Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK
8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, former USSR 0.7% (1991
est.)
Imports: 
$250.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
iron and steel products
partners: 
Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, former USSR 1.3% (1991
est.)
External debt: 
$300 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -4.3% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
110 million kW
production: 
426 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
7,430 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft,
electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the
world's top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef,
dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes;
self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats
and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20
countries and is all used domestically
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@France, Communications

Railroads: 
French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,322 km 1,435-mm standard
gauge; 12,434 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 99
km of various gauges (1,000-mm), privately owned and operated
Highways: 
total: 
1,510,750 km 
paved: 
747,750 km (including 7,450 km of controlled access divided highway)
unpaved: 
763,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines: 
crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports: 
coastal - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Sete, Toulon; inland - Rouen
Merchant marine: 
124 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,226,175 GRT/5,109,375 DWT,
bulk 9, cargo 10, chemical tanker 8, container 21, liquefied gas 6,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 37, passenger 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3
note: 
France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the
Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French
Polynesia
Airports: 
total: 
472 
usable: 
461 
with permanent-surface runways: 
258 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
37 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
136 
Telecommunications: 
highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks;
large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems
for domestic traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41
AM, 800 (mostly repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine
coaxial cables; 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas -
2 for the Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT); HF radio communications with more than 20 countries;
INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

@France, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 14,717,461; fit for military service 12,265,874; reach
military age (18) annually 376,485 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $33.0 billion, 3.3% of GDP (1993)


@French Guiana

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas department of France) 

@French Guiana, Geography

Location: 
Northern South America, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean between
Suriname and Brazil
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
91,000 sq km 
land area: 
89,150 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries: 
total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km 
Coastline: 
378 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources: 
bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
82% 
other: 
18% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana, People

Population: 
139,299 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
4.27% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.83 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
21.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.2 years 
male: 
71.93 years 
female: 
78.63 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.5 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
French Guianese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
French Guianese 
Ethnic divisions: 
black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
12%, other 10% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
French 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
82% 
male: 
81% 
female: 
83% 
Labor force: 
23,265 
by occupation: 
services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture
18.2% (1980)
Names: 
conventional long form: 
Department of Guiana 
conventional short form: 
French Guiana 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Guyane 
Digraph: 
FG
Type: 
overseas department of France 
Capital: 
Cayenne 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas department of France)
Independence: 
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French legal system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992); President of the General
Council Elie CASTOR (since NA); President of the Regional Council
Antoine KARAM (22 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
General Council: 
elections last held 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) PSG 12,
URC 7
Regional Council: 
elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16
French Senate: 
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPR 1,
independent 1
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeals (highest local court based in Martinique with
jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
Political parties and leaders: 
Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Elie CASTRO; Conservative Union for
the Republic (UPR), Leon BERTRAND; Rally for the Center Right (URC);
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges
OTHILY; Walwari Committee, Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON
Member of: 
FZ, WCL 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (overseas department of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@French Guiana, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and
imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and
forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports of
fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of
total revenue in 1992. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not
fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides
sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops - rice, cassava, bananas,
and sugar cane - is limited to the coastal area, where the population
is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports
of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly
among younger workers.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $421 million (1986)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$4,390 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate: 
13% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$735 million 
expenditures: 
$735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987)
Exports: 
$59 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners: 
France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)
Imports: 
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
petroleum
partners: 
France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)
External debt: 
$1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
92,000 kW
production: 
185 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,450 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture: 
some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa,
bananas, sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.51 billion 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@French Guiana, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
680 km 
paved: 
510 km 
unpaved: 
improved, unimproved earth 170 km 
Inland waterways: 
460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports: 
Cayenne
Airports: 
total: 
10 
usable: 
10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system; 18,100 telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@French Guiana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
French Forces, Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 40,506; fit for military service 26,394 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@French Polynesia

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas territory of France) 

@French Polynesia, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia halfway between Australia and South America
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
3,941 sq km 
land area: 
3,660 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
2,525 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical, but moderate
Terrain: 
mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources: 
timber, fish, cobalt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
19% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
31% 
other: 
44% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
occasional cyclonic storms in January
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the
three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others
are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

@French Polynesia, People

Population: 
215,129 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.25% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
27.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.54 years 
male: 
68.14 years 
female: 
73.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.31 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
French Polynesian(s) 
adjective: 
French Polynesian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4% 
Religions: 
Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16% 
Languages: 
French (official), Tahitian (official)
Literacy: 
age 14 and over but definition of literacy not available (1977)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
76,630 employed (1988)

@French Polynesia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of French Polynesia 
conventional short form: 
French Polynesia 
local long form: 
Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise 
local short form: 
Polynesie Francaise 
Digraph: 
FP
Type: 
overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital: 
Papeete 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel
des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note: 
Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence: 
none (overseas territory of France)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
based on French system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner
of the Republic Michel JAU (since NA February 1992) 
head of government: 
President of the Territorial Government of French Polynesia Gaston
FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991); Deputy to the French Assembly and
President of the Territorial Assembly Jean JUVENTIN (since NA November
1992); Territorial Vice President and Minister of Health Michel
BUILLARD (since 12 September 1991)
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the
Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Territorial Assembly: 
elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's
Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union Party 12, New
Fatherland Party 7, other 4
French Senate: 
elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party
NA
French National Assembly: 
elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total)
People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court of Administrative
Law 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE;
Polynesian Union Party includes Te Tiarama, Alexandre LEONTIEFF, and
Pupu Here Ai'a Te Nuneao Ia Ora, Jean JUVENTIN; New Fatherland Party
(Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa), James
SALMON; other small parties
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas territory of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@French Polynesia, Economy

Overview: 
Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region,
French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in
which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the
military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$7,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
-0.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
10% (1990 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$614 million 
expenditures: 
$957 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports: 
$88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: 
coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
partners: 
France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports: 
$765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: 
fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners: 
France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
75,000 kW
production: 
275 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,330 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef,
dairy products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.95 billion 
Currency: 
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 107.63
(January 1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00
(1990), 115.99 (1989); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@French Polynesia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
600 km (1982)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine: 
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT,
passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 
note: 
a captive subset of the French register
Airports: 
total: 
43 
usable: 
41 
with permanent-surface runways: 
23 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
12 
Telecommunications: 
33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@French Polynesia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie 
Note: 
defense is responsibility of France


@French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas territory of France) 

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant
between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia
Map references: 
Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
7,781 sq km 
land area: 
7,781 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
note: 
includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles
Crozet; excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 sq km in
Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
1,232 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate: 
antarctic
Terrain: 
volcanic
Natural resources: 
fish, crayfish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers whose numbers
vary from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer (January)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands 
conventional short form: 
French Southern and Antarctic Lands 
local long form: 
Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises 
local short form: 
Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises 
Digraph: 
FS
Type: 
overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High
Administrator Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by
a 7-member Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital: 
none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order
administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there
are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul
et Amsterdam; excludes Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not
recognized by the US
Independence: 
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and
geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The
fishing catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported
to France and Reunion.
Budget: 
revenues: 
$17.5 million 
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine: 
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 441,962 GRT/813,779 DWT, bulk 3,
cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, liquified gas 2, multifunction large load
carrier 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo
note: 
a captive subset of the French register
Telecommunications: 
NA

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Gabon, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator between
the Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
267,670 sq km 
land area: 
257,670 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries: 
total 2,551 km, Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350
km 
Coastline: 
885 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate: 
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain: 
narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources: 
petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
78% 
other: 
2% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; poaching
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Gabon, People

Population: 
1,139,006 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.46% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
13.9 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
94.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
54.67 years 
male: 
51.88 years 
female: 
57.53 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.97 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Gabonese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Gabonese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira,
Bapounou, Bateke), Africans and Europeans 100,000, including 27,000
French
Religions: 
Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist 
Languages: 
French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
61% 
male: 
74% 
female: 
48% 
Labor force: 
120,000 salaried
by occupation: 
agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%,
government 2.5%
note: 
58% of population of working age (1983)

@Gabon, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Gabonese Republic 
conventional short form: 
Gabon 
local long form: 
Republique Gabonaise 
local short form: 
Gabon 
Digraph: 
GB
Type: 
republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized
1990)
Capital: 
Libreville 
Administrative divisions: 
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence: 
17 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic Party
established)
Constitution: 
adopted 14 March 1991
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967); election last
held on 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - President
Omar BONGO was reelected with 51% of the vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in consultation
with the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held on 21 and 28 October and 4 November 1990 (next to
be held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120
total) PDG 62, Morena-Bucherons/RNB 19, PGP 18, National Recovery
Movement (Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), Jaques ADIAHENOT,
Secretary General; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks
(Morena-Bucherons/RNB), Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE, leader; Gabonese Party
for Progress (PGP), Pierre-Louis AGONDHO-OKAWE, President; National
Recovery Movement (Morena-Original), Pierre ZONGUE-NGUEMA, Chairman;
Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG), leader NA; Gabonese
Socialist Union (USG), leader NA; Circle for Renewal and Progress
(CRP), leader NA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), leader
NA; Rally of Democrats (RD), leader NA; Forces of Change for
Democratic Union, leader NA
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU,
OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA 
chancery: 
2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 797-1000 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Joseph C. WILSON IV 
embassy: 
Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville 
mailing address: 
B. P. 4000, Libreville 
telephone: 
(241) 762003/4, or 743492 
FAX: 
[241] 745-507 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

@Gabon, Economy

Overview: 
Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic problems, Gabon enjoys a
per capita income more than twice that of most nations of sub-Saharan
Africa. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was
discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now accounts
for 50% of GNP. Real growth was feeble in 1992 and Gabon continues to
face weak prices for its timber, manganese, and uranium exports.
Despite an abundance of natural wealth, and a manageable rate of
population growth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal management.
In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed
to settled arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of
rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors.
Devaluation of the local currency by 50% in January 1994 could set off
an inflationary spiral if the government fails to reign in spending
and grants large wage increases to an already overpaid public sector
workforce.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
0.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $272 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est)
commodities: 
crude oil 80%, timber 9%, manganese 7%, uranium 2%
partners: 
France 48%, US 15%, Germany 2%, Japan 2%
Imports: 
$702 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction
materials, manufactures, machinery
partners: 
France 64%, African countries 7%, US 5%, Japan 3%
External debt: 
$4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -10% (1988 est.); accounts for 8% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
315,000 kW
production: 
995 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
920 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
petroleum, food and beverages, lumbering and plywood, textiles, mining
- manganese, uranium, gold, cement
Agriculture: 
accounts for 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food;
small fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons;
okoume (a tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $68 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90),
$2.342 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Gabon, Communications

Railroads: 
649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese
Railroad)
Highways: 
total: 
7,500 km 
paved: 
560 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone 960 km; earth 5,980 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km 
Ports: 
Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine: 
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,562 GRT/25,330 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
70 
usable: 
59 
with permanent-surface runways: 
10 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
22 
Telecommunications: 
adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
AM, 6 FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite

@Gabon, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie,
National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 270,501; fit for military service 136,995; reach
military age (20) annually 10,107 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)


@The Gambia, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean almost completely
surrounded by Senegal
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
11,300 sq km 
land area: 
10,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries: 
total 740 km, Senegal 740 km 
Coastline: 
80 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
18 nm
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate: 
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season
(November to May)
Terrain: 
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
16% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
9% 
forest and woodland: 
20% 
other: 
55% 
Irrigated land: 
120 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
natural hazards: 
rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last thirty years
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of
Africa

@The Gambia, People

Population: 
959,300 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.08% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
46.39 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
15.64 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
123.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
50.08 years 
male: 
47.83 years 
female: 
52.39 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Gambian(s) 
adjective: 
Gambian 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%,
other 4%), non-Gambian 1% 
Religions: 
Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1% 
Languages: 
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
vernaculars
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
27% 
male: 
39% 
female: 
16% 
Labor force: 
400,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services 18.9%, government
6.1%
note: 
55% population of working age (1983)

@The Gambia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of The Gambia 
conventional short form: 
The Gambia 
Digraph: 
GA
Type: 
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital: 
Banjul 
Administrative divisions: 
5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North
Bank, Upper River, Western
Independence: 
18 February 1965 (from UK; The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement
on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose
confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
dissolved on 30 September 1989)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 18 February (1965) 
Constitution: 
24 April 1970
Legal system: 
based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary
law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
President Saihou SABALLY (since NA); election last held on 29 April
1992 (next to be held April 1997); results - Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP)
58.5%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 22.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 8.0%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the House of
Representatives
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Representatives: 
elections last held on 29 April 1992 (next to be held April 1997);
results - PPP 58.1%, seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP 30, NCP 6
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
(GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's
Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader
NA; People's Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH 
chancery: 
Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 785-1399, 1379, or 1425 
FAX: 
(202) 785-1430 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Arlene RENDER 
embassy: 
Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul 
mailing address: 
P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul 
telephone: 
[220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971 
FAX: 
(220) 92475 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and
green

@The Gambia, Economy

Overview: 
The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has
a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest
countries with a per capita income of roughly $800. About 75% of the
population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which
contribute 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing
peanuts, fish, and hides - accounts for less than 10% of GDP. A
sustained structural adjustment program, including a liberalized trade
policy, has fostered a respectable 4% rate of growth in recent years.
Re-export trade constitutes one-third of economic activity; however,
border closures associated with Senegal's monetary crisis in late 1993
led to a 50% decline in re-export trade, reducing government revenues
in turn. Devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 has made
Senegalese goods more competitive, and is likely to prompt a
relaxation of Senegalese controls, paving the way for a comeback in
re-exports.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $740 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.5% (FY92 est)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5% (FY 92 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$94 million 
expenditures: 
$80 million, including capital expenditures of $25 million (FY91 est.)
Exports: 
$164 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
partners: 
Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1%, other 5% (1989)
Imports: 
$214 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
equipment
partners: 
Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 9%, US 6%, other 3%
(1989)
External debt: 
$336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.7% (year NA); accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
30,000 kW
production: 
65 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
75 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery
assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population;
imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts;
other principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm
kernels; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; forestry and fishing
resources not fully exploited
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million 
Currency: 
1 dalasi (D) = 100 butut
Exchange rates: 
dalasi (D) per US$1 - 9.440 (November 1993), 8.888 (1992), 8.803
(1991), 7.883 (1990), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@The Gambia, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
3,083 km 
paved: 
431 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 501 km; unimproved earth 2,151 km 
Inland waterways: 
400 km
Ports: 
Banjul
Merchant marine: 
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,194 GRT/19,394 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@The Gambia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 207,754; fit for military service 105,100 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Gaza Strip

Header
Note: 
The war between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza
Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel withdrew
from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to a 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.
The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993,
provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of
Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West
Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no later
than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@Gaza Strip, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Israel
Map references: 
Middle East 
Area: 
total area: 
360 sq km 
land area: 
360 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 62 km, Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km 
Coastline: 
40 km 
Maritime claims: 
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
International disputes: 
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with interim status
subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations - final status to be
determined
Climate: 
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain: 
flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
13% 
permanent crops: 
32% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
55% 
Irrigated land: 
200 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
there are 24 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in the
Gaza Strip (April 1994)

@Gaza Strip, People

Population: 
731,296 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
in addition, there are 4,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1994
est.)
Population growth rate: 
3.53% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.01 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-4.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
36.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.78 years 
male: 
66.47 years 
female: 
69.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
7.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
NA 
adjective: 
NA 
Ethnic divisions: 
Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2% 
Religions: 
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3% 
Languages: 
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely
understood)
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce, restaurants, and
hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7% (1991)
note: 
excluding Jewish settlers

@Gaza Strip, Government

Note: 
Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arragements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. The DOP provides that Israel
will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external
security and for internal security and public order of settlements and
Israelis. Final status is to be determined through direct negotiations
within five years.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Gaza Strip 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Qita Ghazzah 
Digraph: 
GZ

@Gaza Strip, Economy

Overview: 
In 1991 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the
border by Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural
enterprises, with worker remittances accounting for about one-third of
GNP. The construction, agricultural, and industrial sectors account
for about 18%, 16%, and 12% of GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon
Israel for nearly 90% of its external trade. Aggravating the impact of
Israeli military administration, unrest in the territory since 1988
(intifadah) has raised unemployment and lowered the standard of living
of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt
blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf
states have dropped, unemployment has increased, and exports have
fallen. The withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip in May 1994
brings a new set of adjustment problems.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $840 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,275 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
20% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$33.6 million 
expenditures: 
$34.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports: 
$75 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
citrus
partners: 
Israel, Egypt
Imports: 
$370 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: 
Israel, Egypt
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 12% of GNP
Electricity: 
power supplied by Israel
Industries: 
generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap,
olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 16% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits,
vegetables, beef, dairy products
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates: 
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.9760 (February 1994), 2.8301
(1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Gaza Strip, Communications

Railroads: 
one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
note: 
small, poorly developed road network
Ports: 
facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

@Gaza Strip, Defense Forces

Branches: 
NA
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Georgia

Note: 
Georgia is currently besieged by interethnic strife in its Abkhazian
and South Ossetian enclaves.

@Georgia, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Map references: 
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States,
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
69,700 sq km 
land area: 
69,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries: 
total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
Turkey 252 km 
Coastline: 
310 km 
Maritime claims: 
note: 
12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary
between the two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline
along the Black Sea as its international waters, although it cannot
control this area and the Russian navy and commercial ships transit
freely
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain: 
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and
Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the
Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in
river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Natural resources: 
forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor
coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important
tea and citrus growth 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
4,660 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari
River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water;
soil pollution from toxic chemicals
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 

@Georgia, People

Population: 
5,681,025 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.81% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.11 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
23.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.84 years 
male: 
69.16 years 
female: 
76.7 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.18 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Georgian(s) 
adjective: 
Georgian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%,
Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5% 
Religions: 
Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%, Armenian
Orthodox 8%, unknown 6% 
Languages: 
Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7% 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
2.763 million 
by occupation: 
industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44%
(1990)

@Georgia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Georgia 
conventional short form: 
Georgia 
local long form: 
Sak'art'velos Respublika 
local short form: 
Sak'art'velo 
former: 
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
GG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
T'bilisi 
Administrative divisions: 
2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom
respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi)
note: 
the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in
parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are
under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence: 
9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 9 April (1991) 
Constitution: 
adopted NA February 1921; currently amending constitution for
Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (since 10
March 1992); election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA
1995); results - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 95%
head of government: 
Prime Minister Otar PATSATSIA (since September 1993); Deputy Prime
Ministers Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI (since NA), Tamaz
NADARISHVILI (since September 1993), Teimuraz BASILIA (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet): 
elections last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1995); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by
party NA; note - representatives of 26 parties elected; Peace Bloc,
October 11, Unity, National Democratic Party, and the Greens Party won
the largest representation
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; Traditionalists' Union,
Akaki ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian Social Democratic Party, Guram
MUCHAIDZE, chairman; Green Party, Zurab ZHVANIA, chairman; Georgian
Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic
Party (NDP), Gia CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party
(NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairmen; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo
PATASHVILI, chairman; Peace Bloc; Unity; October 11
Other political or pressure groups: 
supporters of ousted President Zuiad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January
1994) boycotted the October elections and remain a source of
opposition and instability
Member of: 
BSEC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC,
ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Petr CHKHEIDZE 
chancery: 
(temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 
telephone: 
(202) 393-6060 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Kent N. BROWN 
embassy: 
#25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
(7) 8832-98-99-68 
FAX: 
(7) 8832-93-37-59 
Flag: 
maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner;
rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below

@Georgia, Economy

Overview: 
Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism;
cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and
copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine, metals,
machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of
its energy needs, including natural gas and coal. Its only sizable
domestic energy resource is hydropower. Since 1990, widespread
conflicts, e.g., in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Mengrelia, severely
aggravated the economic crisis resulting from the disintegration of
the Soviet command economy in December 1991. Throughout 1993, much of
industry was functioning at only 20% of capacity; heavy disruptions in
agricultural cultivation were reported; and tourism was shut down. The
country is precariously dependent on US and EU humanitarian grain
shipments, as most other foods are priced beyond reach of the average
citizen. Georgia is also suffering from an acute energy crisis, as it
is having problems paying for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning
its hopes for recovery on reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on
developing international transportation through the key Black Sea
ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.8 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Georgian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-35% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,390 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
40.5% per month (2nd half 1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
officially less than 5% but real unemployment may be up near 20%, with
even larger numbers of underemployed workers; real unemployment may be
up near 20% with even larger numbers of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types
of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles; chemicals; fuel
re-exports
partners: 
Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992)
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment
partners: 
Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (1993)
External debt: 
$100 million to $200 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -27% (1993); accounts for 36% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
4,875,000 kW
production: 
15.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,835 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, airplanes;
machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes,
electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat
packing, electric motors, process control equipment, instruments;
trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery; light industrial products,
including cloth, hosiery, and shoes; chemicals; wood-working
industries; the most important food industry is wine
Agriculture: 
accounts for 41% of GDP; accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus
fruits and 93% of former USSR tea; important producer of grapes; also
cultivates vegetables and potatoes; dependent on imports for grain,
dairy products, sugar; small livestock sector
Illicit drugs: 
illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic
consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
heavily dependent on US for humanitarian grain shipments; EC granted
around $70 million in trade credits in 1992 and another $40 million in
1993; Turkey granted $50 million in 1993; smaller scale credits
granted by Russia and China
Currency: 
coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by introduction of the
lari at undetermined future date; in July 1993 use of the Russian
ruble was banned
Exchange rates: 
NA
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Georgia, Communications

Railroads: 
1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
33,900 km 
paved and gravelled: 
29,500 km 
unpaved: 
earth 4,400 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)
Ports: 
coastal - Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
Merchant marine: 
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 575,823 GRT/882,110 DWT, bulk
cargo 14, oil tanker 27 
Airports: 
total: 
37 
usable: 
27 
with permanent-surface runways: 
14 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
poor telephone service; as of mid-1993, 672,000 telephone lines
providing 14 lines per 100 persons; 339,000 unsatisfied applications
for telephones (31 December 1990); international links via landline to
CIS members and Turkey; low capacity satellite earth station and
leased international connections via the Moscow international gateway
switch with other countries; international electronic mail and telex
service available
Note: 
transportation network is disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal
activities, and fuel shortages

@Georgia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, Navy, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,362,818; fit for military service 1,081,624; reach
military age (18) annually 42,881 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GNP
Note: 
Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the
government's control


@Germany, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, bordering the North Sea between France and Poland
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
356,910 sq km 
land area: 
349,520 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Montana
note: 
includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German
Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3
October 1990
Land boundaries: 
total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km,
Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km,
Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km 
Coastline: 
2,389 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm in North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea (extends,
at one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); 12 nm in remainder
of Baltic Sea
International disputes: 
none 
Climate: 
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain: 
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources: 
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas,
salt, nickel 
Land use: 
arable land: 
34% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
16% 
forest and woodland: 
30% 
other: 
19% 
Irrigated land: 
4,800 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries in the southeast
and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use
of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting
from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in
the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in
eastern Germany
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Note: 
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to
the Baltic Sea

@Germany, People

Population: 
81,087,506 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.36% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.04 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.89 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.34 years 
male: 
73.22 years 
female: 
79.64 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
German(s) 
adjective: 
German 
Ethnic divisions: 
German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%,
other 1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former
Yugoslavia)
Religions: 
Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18% 
Languages: 
German 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
36.75 million 
by occupation: 
industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

@Germany, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Federal Republic of Germany 
conventional short form: 
Germany 
local long form: 
Bundesrepublik Deutschland 
local short form: 
Deutschland 
Digraph: 
GM
Type: 
federal republic 
Capital: 
Berlin 
note: 
the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years
with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
ministries
Administrative divisions: 
16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern,
Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,
Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland,
Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence: 
18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones
of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following
World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany)
proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French
zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7
October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West
Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power
rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
National holiday: 
German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990) 
Constitution: 
23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united
German people 3 October 1990
Legal system: 
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984); note -
presidential elections were held on 23 May 1994; Roman HERZOG was the
winner and will be inaugurated 1 July 1994
head of government: 
Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president upon the proposal of the
chancellor
Legislative branch: 
bicameral chamber (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)
Federal Assembly (Bundestag): 
last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held by 16 October 1994);
results - CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West
Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party
(East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%; seats - (662 total) CDU 268, CSU 51,
SPD 239, FDP 79, PDS 17, Greens/Alliance '90 8; elected by direct
popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional
representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or 3 direct
mandates to gain representation
Federal Council (Bundesrat): 
State governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6
votes depending on size and are required to vote as a block; current
composition: votes - (68 total) SPD-led states 37, CDU-led states 31
Judicial branch: 
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian
Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL, chairman; Free Democratic Party
(FDP), Klaus KINKEL, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Rudolf
SCHARPING, chairman; Alliance '90/Greens, Ludger VOLMER, Marianne
BIRTHLER, co-chairmen; Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), Lothar
BISKY, chairman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National Democratic
Party (NPD), Guenter DECKERT; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Other political or pressure groups: 
expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA,
FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UNOMIG,
UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Immo STABREIT 
chancery: 
4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 298-4000 
FAX: 
(202) 298-4249 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
York, San Francisco, Seattle 
consulate(s): 
Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and Wellington
(America Samoa) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard C. HOLBROOKE 
embassy: 
Deichmanns Avenue 29, 53170 Bonn 
mailing address: 
Unit 21701, Bonn; APO AE 09080 
telephone: 
[49] (228) 3391 
FAX: 
[49] (228) 339-2663 
branch office: 
Berlin 
consulate(s) general: 
Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

@Germany, Economy

Overview: 
With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, prospects
seemed bright for a fairly rapid incorporation of East Germany into
the highly successful West German economy. The Federal Republic,
however, continues to experience difficulties in integrating and
modernizing eastern Germany, and the tremendous costs of unification
pushed western Germany into its deepest recession since World War II.
The western German economy shrank by 1.9% in 1993 as the Bundesbank
maintained high interest rates to offset the inflationary effects of
large government deficits and high wage settlements. Eastern Germany
grew by 7.1% in 1993 but this was from a shrunken base. Despite
government transfers to the east amounting to nearly $110 billion
annually, a self-sustaining economy in the region is still some years
away. The bright spots are eastern Germany's construction,
transportation, telecommunications, and service sectors, which have
experienced strong growth. Western Germany has an advanced market
economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly urbanized
and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards,
abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits.
Western Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being
the most important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies
manufacture technologically advanced goods. The region's economy is
mature: services and manufacturing account for the dominant share of
economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactured goods
constitute a large portion of imports. In recent years, manufacturing
has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with other sectors contributing
lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1993 accounted for about
20.5% of GDP. GDP in the western region is now $19,400 per capita, or
78% of US per capita GDP. Eastern Germany's economy appears to be
changing from one anchored on manufacturing into a more
service-oriented economy. The German government, however, is intent on
maintaining a manufacturing base in the east and is considering a
policy for subsidizing industrial cores in the region. Eastern
Germany's share of all-German GDP is only 8% and eastern productivity
is just 30% that of the west even though eastern wages are at roughly
70% of western levels. The privatization agency for eastern Germany,
Treuhand, has privatized more than 90% of the 13,000 firms under its
control and will likely wind down operations in 1994. Private
investment in the region continues to be lackluster, resulting
primarily from the deepening recession in western Germany and
excessively high eastern wages. Eastern Germany has one of the world's
largest reserves of low-grade lignite coal but little else in the way
of mineral resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany
is improving, yet many gaps remain; the federal government began
producing all-German data for select economic statistics at the start
of 1992. The most challenging economic problem is promoting eastern
Germany's economic reconstruction - specifically, finding the right
mix of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and tax policies that will spur
investment in eastern Germany - without destabilizing western
Germany's economy or damaging relations with West European partners.
The government hopes a "solidarity pact" among labor unions, business,
state governments, and the SPD opposition will provide the right mix
of wage restraints, investment incentives, and spending cuts to
stimulate eastern recovery. Finally, the homogeneity of the German
economic culture has been changed by the admission of large numbers of
immigrants.
National product: 
Germany: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.331 trillion (1993)
western: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.218 trillion (1993)
eastern: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $112.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
Germany: 
-1.2% (1993)
western: 
-1.9% (1993)
eastern: 
7.1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
Germany: 
$16,500 (1993)
western: 
$19,400 (1993)
eastern: 
$6,300 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
western: 
4.2% (1993)
eastern: 
8.9% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
western: 
8.1% (December 1993)
eastern: 
15.4% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$918 billion 
expenditures: 
$972 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$392 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
manufactures 89.0% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals,
motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.4%,
raw materials 2.2%, fuels 1.3% (1922)
partners: 
EC 51.3% (France 11.1%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 8.2%, UK 7.9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7.5%), EFTA 13.3%, US 6.8%, Eastern Europe 5.0%,
OPEC 3.3% (1993)
Imports: 
$374.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
manufactures 74.9%, agricultural products 10.3%, fuels 7.4%, raw
materials 5.5% (1992)
partners: 
EC 49.7 (France 11.0%, Netherlands 9.2%, Italy 8.8%, UK 6.6%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 6.7%), EFTA 12.7%, US 5.9%, Japan 5.2%, Eastern
Europe 4.8%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
western: 
growth rate -7% (1993)
eastern: 
growth rate $NA
Electricity: 
capacity: 
134,000,000 kW
production: 
580 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
7,160 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
western: 
among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and
beverages
eastern: 
metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture: 
western: 
accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle,
pigs, poultry; net importer of food
eastern: 
accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins;
net importer of food
Illicit drugs: 
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
cocaine for West European markets
Economic aid: 
western-donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion 
eastern-donor: 
bilateral to non-Communist less developed countries (1956-89) $4
billion 
Currency: 
1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates: 
deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.7431 (January 1994), 1.6533 (1993),
1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Germany, Communications

Railroads: 
western: 
31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard
gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km
nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
(214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)
eastern: 
14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km
1.000-meter or other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter
standard gauge double-track; 3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways: 
total: 
625,600 km (1991 est.); western - 501,000 km (1990 est.); eastern -
124,600 km (1988 est.)
paved: 
543,200 km, including 10,814 km of expressways; western - 495,900 km,
including 8,959 km of expressways; eastern - 47,300 km, including
1,855 km of expressways
unpaved: 
82,400 km; western - 5,000 km earth; eastern - 77,400 km gravel and
earth
Inland waterways: 
western: 
5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton
capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel
Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea
eastern: 
2,319 km (1988)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
(1988)
Ports: 
coastal - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg,
Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz;
inland - 31 major on Rhine and Elbe rivers
Merchant marine: 
485 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,441 GRT/5,835,511 DWT,
barge carrier 7, bulk 11, cargo 241, chemical tanker 20, combination
bulk 6, combination ore/oil 5, container 132, liquefied gas tanker 16,
oil tanker 7, passenger 3, railcar carrier 5, refrigerated cargo 7,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 5 
note: 
the German register includes ships of the former East and West Germany
Airports: 
total: 
590 
usable: 
583 
with permanent-surface runways: 
308 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
85 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
97 
Telecommunications: 
western: 
highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the
country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones;
intensively developed, highly redundant cable and microwave radio
relay networks, all completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM,
470 FM, 225 (6,000 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite earth stations - 12 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF
radiocommunication centers; tropospheric links
eastern: 
badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000
radios; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and
Intersputnik systems

@Germany, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 20,253,482; fit for military service 17,506,468; reach
military age (18) annually 418,124 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $37.3 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)


@Ghana, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cote
d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
238,540 sq km 
land area: 
230,020 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: 
total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km 
Coastline: 
539 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and
humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain: 
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources: 
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% 
permanent crops: 
7% 
meadows and pastures: 
15% 
forest and woodland: 
37% 
other: 
36% 
Irrigated land: 
80 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat
destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; limited
supply of safe drinking water
natural hazards: 
dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly
harmattan wind (January to March)

@Ghana, People

Population: 
17,225,185 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.09% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
44.13 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.27 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
83.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
55.52 years 
male: 
53.58 years 
female: 
57.52 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.15 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ghanaian(s) 
adjective: 
Ghanaian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe
13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2% 
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8% 
Languages: 
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba,
Ewe, and Ga)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
60% 
male: 
70% 
female: 
51% 
Labor force: 
3.7 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical
15.2%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional
3.7%
note: 
48% of population of working age (1983)

@Ghana, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Ghana 
conventional short form: 
Ghana 
former: 
Gold Coast 
Digraph: 
GH
Type: 
constitutional democracy 
Capital: 
Accra 
Administrative divisions: 
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra,
Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence: 
6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 6 March (1957) 
Constitution: 
new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Legal system: 
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
universal at 18
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992) election last
held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA)
cabinet: 
Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by the
Parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA)
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Democratic Congress, Jerry John Rawlings; New Patriotic
Party, Albert Adu BOAHEN; People's Heritage Party, Alex Erskine;
various other smaller parties
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH 
chancery: 
3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 686-4520 
FAX: 
(202) 686-4527 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN 
embassy: 
Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 194, Accra 
telephone: 
[233] (21) 775348, 775349, 775297 or 775298 
FAX: 
[233] (21) 776008 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a
large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

@Ghana, Economy

Overview: 
Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983,
including moves toward privatization and relaxation of government
controls. The agriculture sector consists largely of small traditional
farm holdings, rain-fed for the most part. Heavily dependent on cocoa,
gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not spread
substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
democratic government have boosted government expenditures and
undercut structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange
in 1990 and plans to float 5% of its stake in Ashanti Goldfields
Corporation, which would make the exchange the largest in sub-Saharan
Africa outside of South Africa.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $25 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
10% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
10% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1 billion 
expenditures: 
$905 million, including capital expenditures of $200 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
partners: 
Germany 31%, US 12%, UK 11%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5% (1991)
Imports: 
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital
equipment
partners: 
UK 22%, US 11%, Germany 9%, Japan 6%
External debt: 
$4.6 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate in manufacturing (1992); accounts for almost 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,180,000 kW
production: 
4.49 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
290 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 43% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the major
cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava,
peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit
hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist
countries (1970-89) $106 million 
Currency: 
1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Exchange rates: 
new cedis per US$1 - 713.00 (October 1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83
(1991), 326.33 (1990), 270.00 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Ghana, Communications

Railroads: 
953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads
undergoing major renovation
Highways: 
total: 
32,250 km 
paved: 
concrete, bituminous 6,084 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 26,166 km 
Inland waterways: 
Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation
for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial
and feeder waterways
Pipelines: 
none
Ports: 
Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine: 
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,289 GRT/61,606 DWT, cargo 4,
refrigerated cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
11 
usable: 
11 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave radio relay links;
42,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators)
TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ghana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Civil Defense 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 3,867,183; fit for military service 2,159,769; reach
military age (18) annually 170,283 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GDP (1989
est.)


@Gibraltar

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Gibraltar, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links
the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern
coast of Spain
Map references: 
Africa, Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
6.5 sq km 
land area: 
6.5 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 1.2 km, Spain 1.2 km 
Coastline: 
12 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
3 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate: 
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain: 
a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
natural freshwater sources are meager, so large concrete or natural
rock water catchments collect rain water
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North
Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

@Gibraltar, People

Population: 
31,684 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.58% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.37 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.33 years 
male: 
73.44 years 
female: 
79.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Gibraltarian(s) 
adjective: 
Gibraltar 
Ethnic divisions: 
Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%),
Moslem 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages: 
English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese, Russian 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
note: 
UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of
the labor force

@Gibraltar, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Gibraltar 
Digraph: 
GI
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
Gilbraltar 
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March) 
Constitution: 
30 May 1969
Legal system: 
English law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident six months
or more
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
and Commander in Chief Gen. Sir John CHAPPLE (since NA March 1993) 
head of government: 
Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988) 
Gibraltar Council: 
advises the governor
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed from the elected members of the
Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Assembly: 
elections last held on 16 January 1992 (next to be held January 1996);
results - SL 73.3%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) number of seats by
party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor
Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR),
leader NA; Gibraltar Social Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar
National Party, Joe GARCIA
Other political or pressure groups: 
Housewives Association; Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives
Organization
Member of: 
INTERPOL (subbureau) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from
the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

@Gibraltar, Economy

Overview: 
The British military presence has been severely reduced and now only
contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector
accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism and shipping services fees also
generate income. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the
level of employment. Construction workers are particularly affected
when government expenditures are cut.
National product: 
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $182 million (FY87)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (FY87)
National product per capita: 
$4,600 (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$136 million 
expenditures: 
$139 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports: 
$82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
(principally re-exports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other
8%
partners: 
UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports: 
$258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners: 
UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt: 
$318 million (1987)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
47,000 kW
production: 
200 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,740 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large
UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port;
light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters,
candy, beer, and canned fish
Agriculture: 
none
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $800,000; Western (non-US)
countries and ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $2.5 million 
Currency: 
1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Gibraltar, Communications

Railroads: 
1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways: 
total: 
50 km 
paved: 
50 km 
Pipelines: 
none
Ports: 
Gibraltar
Merchant marine: 
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 496,898 GRT/857,140 DWT, bulk 5,
cargo 4, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil tanker 16, refrigerated
cargo 1 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Gibraltar, Defense Forces

Branches: 
British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Glorioso Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(possession of France) 

@Glorioso Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean just north of Madagascar
Map references: 
Africa 
Area: 
total area: 
5 sq km 
land area: 
5 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South
Rock
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
35.2 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Madagascar
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
NA
Natural resources: 
guano, coconuts 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to periodic cyclones
international agreements: 
NA 

@Glorioso Islands, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Glorioso Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Glorioso Islands 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Iles Glorieuses 
Digraph: 
GO
Type: 
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion
Capital: 
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence: 
none (possession of France)

@Glorioso Islands, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Glorioso Islands, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runsways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 

@Glorioso Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Greece, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between
Turkey and Bulgaria
Map references: 
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
131,940 sq km 
land area: 
130,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries: 
total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km 
Coastline: 
13,676 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm
International disputes: 
air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia over name and symbol implying territorial claim
Climate: 
temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or
chains of islands
Natural resources: 
bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble 
Land use: 
arable land: 
23% 
permanent crops: 
8% 
meadows and pastures: 
40% 
forest and woodland: 
20% 
other: 
9% 
Irrigated land: 
11,900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution; water pollution
natural hazards: 
subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of
about 2,000 islands

@Greece, People

Population: 
10,564,630 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.84% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
10.5 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
7.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.71 years 
male: 
75.2 years 
female: 
80.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.45 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Greek(s) 
adjective: 
Greek 
Ethnic divisions: 
Greek 98%, other 2% 
note: 
the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece
Religions: 
Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7% 
Languages: 
Greek (official), English, French 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
89% 
Labor force: 
4.083 million 
by occupation: 
services 48%, agriculture 24%, industry 28% (1993)

@Greece, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Hellenic Republic 
conventional short form: 
Greece 
local long form: 
Elliniki Dhimokratia 
local short form: 
Ellas 
former: 
Kingdom of Greece 
Digraph: 
GR
Type: 
presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum
8 December 1974
Capital: 
Athens 
Administrative divisions: 
52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania,
Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama,
Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia,
Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia,
Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia,
Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia,
Pella, Pieria, Piraievs, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai,
Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos,
autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)
Independence: 
1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of
independence) 
Constitution: 
11 June 1975
Legal system: 
based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal,
and administrative courts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990); election last
held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos
KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament
head of government: 
Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU (since 10 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon): 
elections last held 10 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1997); results - PASOK 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE
4.54%, and Progressive Left Coalition 2.94%; seats - (300 total) PASOK
170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal 
Political parties and leaders: 
New Democracy (ND; conservative), Miltiades EVERT; Panhellenic
Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU; Progressive Left
Coalition, Maria DAMANAKI; Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Konstantinos
STEFANOPOULOS; Communist Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA;
Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates; Political Spring, Antonis
SAMARAS
Member of: 
Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNOMIG, UNOSOM, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Loucas TSILAS 
chancery: 
2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-5800 
FAX: 
(202) 939-5824 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco 
consulate(s): 
New Orleans 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Thomas M.T. NILES 
embassy: 
91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens 
mailing address: 
PSC 108, Athens; APO AE 09842 
telephone: 
[30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401 
FAX: 
[30] (1) 645-6282 
consulate(s) general: 
Thessaloniki 
Flag: 
nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is
a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross;
the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the
country

@Greece, Economy

Overview: 
Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial
system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the
public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in 1989. Since
then, the public sector has been reduced to about 60% of GDP. Tourism
continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is
self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal
feedstuffs. Over the last decade, real GDP growth has averaged 1.6% a
year, compared with the European Union average of 2.2%. Inflation is
four times the EU average, and the national debt has reached 140% of
GDP, the highest in the EU. Prime Minister PAPANDREOU will probably
only make limited progress correcting the economy's problems of high
inflation, large budget deficit, and decaying infrastructure. His
economic program suggests that although he will shun his expansionary
policies of the 1980s, he will avoid tough measures needed to slow
inflation or reduce the state's role in the economy. He has limited
the previous government's privatization plans, for example, and has
called for generous welfare spending and real wage increases. In 1994,
the GDP growth rate is likely to remain low, and inflation probably
will accelerate, remaining the highest in the EU. PAPANDREOU'S failure
to improve the country's economic performance will further strain
relations with the EU. Since Greece's accession to the then EC in
1981, Athens' heavy reliance on EU aid - amounting to about 6% of
Greek GDP annually - and its poor use of Union funds have riled
Brussels. Its ailing economy will continue to be a drag on European
economic and monetary union.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $93.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$8,900 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
14.4% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
9.5% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$28.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$37.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2 billion (1994)
Exports: 
$6 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 34%, fuels 5%
partners: 
Germany 23%, Italy 18%, France 7%, UK 7%, US 4% (1992)
Imports: 
$23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
manufactured goods 72%, foodstuffs 15%, fuels 10%
partners: 
Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, Netherlands 7%, Japan 6% (1992)
External debt: 
$23.1 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -1.3% (1992); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,500,000 kW
production: 
36.4 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,610 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, mining, petroleum
Agriculture: 
including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 24% of the
labor force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets,
olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food
except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic
production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling
cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the
West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for
Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.39
billion 
Currency: 
1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta
Exchange rates: 
drachmae (Dr) per US$1 - 250.28 (January 1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62
(1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Greece, Communications

Railroads: 
2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1,435-mm standard gauge, of which 36 km
electrified and 100 km double track; 892 km 1,000-mm gauge; 22 km
750-mm narrow gauge; all government owned
Highways: 
total: 
38,938 km 
paved: 
16,090 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel 13,676 km; improved earth 5,632 km; unimproved
earth 3,540 km 
Inland waterways: 
80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth
Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf
of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the
Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers
Pipelines: 
crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km 
Ports: 
Piraievs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki
Merchant marine: 
1,059 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,343,367 GRT/54,249,294
DWT, bulk 453, cargo 117, chemical tanker 20, combination bulk 23,
combination ore/oil 38, container 36, liquefied gas 6, livestock
carrier 1, oil tanker 251, passenger 15, passenger-cargo 2,
refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 17, short-sea passenger
65, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1 
note: 
ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of
Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas
Airports: 
total: 
78 
usable: 
77 
with permanent-surface runways: 
63 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
20 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
24 
Telecommunications: 
adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,080,000 telephones;
microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire
network; submarine cables to off-shore islands; broadcast stations -
29 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 361 TV; tropospheric links, 8 submarine
cables; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna), and EUTELSAT systems

@Greece, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard,
Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,645,859; fit for military service 2,025,212; reach
military age (21) annually 74,484 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, 5.4% of GDP (1993)


@Greenland

Header
Affiliation: 
(part of the Danish realm) 

@Greenland, Geography

Location: 
Northern North America, in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Canada
and Norway
Map references: 
Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,175,600 sq km 
land area: 
383,600 sq km (ice free)
comparative area: 
slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
44,087 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
dispute betwen Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic
Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Climate: 
arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain: 
flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous,
barren, rocky coast
Natural resources: 
zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
99% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe;
sparse population confined to small settlements along coast;
continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

@Greenland, People

Population: 
57,040 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.94% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
18.6 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
66.91 years 
male: 
62.55 years 
female: 
71.28 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Greenlander(s) 
adjective: 
Greenlandic 
Ethnic divisions: 
Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians), Danish 14% 
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 
Languages: 
Eskimo dialects, Danish 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
22,800 
by occupation: 
largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

@Greenland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Greenland 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Kalaallit Nunaat 
Digraph: 
GL
Type: 
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division
Capital: 
Nuuk (Godthab) 
Administrative divisions: 
3 municipalities (kommuner, singular - kommun); Nordgronland,
Ostgronland, Vestgronland
Independence: 
none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division)
National holiday: 
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940) 
Constitution: 
5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: 
Danish
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High
Commissioner Torben Hede PEDERSEN (since NA) 
head of government: 
Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15 March 1991) 
cabinet: 
Landsstyre; formed from the Landsting on basis of strength of parties
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Landsting): 
elections last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) Siumut 11,
Atassut Party 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1
Danish Folketing: 
last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994);
Greenland elects two representatives to the Folketing; results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1
Judicial branch: 
High Court (Landsret) 
Political parties and leaders: 
two-party ruling coalition; Siumut (a moderate socialist party that
advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from
Denmark), Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a
Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark
rather than home rule), Arqaluk LYNGE; Atassut Party (a more
conservative party that favors continuing close relations with
Denmark), leader NA; Polar Party (conservative-Greenland nationalist),
Lars CHEMNITZ; Center Party (a new nonsocialist protest party), leader
NA
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk
slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is
red, the bottom half is white

@Greenland, Economy

Overview: 
Greenland's economic situation at present is difficult. Unemployment
is increasing, and prospects for economic growth in the immediate
future are dim. Following the closing of the Black Angel lead and zinc
mine in 1989, Greenland became almost completely dependent on fishing
and fish processing, the sector accounting for 95% of exports.
Prospects for fisheries are not bright, as the important shrimp
catches will at best stabilize and cod catches have dropped.
Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon activities is not around the
corner, thus leaving only tourism with some potential for the near
future. The public sector in Greenland, i.e., the central government
and its commercial entities and the municipalities, plays a dominant
role in Greenland accounting for about two-thirds of total employment.
About half the government's revenues come from grants from the Danish
Government.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1988)
National product real growth rate: 
-10% (1990)
National product per capita: 
$9,000 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate: 
9% (1990 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$381 million 
expenditures: 
$381 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1989)
Exports: 
$340.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
fish and fish products 95%
partners: 
Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%
Imports: 
$403 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment 24%, food
and live animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
partners: 
Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%, Sweden
2.4%
External debt: 
$480 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
84,000 kW
production: 
176 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,060 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead and zinc mining, handicrafts,
some small shipyards, potential for platinum and gold mining
Agriculture: 
sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops limited to forage
and small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500 metric tons
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Greenland, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
150 km 
paved: 
60 km 
unpaved: 
90 km 
Ports: 
Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab), Nuuk
(Godthaab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik, North
Star Bay
Airports: 
total: 
11 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
adequate domestic and international service provided by cables and
microwave radio relay; 17,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7
(35 repeaters) FM, 4 (9 repeaters) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Greenland, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is responsibility of Denmark


@Grenada, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 150 im north of
Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
340 sq km 
land area: 
340 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
121 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain: 
volcanic in origin with central mountains
Natural resources: 
timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors 
Land use: 
arable land: 
15% 
permanent crops: 
26% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
9% 
other: 
47% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to
November
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Climate Change
Note: 
islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines

@Grenada, People

Population: 
94,109 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.35% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
30.28 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.19 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-20.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
70.4 years 
male: 
68 years 
female: 
72.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.93 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Grenadian(s) 
adjective: 
Grenadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black African 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Protestant sects 
Languages: 
English (official), French patois 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
36,000 
by occupation: 
services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%, manufacturing 5%,
other 32% (1985)

@Grenada, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Grenada 
Digraph: 
GJ
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Saint George's 
Administrative divisions: 
6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petit Martinique*, Saint
Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick
Independence: 
7 February 1974 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 7 February (1974) 
Constitution: 
19 December 1973
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Reginald Oswald PALMER (since 6 August 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
consists of a 13-member body, 10 appointed by the government and 3 by
the Leader of the Opposition
House of Representatives: 
elections last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by NA March
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) NDC
7, GULP 4, TNP 2, NNP 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE; Grenada
United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY; The National Party (TNP),
Ben JONES; New National Party (NNP), Keith MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop
Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence MARRYSHOW
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS,
OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Denneth MODESTE 
chancery: 
1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 265-2561 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Charge d'Affaires Ollie P. ANDERSON 
embassy: 
Point Salines, Saint George's 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 54, Saint George's, Grenada, W.I. 
telephone: 
(809) 444-1173 through 1178 
FAX: 
(809) 444-4820 
Flag: 
a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom)
and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border
around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three
centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red
border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag;
there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle
(Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after
Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative
divisions

@Grenada, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional
production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for
about 15% of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the labor
force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner, followed by
agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped,
but is expected to grow, given a more favorable private investment
climate since 1983. The economy achieved an impressive average annual
growth rate of 5.5% in 1986-91 but stalled in 1992. Unemployment
remains high at about 25%.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $250 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-0.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
25% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$78 million 
expenditures: 
$51 million, including capital expenditures of $22 million (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$19.9 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
partners: 
Netherlands, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, United States
Imports: 
$103.2 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%, chemicals 10%, fuel
6% (1989)
partners: 
US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)
External debt: 
$109 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.8% (1992 est.); accounts for 9% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
12,500 kW
production: 
26 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
310 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism,
construction
Agriculture: 
accounts for 15% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg,
and mace account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's
second-largest producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and
mace; small-size farms predominate, growing a variety of citrus
fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and vegetables
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $70
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Grenada, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
1,000 km 
paved: 
600 km 
unpaved: 
otherwise improved 300 km; unimproved earth 100 km 
Ports: 
Saint George's
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF
radio links to the islands of Trinidad, Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF
and UHF radio links to the islands of Trinidad and Carriacou;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

@Grenada, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Guadeloupe

Header
Affiliation: 
(overseas department of France) 

@Guadeloupe, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the Caribbean Sea, 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
1,780 sq km 
land area: 
1,760 sq km 
comparative area: 
10 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
306 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity
Terrain: 
Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grand-Terre
is low limestone formation
Natural resources: 
cultivable land, beaches and climate that foster tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
18% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
13% 
forest and woodland: 
40% 
other: 
24% 
Irrigated land: 
30 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an active
volcano
international agreements: 
NA 

@Guadeloupe, People

Population: 
428,947 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.55% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
17.68 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.97 years 
male: 
73.91 years 
female: 
80.14 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.04 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Guadeloupian(s) 
adjective: 
Guadeloupe 
Ethnic divisions: 
black or mulatto 90%, white 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less
than 5%
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5% 
Languages: 
French, creole patois 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 
90% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
91% 
Labor force: 
120,000 
by occupation: 
services, government, and commerce 53.0%, industry 25.8%, agriculture
21.2%

@Guadeloupe, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Department of Guadeloupe 
conventional short form: 
Guadeloupe 
local long form: 
Departement de la Guadeloupe 
local short form: 
Guadeloupe 
Digraph: 
GP
Type: 
overseas department of France 
Capital: 
Basse-Terre 
Administrative divisions: 
none (overseas department of France)
Independence: 
none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: 
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789) 
Constitution: 
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: 
French legal system
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981) 
head of government: 
Prefect Franck PERRIEZ (since NA 1992); President of the General
Council Dominique LARIFA (since NA); President of the Regional Council
Lucette MICHAUX-CHEVRY (since 22 March 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council
General Council: 
elections last held NA March 1992 (next to be held by NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (43 total) FRUI.G 13,
RPR/DUD 13, PPDG 8, FGPS 3, PCG 3 UPLG 1, PSG 1, independent 1
Regional Council: 
elections last held on 31 January 1993 (next to be held by 16 March
1998); results - RPR/DUD 48.30%, FGPS 17.09%, FRUI.G 7.44%, PPDG
8.90%, UPLG 7.75% PCG 6.05%; seats - (41 total) seats by party NA
French Senate: 
elections last held in September 1986 (next to be held September
1995); Guadeloupe elects two representatives; results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PCG 1, PS 1
French National Assembly: 
elections last held on 21 and 28 March1993 (next to be held March
1998); Guadeloupe elects four representatives; results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) PS 1, RPR 1, PCG 1, independent 1
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe,
French Guiana, and Martinique
Political parties and leaders: 
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Aldo BLAISE; Communist Party of
Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE; Socialist Party (FGPS),
Georges LOUISOR; Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe
(UPLG), Lucien PERATIN; FGPS Dissidents (FRUI.G); Union for French
Democracy (UDF), Simon BARLAGNE; Union for the Center Rally (URC;
coalition of the FGPS, RPR, and UDF); Guadeloupe Objective (OG),
Lucette MICHAUX-CHEVRY; Progressive Democratic Party (PPDG), Henri
BANGOU
Other political or pressure groups: 
Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular
Movement for Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of
Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG); General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers
(CGT-G); Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)
Member of: 
FZ, WCL, WFTU 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (overseas department of France)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (overseas department of France)
Flag: 
the flag of France is used

@Guadeloupe, Economy

Overview: 
The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light industry, and
services. It is also dependent upon France for large subsidies and
imports. Tourism is a key industry, with most tourists from the US. In
addition, an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit the
islands. The traditionally important sugarcane crop is slowly being
replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50%
of export earnings), eggplant, and flowers. Other vegetables and root
crops are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is
still dependent on imported food, which comes mainly from France.
Light industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most
manufactured goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially
high among the young.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$8,400 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3.7% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
31.3% (1990)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$333 million 
expenditures: 
$671 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports: 
$168 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: 
bananas, sugar, rum
partners: 
France 68%, Martinique 22% (1987)
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: 
vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, construction
materials, petroleum products
partners: 
France 64%, Italy, FRG, US (1987)
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
171,500 kW
production: 
441 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,080 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism
Agriculture: 
cash crops - bananas, sugarcane; other products include tropical
fruits and vegetables; livestock - cattle, pigs, goats; not
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$8.235 billion 
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Guadeloupe, Communications

Railroads: 
privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines
Highways: 
total: 
1,940 km 
paved: 
1,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 340 km 
Ports: 
Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
domestic facilities inadequate; 57,300 telephones; interisland
microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and
Martinique; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 8 FM (30 private stations
licensed to broadcast FM), 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT ground
station

@Guadeloupe, Defense Forces

Branches: 
French Forces, Gendarmerie 
Note: 
defense is responsibility of France


@Guam

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Guam, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Micronesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 5,955 km
west-southwest of Honolulu, about three-quarters of the way between
Hawaii and the Philippines
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
541.3 sq km 
land area: 
541.3 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
125.5 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast
trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July
to December; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coraline
limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal
cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center,
mountains in south
Natural resources: 
fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
11% 
permanent crops: 
11% 
meadows and pastures: 
15% 
forest and woodland: 
18% 
other: 
45% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare, but
potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago;
strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean

@Guam, People

Population: 
149,620 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.48% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.66 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
3.86 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
15.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.29 years 
male: 
72.42 years 
female: 
76.13 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.39 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Guamanian(s) 
adjective: 
Guamanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, Caucasian 10%, Chinese, Japanese, Korean,
and other 18% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 98%, other 2% 
Languages: 
English, Chamorro, Japanese 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
96% 
male: 
96% 
female: 
96% 
Labor force: 
46,930 (1990)
by occupation: 
federal and territorial government 40%, private 60% (trade 18%,
services 15.6%, construction 13.8%, other 12.6%) (1990)

@Guam, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of Guam 
conventional short form: 
Guam 
Digraph: 
GQ
Type: 
organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations
between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of
Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior 
Capital: 
Agana 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of the US)
Independence: 
none (territory of the US)
National holiday: 
Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March) (1521); Liberation Day, 21
July 
Constitution: 
Organic Act of 1 August 1950
Legal system: 
modeled on US; federal laws apply
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in US
presidential elections
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
Governor Joseph A. ADA (since November 1986); Lieutenant Governor
Frank F. BLAS (since NA); election last held on 6 November 1990 (next
to be held NA November 1994); results - Joseph F. ADA reelected
cabinet: 
executive departments; heads appointed by the governor with the
consent of the Guam legislature
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislature: 
elections last held on 9 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total)
Democratic 14, Republican 7
US House of Representatives: 
elections last held 9 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1994); Guam elects one delegate; results - Robert UNDERWOOD was
elected as delegate; seats - (1 total) Democrat 1
Judicial branch: 
Federal District Court, Territorial Superior Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Party (controls the legislature); Republican Party (party
of the Governor)
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), IOC, SPC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four
sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse
containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree
with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the
national flag

@Guam, Economy

Overview: 
The economy depends mainly on US military spending and on revenues
from tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has grown
rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the expansion
of older ones. Visitors numbered about 900,000 in 1992. The slowdown
in Japanese economic growth has been reflected in less vigorous growth
in the tourism sector. About 60% of the labor force works for the
private sector and the rest for government. Most food and industrial
goods are imported, with about 75% from the US. In early 1994, Guam
faces the problem of building up the civilian economic sector to
offset the impact of military downsizing.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$14,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
2% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$525 million 
expenditures: 
$395 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports: 
$34 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: 
mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products, construction
materials, fish, food and beverage products
partners: 
US 25%, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 63%, other 12%
Imports: 
$493 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: 
petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
partners: 
US 23%, Japan 19%, other 58%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
500,000 kW
production: 
2.3 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
16,300 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
US military, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete
products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Agriculture: 
relatively undeveloped with most food imported; fruits, vegetables,
eggs, pork, poultry, beef, copra
Economic aid: 
although Guam receives no foreign aid, it does receive large transfer
payments from the general revenues of the US Federal Treasury into
which Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under the provisions
of a special law of Congress, the Guamanian Treasury, rather than the
US Treasury, receives federal income taxes paid by military and
civilian Federal employees stationed in Guam
Currency: 
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Guam, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
674 km (all-weather roads)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Apra Harbor
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,200-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
26,317 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 3 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 2
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground stations

@Guam, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Guatemala, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, between Honduras and Mexico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
108,890 sq km 
land area: 
108,430 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
total 1,687 km, Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km,
Mexico 962 km 
Coastline: 
400 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
the outer edge of the continental shelf
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime border with Belize in dispute; desultory negotiations to
resolve the dispute have begun
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone
plateau (Peten)
Natural resources: 
petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle 
Land use: 
arable land: 
12% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
12% 
forest and woodland: 
40% 
other: 
32% 
Irrigated land: 
780 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
natural hazards: 
numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent earthquakes;
Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea
Note: 
no natural harbors on west coast

@Guatemala, People

Population: 
10,721,387 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.58% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
35.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.53 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
53.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
64.42 years 
male: 
61.86 years 
female: 
67.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.76 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Guatemalan(s) 
adjective: 
Guatemalan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Ladino 56% (mestizo - mixed Indian and European ancestry), Indian 44% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional Mayan 
Languages: 
Spanish 60%, Indian language 40% (18 Indian dialects, including
Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
55% 
male: 
63% 
female: 
47% 
Labor force: 
2.5 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 60%, services 13%, manufacturing 12%, commerce 7%,
construction 4%, transport 3%, utilities 0.7%, mining 0.3% (1985)

@Guatemala, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Guatemala 
conventional short form: 
Guatemala 
local long form: 
Republica de Guatemala 
local short form: 
Guatemala 
Digraph: 
GT
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Guatemala 
Administrative divisions: 
22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz,
Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla,
Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten,
Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa
Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence: 
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
note: 
suspended on 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated on 5 June
1993 following ouster of president
Legal system: 
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Ramiro DE LEON Carpio (since 6 June 1993); Vice President
Arturo HERBRUGER (since 18 June 1993); election runoff held on 11
January 1991 (next to be held 11 November 1995); results - Jorge
SERRANO Elias (MAS) 68.1%, Jorge CARPIO Nicolle (UCN) 31.9%
note: 
President SERRANO resigned on 1 June 1993 shortly after dissolving
Congress and the judiciary; on 6 June 1993, Ramiro DE LEON Carpio was
chosen as the new president by a vote of Congress; he will finish off
the remainder of SERRANO's five-year term which expires in 1995
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; named by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica): 
last held on 11 November 1990 (next to be held 11 November 1995);
results - UCN 25.6%, MAS 24.3%, DCG 17.5%, PAN 17.3%, MLN 4.8%,
PSD/AP-5 3.6%, PR 2.1%; seats - (116 total) UCN 38, DCG 27, MAS 18,
PAN 12, Pro-Rios Montt 10, MLN 4, PR 1, PSD/AP-5 1, independent 5
note: 
by agreement of 11 November 1993, a special election is to be held in
mid-1994 to elect a new congress
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Centrist Union (UCN), (vacant); Solidarity Action Movement
(MAS), Oliverio GARCIA Rodas; Christian Democratic Party (DCG),
Alfonso CABRERA Hidalgo; National Advancement Party (PAN), Alvaro ARZU
Irigoyen; National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Mario SOLARZANO Martinez; Popular
Alliance 5 (AP-5), Max ORLANDO Molina; Revolutionary Party (PR),
Carlos CHAVARRIA Perez; National Authentic Center (CAN), Hector MAYORA
Dawe; Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Oscar RIVAS; Nationalist
United Front (FUN), Gabriel GIRON; Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG),
Efrain RIOS Montt
Other political or pressure groups: 
Coordinating Comittee of Agricultural, Comercial, Industrial, and
Financial Associations (CACIF); Mutual Support Group (GAM); Agrarian
Owners Group (UNAGRO); Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC); leftist
guerrilla movement known as Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union
(URNG) has four main factions - Guerrilla army of the Poor (EGP);
Revolutionary Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA); Rebel Armed
Forces (FAR); Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT/O)
Member of: 
BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edmond MULET Lesseur 
chancery: 
2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 745-4952 through 4954 
FAX: 
(202) 745-1908 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Marilyn McAFEE (since 28 May 1993) 
embassy: 
7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City 
mailing address: 
APO AA 34024 
telephone: 
[502] (2) 31-15-41 
FAX: 
[502] (2) 31-88-55 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and
light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat
of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a
scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the
original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair
of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

@Guatemala, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on family and corporate agriculture, which
accounts for 26% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and
supplies two-thirds of exports. Manufacturing, predominantly in
private hands, accounts for about 18% of GDP and 12% of the labor
force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy grew by 3%, the fourth and
fifth consecutive years of mild growth. In 1992 growth picked up to
almost 5% as government policies favoring competition and foreign
trade and investment took stronger hold. In 1993, despite political
unrest, this momentum continued, foreign investment held up, and
growth was estimated at 4%.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent- $31.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
6.1%; underemployment 30%-40% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$604 million (1990)
expenditures: 
$808 million, including capital expenditures of $134 million (1990)
Exports: 
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
coffee, sugar, bananas, cardamon, beef
partners: 
US 37%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras
Imports: 
$2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor
vehicles
partners: 
US 45%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany
External debt: 
$2.2 billion ( 1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
847,600 kW
production: 
2.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
260 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals,
rubber, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 26% of GDP; most important sector of economy; contributes
two-thirds of export earnings; principal crops - sugarcane, corn,
bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock - cattle, sheep, pigs,
chickens; food importer
Illicit drugs: 
transit country for cocaine shipments; illicit producer of opium poppy
and cannabis for the international drug trade; the government has an
active eradication program for cannabis and opium poppy
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $1.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.92
billion 
Currency: 
1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 5.8542 (January 1994), 5,6354
(1993), 5.1706 (1992), 5.0289 (1991), 4.4858 (1990), 2.8161 (1989);
note - black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Guatemala, Communications

Railroads: 
1,019 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 917 km government owned, 102
km privately owned
Highways: 
total: 
26,429 km 
paved: 
2,868 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 11,421 km; unimproved earth 12,140 km 
Inland waterways: 
260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during
high-water season
Pipelines: 
crude oil 275 km 
Ports: 
Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
523 
usable: 
465 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
20 
Telecommunications: 
fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala; 97,670
telephones; broadcast stations - 91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave;
connection into Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Guatemala, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,491,582; fit for military service 1,629,222; reach
military age (18) annually 119,545 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $121 million, 1% of GDP (1993)


@Guernsey

Header
Affiliation: 
(British crown dependency) 

@Guernsey, Geography

Location: 
Western Europe, in the English Channel, 52 km west of France between
UK and France
Map references: 
Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
194 sq km 
land area: 
194 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: 
includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller
islands
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
50 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are
overcast
Terrain: 
mostly level with low hills in southwest
Natural resources: 
cropland 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port

@Guernsey, People

Population: 
63,719 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.21 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.97 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
6.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.15 years 
male: 
75.45 years 
female: 
80.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Channel Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Channel Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
UK and Norman-French descent
Religions: 
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational,
Methodist 
Languages: 
English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Guernsey, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Bailiwick of Guernsey 
conventional short form: 
Guernsey 
Digraph: 
GK
Type: 
British crown dependency 
Capital: 
Saint Peter Port 
Administrative divisions: 
none (British crown dependency)
Independence: 
none (British crown dependency)
National holiday: 
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) 
Constitution: 
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system: 
English law and local statute; justice is administered by the Royal
Court
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Lt. Gen. Sir Michael
WILKINS (since NA 1990); Bailiff Mr. Graham Martyn DOREY (since
February 1992) 
cabinet: 
Advisory and Finance Committee (other committees); appointed by the
States
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Assembly of the States: 
elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of
vote by party since all are independents; seats - (60 total, 33
elected), all independents
Judicial branch: 
Royal Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
none; all independents
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (British crown dependency)
Flag: 
white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England)
extending to the edges of the flag

@Guernsey, Economy

Overview: 
Financial services account from more than 50% of total income.
Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut
flowers, have been declining. Bank profits (1992) registered a record
26% growth. Fund management and insurance are the two other major
income generators.
National product: 
GDP $NA 
National product real growth rate: 
9% (1987)
National product per capita: 
$NA 
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1988)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$208.9 million 
expenditures: 
$173.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables
partners: 
UK (regarded as internal trade)
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
coal, gasoline, and oil
partners: 
UK (regarded as internal trade)
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
173,000 kW
production: 
525 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
9,060 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, banking
Agriculture: 
tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses), sweet peppers,
eggplant, other vegetables, fruit; Guernsey cattle
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Guernsey (#G) pound = 100 pence
Exchange rates: 
Guernsey pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6699 (January 1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989); note - the
Guernsey pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Guernsey, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900 telephones; 1 submarine
cable

@Guernsey, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Guinea, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
245,860 sq km 
land area: 
245,860 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: 
total 3,399 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Liberia
563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km 
Coastline: 
320 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to
November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with
northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: 
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Natural resources: 
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
12% 
forest and woodland: 
42% 
other: 
40% 
Irrigated land: 
240 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water;
desertification; soil contamination and erosion
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

@Guinea, People

Population: 
6,391,536 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
44.08 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
19.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
139.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
44.13 years 
male: 
41.9 years 
female: 
46.43 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.85 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Guinean(s) 
adjective: 
Guinean 
Ethnic divisions: 
Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, indigenous tribes 10% 
Religions: 
Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7% 
Languages: 
French (official); each tribe has its own language
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
24% 
male: 
35% 
female: 
13% 
Labor force: 
2.4 million (1983)
by occupation: 
agriculture 82.0%, industry and commerce 11.0%, services 5.4%
note: 
88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of population of working age (1985)

@Guinea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Guinea 
conventional short form: 
Guinea 
local long form: 
Republique de Guinee 
local short form: 
Guinee 
former: 
French Guinea 
Digraph: 
GV
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Conakry 
Administrative divisions: 
33 administrative regions (regions administratives, singular - region
administrative); Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba,
Dinguiraye, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan,
Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe,
Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita,
Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou
Independence: 
2 October 1958 (from France)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984) 
Constitution: 
23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; legal
codes currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Lansana CONTE, elected in the first multi-party election 19
December 1993 prior to the election he had ruled as head of military
government since 5 April 1984
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire): 
the People's National Assembly was dissolved after the 3 April 1984
coup; framework established in December 1991 for a new National
Assembly with 114 seats; legislative elections are scheduled for 1994
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) 
Political parties and leaders: 
political parties were legalized on 1 April 1992
pro-government: 
Party for Unity and Progress (PUP)
other: 
Rally for the Guinean People (RPG), Alpha CONDE; Union for a New
Republic (UNR), Mamadou BAH; Party for Renewal and Progress (PRP),
Siradiou DIALLO
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Elhadj Boubacar BARRY 
chancery: 
2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-9420 
FAX: 
(202) 483-8688 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Joseph A. SALOOM 
embassy: 
2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue, Conakry 
mailing address: 
B. P. 603, Conakry 
telephone: 
(224) 44-15-20 through 24 
FAX: 
(224) 44-15-22 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag
of Rwanda, which has a large black letter R centered in the yellow
band

@Guinea, Economy

Overview: 
Although possessing major mineral and hydropower resources and
considerable potential for agricultural development, Guinea remains
one of the poorest countries in the world. The agricultural sector
contributes about 40% to GDP and employs more than 80% of the work
force, while industry accounts for 27% of GDP. Guinea possesses over
25% of the world's bauxite reserves. The mining sector accounted for
85% of exports in 1991. Long-run improvements in literacy, financial
institutions, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to
move out of poverty. Except in the bauxite industry, foreign
investment remains minimal.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
16.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$449 million 
expenditures: 
$708 million, including capital expenditures of $361 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$622 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
bauxite, alumina, diamonds, gold, coffee, pineapples, bananas, palm
kernels
partners: 
US 23%, Belgium 12%, Ireland 12%, Spain 12%
Imports: 
$768 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment,
foodstuffs, textiles, and other grain
partners: 
France 26%, Cote d'Ivoire 12%, Hong Kong 6%, Germany 6%
External debt: 
2.5 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
113,000 kW
production: 
300 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
40 kWh (1989)
Industries: 
bauxite mining, alumina, gold, diamond mining, light manufacturing and
agricultural processing industries
Agriculture: 
accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry); mostly
subsistence farming; principal products - rice, coffee, pineapples,
palm kernels, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber; livestock -
cattle, sheep and goats; not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $227 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.465 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $446 million 
Currency: 
1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Guinean francs (FG) per US$1 - 810.94 (1 July 1993), 922.9 (30
September 1992), 675 (1990), 618 (1989), 515 (1988), 440 (1987), 383
(1986)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Guinea, Communications

Railroads: 
1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways: 
total: 
30,100 km 
paved: 
1,145 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 12,955 km (of which barely 4,500 are currently
all-weather roads); unimproved earth 16,000 km (1987)
Inland waterways: 
1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft
Ports: 
Conakry, Kamsar
Airports: 
total: 
15 
usable: 
15 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
10 
Telecommunications: 
poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiocommunication
stations, and new radio relay system; 15,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM 1 FM, 1 TV; 65,000 TV sets; 200,000 radio receivers; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force, Presidential
Guard, Republican Guard, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, National
Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,440,297; fit for military service 726,543 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.2% of GDP (1988)


@Guinea-Bissau, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea and
Senegal
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
36,120 sq km 
land area: 
28,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
total 724 km, Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km 
Coastline: 
350 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Guinea-Bissau and Senegal signed an agreement resolving their maritime
boundary in 1993
Climate: 
tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June
to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May)
with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: 
mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Natural resources: 
unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite, phosphates, fish, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
11% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
43% 
forest and woodland: 
38% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry
season; brush fires
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratifed - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Guinea-Bissau, People

Population: 
1,098,231 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.37% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
40.75 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
17.03 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
120 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
47.44 years 
male: 
45.79 years 
female: 
49.15 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.51 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Guinea-Bissauan(s) 
adjective: 
Guinea-Bissauan 
Ethnic divisions: 
African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel
7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5% 
Languages: 
Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
36% 
male: 
50% 
female: 
24% 
Labor force: 
403,000 (est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 90%, industry, services, and commerce 5%, government 5%
note: 
population of working age 53% (1983)

@Guinea-Bissau, Government
Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Guinea-Bissau 
conventional short form: 
Guinea-Bissau 
local long form: 
Republica de Guine-Bissau 
local short form: 
Guine-Bissau 
former: 
Portuguese Guinea 
Digraph: 
PU
Type: 
republic formerly highly centralized, multiparty since mid-1991
Capital: 
Bissau 
Administrative divisions: 
9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau,
Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence: 
10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 10 September (1974) 
Constitution: 
16 May 1984, amended 4 May 1991 (currently undergoing revision to
liberalize popular participation in the government)
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President of the Council of State Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed
power 14 November 1980 and was elected President of Council of State
on 16 May 1984); election last held 19 June 1989 (next to be held 3
July 1994); results - Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA was reelected without
opposition by the National People's Assembly
Council of State: 
this body is elected by the National People's Assembly from among its
own members to legislate between sessions of the National People's
Assembly
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National People's Assembly: 
(Assembleia Nacional Popular) elections last held 15 June 1989 (next
to be held 3 July 1994); results - PAIGC was the only party; seats -
(150 total) PAIGC 150
Judicial branch: 
none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council of Ministers
Political parties and leaders: 
African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde
(PAIGC), President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA, leader; Democratic Social
Front (FDS), Rafael BARBOSA, leader; Bafata Movement, Domingos
Fernandes GARNER, leader; Democratic Front (FD), Aristides MENEZES,
leader
note: 
PAIGC is still the major party (of 10 parties) and controls all
aspects of the government
Member of: 
ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL 
chancery: 
918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine Suite, Washington, DC 20006 
telephone: 
(202) 872-4222 
FAX: 
(202) 872-4226 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Roger A. McGUIRE 
embassy: 
Barrio de Penha, Bissau 
mailing address: 
C.P. 297, 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau 
telephone: 
[245] 25-2273, 25-2274, 25-2275, 25-2276 
FAX: 
[245] 25-2282 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical
red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star
centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star
raised above the center of the red band and is framed by two corn
stalks and a yellow clam shell

@Guinea-Bissau, Economy

Overview: 
Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a
per capita GDP of roughly $800. Agriculture and fishing are the main
economic activities. Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the
primary exports. Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at
present because of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of
development.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $860 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
55% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$33.6 million 
expenditures: 
$44.8 million, including capital expenditures of $570,000 (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$20.4 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
partners: 
Portugal, Spain, Senegal, India, Nigeria
Imports: 
$63.5 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products, machinery and
equipment
partners: 
Portugal, Netherlands, China, Germany, Senegal
External debt: 
$462 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0.1% (1991 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
22,000 kW
production: 
30 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
30 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks
Agriculture: 
accounts for over 45% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 90% of
employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans,
cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
exploited
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $615
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $68 million 
Currency: 
1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 11,850 (December 1993), 10,082
(1993), 6,934 (1992), 3,659 (1991), 2,185 (1990), 1,810 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Guinea-Bissau, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
3,218 km 
paved: 
bituminous 2,698 km 
unpaved: 
earth 520 km 
Inland waterways: 
scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce
Ports: 
Bissau
Airports: 
total: 
32 
usable: 
16 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications;
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV

@Guinea-Bissau, Defense Forces

Branches: 
People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including Army, Navy, Air
Force), paramilitary force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 243,715; fit for military service 139,161 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $9.3 million, 5%-6% of GDP (1987)


@Guyana, Geography

Location: 
Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between
Suriname and Venezuela
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
214,970 sq km 
land area: 
196,850 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Idaho
Land boundaries: 
total 2,462 km, Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km 
Coastline: 
459 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
all of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela;
Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and
Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy
seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Terrain: 
mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Natural resources: 
bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
83% 
other: 
8% 
Irrigated land: 
1,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals;
deforestation
natural hazards: 
flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratifed - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Guyana, People

Population: 
729,425 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-0.75% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.95 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-20.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
48.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
64.9 years 
male: 
61.66 years 
female: 
68.3 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.29 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Guyanese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Guyanese 
Ethnic divisions: 
East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%, European and
Chinese 2% 
Religions: 
Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1% 
Languages: 
English, Amerindian dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990 est.)
total population: 
95% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
96% 
Labor force: 
268,000 
by occupation: 
industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7%
note: 
public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force
(1985)

@Guyana, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Co-operative Republic of Guyana 
conventional short form: 
Guyana 
former: 
British Guiana 
Digraph: 
GY
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Georgetown 
Administrative divisions: 
10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East
Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice,
Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper
Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence: 
26 May 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Republic Day, 23 February (1970) 
Constitution: 
6 October 1980
Legal system: 
based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Executive President Cheddi JAGAN (since 5 October 1992); First Vice
President Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992); election last held on 5
October 1992; results - Cheddi JAGAN was elected president since he
was leader of the party with the most votes in the National Assembly
elections
head of government: 
Prime Minister Sam HINDS (since 5 October 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president, responsible to the
legislature
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
elections last held on 5 October 1992 (next to be held in 1997);
results - PPP 53.4%, PNC 42.3%, WPA 2%, TUF 1.2%; seats - (65 total,
53 elected) PPP 36, PNC 26, WPA 2, TUF 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Judicature 
Political parties and leaders: 
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; People's National
Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE;; People's National Congress (PNC),
Hugh Desmond HOYTE; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA,
Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE;
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National
Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF),
Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY;
National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party
(GLP), Nanda GOPAUL
Other political or pressure groups: 
Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations
(GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC)
note: 
the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
organized
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL 
chancery: 
2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-6900 through 6903 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador George F. Jones 
embassy: 
99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingstown, Georgetown 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown 
telephone: 
[592] (2) 54900 through 54909 and 57960 through 57969 
FAX: 
[592] (2) 58497 
Flag: 
green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black
border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between
the yellow and the green

@Guyana, Economy

Overview: 
Guyana, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, has
pushed ahead strongly in 1991-93, at 7% average annual growth rate.
Favorable factors include recovery in the key agricultural and mining
sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiative, a more
realistic exchange rate, a sharp drop in the inflation rate, and the
continued support of international organizations. Serious underlying
economic problems will continue. Electric power has been in short
supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national
output. The government will have to persist in efforts to control
external debt and inflation and to extend the privatization program.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
8.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1993
Unemployment rate: 
12% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$121 million 
expenditures: 
$225 million, including capital expenditures of $50 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$400 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
sugar, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses
partners: 
UK 33%, US 31%, Canada 9%, France 5%, Japan 3%, (1992)
Imports: 
$520 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
partners: 
US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, UK 11%, Italy 8%, Japan 5% (1992)
External debt: 
$1.9 billion including arrears (1992 est)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
253,500 kW
production: 
276 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
370 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp),
textiles, gold mining
Agriculture: 
most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and about half of
exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists
for fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially
wheat, vegetable oils, and animal products
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $325
million; Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million 
Currency: 
1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 130.7 (January 1994), 126.7 (1993),
125.0 (1992), 111.8 (1991), 39.533 (1990), 27.159 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Guyana, Communications

Railroads: 
no public railroads; about 100 km of narrow gauge industrial railroads
to transport minerals, including bauxite
Highways: 
total: 
7,665 km 
paved: 
550 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 5,000 km; earth 2,115 km 
Inland waterways: 
6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and
Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100
km, and 80 km, respectively
Ports: 
Georgetown, New Amsterdam
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
53 
usable: 
48 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
12 
Telecommunications: 
fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones;
tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3
FM, no TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Guyana, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Guyana Defense Force (GDF; including the Ground Forces, Coast Guard
and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service
(GNS) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 197,802; fit for military service 150,072 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Haiti, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 90 km southeast of
Cuba
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
27,750 sq km 
land area: 
27,560 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km 
Coastline: 
1,771 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims US-administered Navassa Island
Climate: 
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain: 
mostly rough and mountainous
Natural resources: 
bauxite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
20% 
permanent crops: 
13% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
4% 
other: 
45% 
Irrigated land: 
750 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms
from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third
is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

@Haiti, People

Population: 
6,491,450 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.63% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
39.72 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
18.78 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
108.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
45.11 years 
male: 
43.45 years 
female: 
46.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Haitian(s) 
adjective: 
Haitian 
Ethnic divisions: 
black 95%, mulatto and European 5% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice
Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%,
other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
Languages: 
French (official) 10%, Creole 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
53% 
male: 
59% 
female: 
47% 
Labor force: 
2.3 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
note: 
shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

@Haiti, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Haiti 
conventional short form: 
Haiti 
local long form: 
Republique d'Haiti 
local short form: 
Haiti 
Digraph: 
HA
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Port-au-Prince 
Administrative divisions: 
9 departments, (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite,
Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence: 
1 January 1804 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 January (1804) 
Constitution: 
constitution approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989; October 1991, government claims to be observing
the Constitution
Legal system: 
based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a
coup in September 1991, but still recognized by international
community as Chief of State; election last held 16 December 1990 (next
to be held by December 1995); results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE
67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE 4.9%
head of government: 
acting Prime Minister Robert MALVAL (since August 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; chosen by prime minister in consultation with the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Senate: 
elections last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as illegitimate
(next to be held December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats -
(27 total) FNCD 12, ANDP 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent
2
Chamber of Deputies: 
elections last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991
(next to be held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (83 total) FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5,
PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independents 5, other 2
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation) 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD), including National
Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor BENOIT, and
National Cooperative Action Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH;
Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc
BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge
GILLES; National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean
BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis
DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene THEODORE;
Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE; Assembly of
Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Party
of Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for National Development
(MDN), Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of
Haiti (MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party
(PSCH), Gregoire EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country
(MOP), Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE
Other political or pressure groups: 
Democratic Unity Confederation (KID); Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade
Unions (FOS); Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular
Assembly (APN); Revolutionary Front for Haitian Advancement and
Progress (FRAPH)
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jean CASIMIR 
chancery: 
2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-4090 through 4092 
FAX: 
(202) 745-7215 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William Lacy SWING 
embassy: 
Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince 
telephone: 
[509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, or 22-0612 
FAX: 
[509] 23-1641 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white
rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked
by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT
LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

@Haiti, Economy

Overview: 
About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is
mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly
three-fourths of the work force. The majority of the population does
not have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care,
or sufficient food. Few social assistance programs exist, and the lack
of employment opportunities remains one of the most critical problems
facing the economy, along with soil erosion and political instability.
Trade sanctions applied by the Organization of American States in
response to the September 1991 coup against President ARISTIDE have
further damaged the economy. Output continued to drop in 1993 although
not as sharply as in 1992.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-13% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
20% (FY92 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
25%-50% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$300 million 
expenditures: 
$416 million, including capital expenditures of $145 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$135 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
partners: 
US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less
developed countries 3% (1987)
Imports: 
$423 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum
products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners: 
US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%,
Germany 3% (1987)
External debt: 
$838 million (December 1990)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2% (1991 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
217,000 kW
production: 
480 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
75 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing,
tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts
Agriculture: 
accounts for 28% of GDP and employs around 70% of work force; mostly
small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes,
sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat
flour
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route to the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $770
million 
Currency: 
1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
gourdes (G) per US$1 - 12.00 (1 July 1993), 8.4 (December 1991), fixed
rate of 5.000 through second quarter of 1991
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@Haiti, Communications

Railroads: 
40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned
industrial line
Highways: 
total: 
4,000 km 
paved: 
950 km 
unpaved: 
otherwise improved 900 km; unimproved earth 2,150 km 
Inland waterways: 
negligible; less than 100 km navigable
Ports: 
Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien; six minor ports
Airports: 
total: 
14 
usable: 
11 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly
better; 36,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Haiti, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,313,265; fit for military service 709,712; reach
military age (18) annually 62,488 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)


@Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Australia) 

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean, 4,100 km southwest of Australia
Map references: 
Antarctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
412 sq km 
land area: 
412 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
101.9 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
antarctic
Terrain: 
Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with an quiescent volcano;
McDonald Islands - small and rocky
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
primarily used for research stations

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands 
conventional short form: 
Heard Island and McDonald Islands 
Digraph: 
HM
Type: 
territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment,
Sport, and Territories
Capital: 
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence: 
none (territory of Australia)

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Australia


@Holy See (Vatican City), Geography

Location: 
Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome - central Italy
Map references: 
Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
0.44 sq km 
land area: 
0.44 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 3.2 km, Italy 3.2 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry
summers (May to September)
Terrain: 
low hill
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution, Environmental Modification
Note: 
urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state;
outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo
(the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

@Holy See (Vatican City), People

Population: 
821 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.15% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
NA
Death rate: 
NA
Net migration rate: 
NA
Infant mortality rate: 
NA
Life expectancy at birth: 
NA
Total fertility rate: 
NA
Nationality: 
noun: 
none 
adjective: 
none 
Ethnic divisions: 
Italians, Swiss 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
Italian, Latin, various other languages 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA 
by occupation: 
dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live
outside the Vatican

@Holy See (Vatican City), Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
The Holy See (State of the Vatican City) 
conventional short form: 
Holy See (Vatican City) 
local long form: 
Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano) 
local short form: 
Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano) 
Digraph: 
VT
Type: 
monarchical-sacerdotal state 
Capital: 
Vatican City 
Independence: 
11 February 1929 (from Italy)
National holiday: 
Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978) (John Paul II) 
note: 
Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978
Constitution: 
Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
Legal system: 
NA 
Suffrage: 
limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978); election
last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the
current pope); results - Karol WOJTYLA was elected for life by the
College of Cardinals
head of government: 
Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal SODANO (since NA 1991) 
cabinet: 
Pontifical Commission; appointed by Pope
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Pontifical Commission
Judicial branch: 
none; normally handled by Italy
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Other political or pressure groups: 
none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Member of: 
CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS
(observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN 
chancery: 
3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 333-7121 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN 
embassy: 
Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome 
mailing address: 
PSC 59, APO AE 09624 
telephone: 
[396] 46741 
FAX: 
[396] 638-0159 
Flag: 
two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed
keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white band

@Holy See (Vatican City), Economy

Overview: 
This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by
contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout
the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for
admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The incomes and
living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better
than, those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.
Budget: 
revenues: 
$86 million 
expenditures: 
$178 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,000 kW standby
production: 
power supplied by Italy
consumption per capita: 
NA (1992)
Industries: 
printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff
uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities
Currency: 
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates: 
Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,700.2 (January 1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989); note -
the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates
freely
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Holy See (Vatican City), Communications

Railroads: 
850 m, 750-mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station
of Saint Peter's)
Highways: 
none; all city streets
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone
exchange; no communications satellite systems

@Holy See (Vatican City), Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted
at entrances to the Vatican City


@Honduras, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, between Guatemala and Nicaragua
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
112,090 sq km 
land area: 
111,890 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: 
total 1,520 km, Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline: 
820 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly resolved by 11 September
1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the
maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in
this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El
Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate: 
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain: 
mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources: 
timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal,
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
14% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
30% 
forest and woodland: 
34% 
other: 
20% 
Irrigated land: 
900 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the
clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation
and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper
land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining
activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of
freshwater) with heavy metals as well as several rivers and streams
natural hazards: 
subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging
hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Honduras, People

Population: 
5,314,794 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.73% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
34.97 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
45.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.6 years 
male: 
65.23 years 
female: 
70.08 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.71 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Honduran(s) 
adjective: 
Honduran 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority 
Languages: 
Spanish, Indian dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
73% 
male: 
76% 
female: 
71% 
Labor force: 
1.3 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%,
other 6% (1985)

@Honduras, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Honduras 
conventional short form: 
Honduras 
local long form: 
Republica de Honduras 
local short form: 
Honduras 
Digraph: 
HO
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Tegucigalpa 
Administrative divisions: 
18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida,
Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco
Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira,
Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence: 
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
Legal system: 
rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English
common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (since 27 January 1994);
election last held on 28 November 1993 (next to be held November
1997); results - Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (PLH) 53%, Oswaldo
RAMOS Soto (PNH) 41%, other 6%
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional): 
elections last held on 27 November 1993 (next to be held November
1997); results - PNH 53%, PLH 41%, PDCH 1.0%, PINU-SD 2.5%, other
2.5%; seats - (134 total) PNH 55, PLH 77, PINU-SD 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Liberal Party (PLH), Rafael PINEDA Ponce, president; National Party
(PN) has two factions: Movimiento Nacional de Reivindication
Callejista (Monarca), Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS, and Oswaldista,
Oswaldo RAMOS Soto, presidential candidate; National Innovation and
Unity Party (PINU), Olban VALLADARES, president; Christian Democratic
Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ Arrivillaga, president
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council
of Private Enterprise (COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers
(CTH); National Union of Campesinos (UNC); General Workers
Confederation (CGT); United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH);
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH);
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)
Member of: 
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, MINURSO, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Rene Arturo BENDANA 
chancery: 
3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 966-7702, 2604, 5008, 4596 
FAX: 
(202) 966-9751 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
consulate(s): 
Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William PRYCE 
embassy: 
Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa 
mailing address: 
American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa 
telephone: 
[504] 32-3120 
FAX: 
[504] 32-0027 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five
blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white
band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic
of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and
Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round
emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA
DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the
white band

@Honduras, Economy

Overview: 
Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for
more than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces
two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in
its early stages, employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for
15% of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service sectors,
including public administration, account for 50% of GDP and employ 20%
of the labor force. Basic problems facing the economy include rapid
population growth, high unemployment, a lack of basic services, a
large and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export
sector mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price
fluctuations. A far-reaching reform program initiated by former
President CALLEJAS in 1990 is beginning to take hold. In 1993 the
large fiscal deficit emerged as a key economic problem, the result of
improvident state spending.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $10 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.7% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,950 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
13% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
10%; underemployed 30%-40% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $511 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$850 million (f.o.b., 1993 est)
commodities: 
bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
partners: 
US 53%, Germany 11%, Belgium 8%, UK 5%
Imports: 
$1.1 billion (c.i.f. 1993 est)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured
goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs
partners: 
US 50%, Mexico 8%, Guatemala 6%
External debt: 
$2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 0.8% (1990 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
575,000 kW
production: 
2 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
390 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood
products
Agriculture: 
most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, more than
60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products
include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer
of wheat
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine; illicit producer of cannabis,
cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
billion 
Currency: 
1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
lempiras (L) per US$1 - 7.2600 (December 1993), 7.2600 (1993), 5.8300
(1992), 5.4000 (1991); 2.0000 (fixed rate until 1991) 5.70 parallel
black-market rate (November 1990); the lempira was allowed to float in
1992
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Honduras, Communications

Railroads: 
785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
8,950 km 
paved: 
1,700 km 
unpaved: 
otherwise improved 5,000 km; unimproved earth 2,250 km 
Inland waterways: 
465 km navigable by small craft
Ports: 
Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine: 
270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 831,856 GRT/1,248,186 DWT, bulk
25, cargo 177, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container 7,
liquified gas 1, oil tanker 22, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 2,
refrigerated cargo 20, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger
2, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 14 ships under the
Honduran flag
Airports: 
total: 
160 
usable: 
133 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
14 
Telecommunications: 
inadequate system with only 7 telephones per 1,000 persons;
international services provided by 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and the Central American microwave radio relay system;
broadcast stations - 176 AM, no FM, 7 SW, 28 TV

@Honduras, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces
(FUSEP) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,229,777; fit for military service 732,866; reach
military age (18) annually 60,445 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $42.8 million, about 1.3% of GDP (1993
est.)


@Hong Kong

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Hong Kong, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, on the southeast coast of China bordering the South
China Sea
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,040 sq km 
land area: 
990 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 30 km, China 30 km 
Coastline: 
733 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
3 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring
through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain: 
hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Natural resources: 
outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
12% 
other: 
79% 
Irrigated land: 
20 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
natural hazards: 
occasional typhoons
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
more than 200 islands

@Hong Kong, People

Population: 
5,548,754 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-0.09% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.16 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.85 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-7.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
80.09 years 
male: 
76.67 years 
female: 
83.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.37 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Chinese 
adjective: 
Chinese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chinese 95%, other 5% 
Religions: 
eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10% 
Languages: 
Chinese (Cantonese), English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1971)
total population: 
77% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
64% 
Labor force: 
2.8 million (1990)
by occupation: 
manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and
hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and real estate
9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7%
(1989)

@Hong Kong, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Hong Kong 
Abbreviation: 
HK 
Digraph: 
HK
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China in 1997
Capital: 
Victoria 
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with
China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997;
in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's
existing social and economic systems and lifestyle)
National holiday: 
Liberation Day, 29 August (1945) 
Constitution: 
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic
Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
direct election 21 years of age; universal for permanent residents
living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years;
indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral
college and functional constituencies
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Governor Chris PATTEN (since 9 July 1992); Chief Secretary Anson CHAN
Fang On-Sang (since 29 November 1993) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Council: 
indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections
were held for the first time 15 September 1991 (next to be held in
September 1995 when the number of directly-elected seats increases to
20); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total; 21
indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected,
18 appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members); indirect elections -
number of seats by functional constituency NA; direct elections - UDHK
12, Meeting Point 3, ADPL 1, other 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
United Democrats of Hong Kong, Martin LEE, chairman; Democratic
Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, TSANG Yuk-shing, chairman;
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation, Dr. Patrick SHIU Kin-ying, chairman
note: 
in April 1994, the United Democrats of Hong Kong and Meeting Point
merged to form the "Democratic Party;" the merger becomes effective in
October 1994
Other political or pressure groups: 
Liberal Party, Allen LEE, chairman; Meeting Point, Anthony CHEUNG
Bing-leung, chairman; Association for Democracy and People's
Livelihood, Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic
Federation, HU Fa-kuang, chairman; Federation of Trade Unions
(pro-China), LEE Chark-tim, president; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade
Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions
(pro-democracy), LAU Chin-shek, chairman; Hong Kong General Chamber of
Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation
of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong
Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, CHEUNG Man-kwong,
president; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic
Movement in China, Szeto WAH, chairman
note: 
in April 1994, the United Democrats of Hong Kong and Meeting Point
merged to form the "Democratic Party;" the merger becomes effective in
October 1994
Member of: 
COCOM (cooperating), APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU,
IMO (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL,
WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Consul General Richard MUELLER 
consulate general: 
26 Garden Road, Hong Kong 
mailing address: 
PSC 464, Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002 
telephone: 
[852] 523-9011 
FAX: 
[852] 845-1598 
Flag: 
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the
Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below
a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon
(representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner
bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

@Hong Kong, Economy

Overview: 
Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or
nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw
materials must be imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 17% of
GDP. Goods and services exports account for about 50% of GDP. Real GDP
growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90,
and picked up to 4.2% in 1991, 5.0% in 1992, and 5.2% in 1993.
Unemployment, which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now
about 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on
prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain bright so
long as major trading partners continue to be reasonably prosperous.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $119 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5.2% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$21,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9.5% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
2.3% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$19.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$19.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94)
Exports: 
$145.1 billion (including re-exports of $104.2 billion )(f.o.b., 1993
est.)
commodities: 
clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances,
watches and clocks, toys
partners: 
China 32%, US 23%, Germany 5%, Japan 5%, UK 3% (1993 est.)
Imports: 
$149.6 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures,
petroleum
partners: 
China 36%, Japan 19%, Taiwan 9%, US 7% (1993 est.)
External debt: 
none (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
9,566,000 kW
production: 
29.4 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
4,980 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches,
clocks
Agriculture: 
minor role in the economy; local farmers produce 26% fresh vegetables,
27% live poultry; 8% of land area suitable for farming
Illicit drugs: 
a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major
financial and money-laundering center
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923
million 
Currency: 
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1993), 7.741 (1992), 7.771
(1991), 7.790 (1990), 7.800 (1989); note - linked to the US dollar at
the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Hong Kong, Communications

Railroads: 
35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned
Highways: 
total: 
1,100 km 
paved: 
794 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 306 km 
Ports: 
Hong Kong
Merchant marine: 
201 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 6,972,233 GRT/11,965,809 DWT,
bulk 105, cargo 23, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2, combination
ore/oil 6, container 29, liquefied gas 7, oil tanker 16, refrigerated
cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the
UK flag, and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered
elsewhere
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international
services; 3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and
extensive optical fiber transmission network; broadcast stations - 6
AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater
station and 1 British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater station;
2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV
sets); satellite earth stations - 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5
international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member
nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

@Hong Kong, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal
Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,636,397; fit for military service 1,251,901; reach
military age (18) annually 42,044 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this
represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the
remainder being paid by the UK
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Howland Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@Howland Island, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,575 km southwest of
Honolulu, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and
Australia
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
1.6 sq km 
land area: 
1.6 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
6.4 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain: 
low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef; depressed central area
Natural resources: 
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
5% 
other: 
95% 
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
lacks freshwater
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife; feral cats

@Howland Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after
Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US
military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators

@Howland Island, Government
Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Howland Island 
Digraph: 
HQ
Type: 
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System
Capital: 
none; administered from Washington, DC

@Howland Island, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Howland Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle
of the west coast
Airports: 
airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the
round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left
Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the
airstrip is no longer serviceable
Note: 
Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that
was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been
rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

@Howland Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
Coast Guard


@Hungary, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between Slovakia and Romania
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
93,030 sq km 
land area: 
92,340 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries: 
total 1,989 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82
km, Ukraine 103 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia
Climate: 
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain: 
mostly flat to rolling plains
Natural resources: 
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils 
Land use: 
arable land: 
50.7% 
permanent crops: 
6.1% 
meadows and pastures: 
12.6% 
forest and woodland: 
18.3% 
other: 
12.3% 
Irrigated land: 
1,750 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution; industrial and municipal pollution of Lake Balaton
natural hazards: 
levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every
year
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between
Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and
Mediterranean basin

@Hungary, People

Population: 
10,319,113 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
-0.03% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.37 years 
male: 
67.37 years 
female: 
75.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Hungarian(s) 
adjective: 
Hungarian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian
0.7% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other
7.5% 
Languages: 
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8% 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
99% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
5.4 million 
by occupation: 
services, trade, government, and other 44.8%, industry 29.7%,
agriculture 16.1%, construction 7.0% (1991)

@Hungary, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Hungary 
conventional short form: 
Hungary 
local long form: 
Magyar Koztarsasag 
local short form: 
Magyarorszag 
Digraph: 
HU
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Budapest 
Administrative divisions: 
38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros);
Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen,
Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer, Gyor,
Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely,
Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc,
Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron,
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely,
Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg
Independence: 
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday: 
St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the founding
of Hungarian state circa 1000 A.D.)
Constitution: 
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18
October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and
constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also
established the principle of parliamentary oversight
Legal system: 
in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western
model
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim
president from 2 May 1990); election last held 3 August 1990 (next to
be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ elected by parliamentary
vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly with
a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President from 2 May 1990
until elected President
head of government: 
Prime Minister Peter BOROSS (since 12 December 1993 on the death of
Jozsef ANTALL); new prime minister will probably be Gyula HORN
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly on
recommendation of the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Orszaggyules): 
elections last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held spring
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total)
Hungarian Socialist Party 209, Alliance of Free Democrats 70,
Hungarian Democratic Forum 37, Independent Smallholders 26, Christian
Democratic People's Party 22, Federation of Young Democrats 20, other
2
Judicial branch: 
Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Forum, Sandor LESZAK, chairman; Independent Smallholders
(FKGP), Jozsef TORGYAN, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP),
Gyula HORN, president; Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP), Dr.
Lazlo SURJAN, president; Federation of Young Democrats (FIDESZ),
Viktor ORBAN, chairman; Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), Ivan PETO,
chairman
note: 
the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP) renounced
Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) in October
1989; there is still a small MSZMP
Member of: 
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM
(guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Pal TAR 
chancery: 
3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 362-6730 
FAX: 
(202) 966-8135 
consulate(s) general: 
Los Angeles and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Donald BLINKEN 
embassy: 
V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest 
mailing address: 
Am Embassy, Unit 1320, Budapest; APO AE 09213 
telephone: 
[36] (1) 112-6450 
FAX: 
[36] (1) 132-8934 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

@Hungary, Economy

Overview: 
Hungary is still in the midst of a difficult transition from a command
to a market economy. Its economic reforms during the Communist era
gave it a head start on this process, particularly in terms of
attracting foreign investors - Hungary has accounted for about half of
all foreign direct investment in Eastern Europe since 1989.
Nonetheless, the economy continued to contract in 1993, with real GDP
falling perhaps 1%. Although the privatization process has lagged, in
December 1993 Hungary carried out the largest privatization yet in
Eastern Europe, selling a controlling interest in the Matav
telecommunications firm to private investors - including a 30% share
to a US-German consortium for $875 million. Overall, about half of GDP
now originates in the private sector. Unemployment rose to about 13%
in 1993 while inflation remained above 20%, and falling exports pushed
the trade deficit to about $3 billion. The government hopes that
economic recovery in Western Europe in 1994 will boost exports, lower
the trade deficit, and help jump-start the economy. The budget,
however, is likely to remain a serious concern; depressed tax revenue
pushed up the budget deficit in 1993.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $57 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
23% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
13% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$10.2 billion 
expenditures: 
$12.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 39.6%, machinery 14.5%,
consumer goods 22.3%, food and agriculture 20.0%, fuels and energy
3.6% (January-June 1993)
partners: 
EC 49.8% (Germany 27.8%, Italy 9.5%), Austria 10.7%, the FSU 13.1%,
Eastern Europe 9.8% (1992)
Imports: 
$12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
fuels and energy 13.9%, raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals
35.9%, machinery 22.4%, consumer goods 21.8%, food and agriculture
6.0% (January-June 1993)
partners: 
EC 42.8% (Germany 23.6%, Italy 6.3%), Austria 14.4%, the FSU 16.8%,
Eastern Europe 9.2%
External debt: 
$24.7 billion (November 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
7,200,000 kW
production: 
30 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
3,000 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles,
chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles
Agriculture: 
including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment;
highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops -
wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs,
cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan
route
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
assistance pledged by OECD countries since 1989 about $9 billion 
Currency: 
1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler
Exchange rates: 
forints per US$1 - 93.46 (September 1993), 92.5 (1993), 78.99 (1992),
74.74 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Hungary, Communications

Railroads: 
7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow
gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge; 1,236 km
double track, 2,249 km electrified; all government owned (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
130,224 km 
paved: 
61,948 km 
unpaved: 
68,276 km (1988)
Inland waterways: 
1,622 km (1988)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports: 
Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; coastal
outlets are Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland),
Szczecin (Poland), Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)
Merchant marine: 
10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 46,121
GRT/61,613 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
126 
usable: 
65 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
18 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
31 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system;
1,128,800 phones (1991); telephone density is at 19.4 per 100
inhabitants; 49% of all phones are in Budapest; 608,000 telephones on
order (1991); 12-15 year wait for a phone; 14,213 telex lines (1991);
broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15 FM, 41 TV (8 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.2
million TVs (1990); 1 satellite ground station using INTELSAT and
Intersputnik

@Hungary, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial
Defense 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,636,888; fit for military service 2,105,628; reach
military age (18) annually 90,134 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
66.5 billion forints, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results


@Iceland, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe, in the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Greenland and Norway
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Europe, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: 
total area: 
103,000 sq km 
land area: 
100,250 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
4,988 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the
UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area)
Climate: 
temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters;
damp, cool summers
Terrain: 
mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast
deeply indented by bays and fiords
Natural resources: 
fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
1% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
20% 
forest and woodland: 
1% 
other: 
78% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater
treatment
natural hazards: 
subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European
country; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental
Europe

@Iceland, People

Population: 
263,599 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
population data estimates based on average growth rate may differ
slightly from official population data because of volatile migration
rates
Population growth rate: 
0.9% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.41 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.72 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.83 years 
male: 
76.57 years 
female: 
81.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.11 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Icelander(s) 
adjective: 
Icelandic 
Ethnic divisions: 
homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none
1% (1988)
Languages: 
Icelandic 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
127,900 
by occupation: 
commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%, manufacturing 12.5%,
fishing and fish processing 11.8%, construction 10.8%, agriculture
4.0% (1990)

@Iceland, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Iceland 
conventional short form: 
Iceland 
local long form: 
Lyoveldio Island 
local short form: 
Island 
Digraph: 
IC
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Reykjavik 
Administrative divisions: 
23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns*
(kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*,
Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla,
Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla,
Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*,
Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla,
Vestur-Skaftafellssysla
Independence: 
17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944) 
Constitution: 
16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
Legal system: 
civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980); election last
held on 29 June 1988 (next scheduled for June 1996); results - there
was no election in 1992 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was
unopposed
head of government: 
Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Althing): 
elections last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by April 1995);
results - Independence Party 38.6%, Progressive Party 18.9%, Social
Democratic Party 15.5%, People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.3%,
Liberals 1.2%, other 3.1%; seats - (63 total) Independence 26,
Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10, People's Alliance 9, Womens List
5
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Haestirettur) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party,
Steingrimur HERMANNSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin
HANNIBALSSON; People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar
GRIMSSON; Women's List
Member of: 
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA,
NIB, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO,
WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Einar BENEDIKTSSON 
chancery: 
2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-6653 through 6655 
FAX: 
(202) 265-6656 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Parker W. BORG 
embassy: 
Laufasvegur 21, Box 40, Reykjavik 
mailing address: 
US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, Reykjavik; FPO AE 09728-0340 
telephone: 
[354] (1) 629100 
FAX: 
[354] (1) 629139 
Flag: 
blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Iceland, Economy

Overview: 
Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, but
with an extensive welfare system, relatively low unemployment, and
comparatively even distribution of income. The economy is heavily
dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75% of export
earnings and employs 12% of the workforce. In the absence of other
natural resources - except energy - Iceland's economy is vulnerable to
changing world fish prices. Iceland's economy has been in recession
since 1988. The recession continued in 1993 due to a third year of
cutbacks in fishing quotas as well as falling world prices for the
country's main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and
ferrosilicon. Real GDP declined 3.3% in 1992 and rose slightly, by
0.4%, in 1993. The center-right government's economic goals include
reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign
borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing
policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned
industries. The recession has led to a wave of bankruptcies and
mergers throughout the economy, as well as the highest unemployment of
the post-World War II period. Inflation, previously a serious problem,
declined from double digit rates in the 1980s to only 3.7% in 1992-93.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.2 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
0.4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$16,000 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
4.5% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $191 million (1992)
Exports: 
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, ferrosilicon,
diatomite
partners: 
EC 68% (UK 25%, FRG 12%), US 11%, Japan 8% (1992)
Imports: 
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products,
foodstuffs, textiles
partners: 
EC 53% (Germany 14%, Denmark 10%, UK 9%), Norway 14%, US 9% (1992)
External debt: 
$3.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,063,000 kW
production: 
5.165 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
19,940 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production,
geothermal power
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 15% of GDP; fishing is most important economic
activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal crops
- potatoes, turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in
crops; fish catch of about 1.1 million metric tons in 1992
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million 
Currency: 
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar
Exchange rates: 
Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 72.971 (January 1994), 67.603
(1993), 57.546 (1992), 58.996 (1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Iceland, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
12,537 km 
paved: 
2,690 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, earth 9,847 km 
Ports: 
Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar
Merchant marine: 
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 33,212 GRT/47,359 DWT, cargo 2,
chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 
Airports: 
total: 
90 
usable: 
84 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
12 
Telecommunications: 
adequate domestic service; coaxial and fiber-optical cables and
microwave radio relay for trunk network; 140,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 147 (transmitters and repeaters) FM, 202
(transmitters and repeaters) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station carries all international traffic; a second
INTELSAT earth station is scheduled to be operational in 1993

@Iceland, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Police, Coast Guard 
note: 
no armed forces, Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned
Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 70,074; fit for military service 62,197 
Defense expenditures: 
none


@India, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
between Bangladesh and Pakistan
Map references: 
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
3,287,590 km2
land area: 
2,973,190 km2
comparative area: 
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries: 
total 14,103 km, Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km,
China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km 
Coastline: 
7,000 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
boundaries with Bangladesh and China; status of Kashmir with Pakistan;
water-sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the
Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus
Climate: 
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain: 
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along
the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources: 
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese,
mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds,
petroleum, limestone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
55% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
23% 
other: 
17% 
Irrigated land: 
430,390 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air
pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water
pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; huge
and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources
natural hazards: 
droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; subject to
earthquakes (a quake measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale occurred near
Hyderabad killing several thousand people and causing extensive damage
in late September 1993)
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade
routes

@India, People

Population: 
919,903,056 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.82% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.29 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
78.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
58.58 years 
male: 
58.09 years 
female: 
59.09 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.48 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Indian(s) 
adjective: 
Indian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% 
Religions: 
Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains
0.5%, other 0.4% 
Languages: 
English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for
national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national
language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official),
Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu
(official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada
(official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official),
Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official),
Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu, is spoken widely
throughout northern India
note: 
24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other
languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible
Literacy: 
age 7 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
total population: 
52.11% 
male: 
63.86% 
female: 
39.42% 
Labor force: 
314.751 million (1990)
by occupation: 
agriculture 65% (1993 est.)

@India, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of India 
conventional short form: 
India 
Digraph: 
IN
Type: 
federal republic 
Capital: 
New Delhi 
Administrative divisions: 
25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*,
Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra
and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland,
Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura,
Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence: 
15 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950) 
Constitution: 
26 January 1950
Legal system: 
based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992); Vice President
Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of
the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Sansad)
Council of States (Rajya Sabha): 
body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 appointed by
the president, the remainder chosen by the elected members of the
state and territorial assemblies
People's Assembly (Lok Sabha): 
elections last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held by
November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545
total, 543 elected, 2 appointed) Congress (I) Party 245, Bharatiya
Janata Party 119, Janata Dal Party 39, Janata Dal (Ajit Singh) 20,
CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13, AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party
5, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S) Party 1, other 23, vacant 9
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata
Party (BJP), L.K. ADVANI; Janata Dal Party, Chandra SHEKHAR; Janata
Dal (Ajit Singh), Ajit SINGH; Communist Party of India/Marxist
(CPI/M), Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India (CPI),
Indrajit GUPTA; Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N.
T. Rama RAO; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a
regional party in Tamil Nadu), Jayaram JAYALALITHA; Samajwadi Party
(SP, formerly Samajwadi Janata Party), Mulayam Singh YADAV
(President), Om Prakash CHAUTALA, Devi LAL; Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY;
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY; Bahujana Samaj
Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party, leader NA; Communist
Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Vinod MISHRA; Dravida
Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M. KARUNANIDHI;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the
Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and
Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH
Other political or pressure groups: 
various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional
autonomy; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations,
including Adam Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh
Member of: 
AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, AfDB,
G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUSAL, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Siddhartha Shankar RAY 
chancery: 
2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 939-7000 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Frank WISNER 
embassy: 
Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
[91] (11) 600651 
FAX: 
[91] (11) 687-2028 
consulate(s) general: 
Bombay, Calcutta, Madras 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a
blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to
the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white
band

@India, Economy

Overview: 
India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming, modern
agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a
multitude of support services. Faster economic growth in the 1980s
permitted a significant increase in real per capita private
consumption. A large share of the population, perhaps as much as 40%,
remains too poor to afford an adequate diet. Financial strains in 1990
and 1991 prompted government austerity measures that slowed industrial
growth but permitted India to meet its international payment
obligations without rescheduling its debt. Policy reforms since 1991
have extended earlier economic liberalization and greatly reduced
government controls on production, trade, and investment. US and other
foreign firms are increasing their investment in India. In January
1994, international financial reserves were comfortably high.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.17 trillion (FY94 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.8% (FY94 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,300 (FY94 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$29.6 billion 
expenditures: 
$45.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.2 billion (FY93)
Exports: 
$21.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
gems and jewelry, clothing, engineering goods, chemicals, leather
manufactures, cotton yarn, and fabric
partners: 
US 18.9%, Germany 7.8%, Italy 7.8%, (FY93)
Imports: 
$22 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
crude oil and petroleum products, gems, fertilizer, chemicals,
machinery
partners: 
US 9.8%, Belgium 8.4%, Germany 7.6% (FY93)
External debt: 
$90.1 billion (March 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2% (1993 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
82,000,000 kW
production: 
310 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
340 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment,
cement, mining, petroleum, machinery
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 40% of GDP and employs 65% of labor force;
principal crops - rice, wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane,
potatoes; livestock - cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India among the world's top
10 fishing nations
Illicit drugs: 
licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical trade, but some
opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit
country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries;
illicit producer of hashish; minor production of illicit opium
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $31.7
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-89),
$11.6 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million 
Currency: 
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise
Exchange rates: 
Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 31.370 (January 1994), 30.493 (1993),
25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@India, Communications

Railroads: 
61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge, 24,051 km
1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and 0.610
meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified
Highways: 
total: 
1.97 million km 
paved: 
960,000 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 1.01 million km (1989)
Inland waterways: 
16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels
Pipelines: 
crude oil 3,497 km; petroleum products 1,703 km; natural gas 902 km
(1989)
Ports: 
Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore, Port Blair
(Andaman Islands)
Merchant marine: 
297 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,236,902 GRT/10,369,948 DWT,
bulk 111, cargo 81, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk 2, combination
ore/oil 7, container 7, liquefied gas 6, oil tanker 66,
passenger-cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 
Airports: 
total: 
337 
usable: 
288 
with permanent-surface runways: 
208 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
59 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
92 
Telecommunications: 
domestic telephone system is poor providing only one telephone for
about 200 persons on average; long distance telephoning has been
improved by a domestic satellite system which also carries TV;
international service is provided by 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and by submarine cables to Malaysia and the United Arab
Emirates; broadcast stations - 96 AM, 4 FM, 274 TV (government
controlled)

@India, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Security or Paramilitary Forces (including
Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, and Coast Guard)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 247,948,906; fit for military service 145,881,705;
reach military age (17) annually 9,408,586 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $6.0 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Indian Ocean, Geography

Location: 
body of water between Africa, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica
Map references: 
Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
73.6 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean
(after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the
Arctic Ocean)
note: 
includes Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of
Malacca, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Oman, Mozambique Channel, and
other tributary water bodies
Coastline: 
66,526 km 
International disputes: 
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate: 
northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to
October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November
in the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian
Ocean
Terrain: 
surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of
currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface
currents in the north Indian Ocean, low atmospheric pressure over
southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest
monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high
pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in
the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents;
ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided
by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and
Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench
Natural resources: 
oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
deposits, polymetallic nodules 
Environment: 
current issues: 
endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and
whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of
Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait;
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica
from May to October

@Indian Ocean, Government

Digraph: 
XO

@Indian Ocean, Economy

Overview: 
The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the Middle East,
Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It carries a
particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from
the oil fields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are of
great and growing importance to the bordering countries for domestic
consumption and export. Fishing fleets from Russia, Japan, Korea, and
Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna.
Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas
of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated 40%
of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean.
Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South
Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
Industries: 
based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly fish,
minerals, oil and gas, fishing, sand and gravel

@Indian Ocean, Communications

Ports: 
Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka),
Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia), Jakarta (Indonesia),
Melbourne (Australia), Richards Bay (South Africa)
Telecommunications: 
submarine cables from India to United Arab Emirates and Malaysia, and
from Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia


@Indonesia, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, between Malaysia and Australia
Map references: 
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,919,440 sq km 
land area: 
1,826,440 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km 
Coastline: 
54,716 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with
Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with
Malaysia
Climate: 
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: 
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Natural resources: 
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile
soils, coal, gold, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
67% 
other: 
15% 
Irrigated land: 
75,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air
pollution in urban areas
natural hazards: 
occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator;
strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean
to Pacific Ocean

@Indonesia, People

Population: 
200,409,741 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.59% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.6 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
67.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
60.74 years 
male: 
58.7 years 
female: 
62.88 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.8 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Indonesian(s) 
adjective: 
Indonesian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other
26% 
Religions: 
Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%,
other 1% (1985)
Languages: 
Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch,
local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
77% 
male: 
84% 
female: 
68% 
Labor force: 
67 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport and
communications 3% (1985 est.)

@Indonesia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Indonesia 
conventional short form: 
Indonesia 
local long form: 
Republik Indonesia 
local short form: 
Indonesia 
former name: 
Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies 
Digraph: 
ID
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Jakarta 
Administrative divisions: 
24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special
regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1
special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali,
Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah,
Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah,
Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara
Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara,
Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara,
Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*
Independence: 
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949,
Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 17 August (1945) 
Constitution: 
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional
Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system: 
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous
concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President
Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Representatives: 
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) elections last held on 8 June 1992
(next to be held NA 1997); results - GOLKAR 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%;
seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 military representatives
appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
note: 
the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or
MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet
every five years to elect the president and vice president and,
theoretically, to determine national policy
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) 
Political parties and leaders: 
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen.
(Ret.) HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI -
federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), Megawati
SUKARNOPUTRI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of
former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman
Member of: 
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Arifin SIREGAR 
chancery: 
2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 775-5200 
FAX: 
(202) 775-5365 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, New York, and Los Angeles 
consulate(s): 
San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Robert L. BARRY 
embassy: 
Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Box 1, Jakarta 
mailing address: 
APO AP 96520 
telephone: 
[62] (21) 360-360 
FAX: 
[62] (21) 386-2259 
consulate(s): 
Medan, Surabaya 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag
of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which
is white (top) and red

@Indonesia, Economy

Overview: 
Indonesia is a mixed economy with some socialist institutions and
central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and
private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with
a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country.
Real GDP growth in 1985-93 averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but
not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3
million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture,
including forestry and fishing, is an important sector, accounting for
21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice.
Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly
self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles
and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation.
Industrial output now accounts for almost 40% of GDP and is based on a
supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas,
timber, metals, and coal. Foreign investment has also boosted
manufacturing output and exports in recent years. Indeed, the
economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of
nonoil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and
supplier of aid. Rapid growth in the money supply in 1989-90 prompted
Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy in 1991, forcing the
private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real
interest rates remained above 10% and off-shore commercial debt grew.
The growth in off-shore debt prompted Jakarta to limit foreign
borrowing beginning in late 1991. Despite the continued problems in
moving toward a more open financial system and the persistence of a
fairly tight credit situation, GDP growth in 1992 and 1993 has matched
the government target of 6%-7% annual growth.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $571 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
10% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
3% official rate; underemployment 45% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$32.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$32.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.9 billion (FY95)
Exports: 
$38.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum and gas 28%, clothing and fabrics 15%, plywood 11%, footwear
4% (1992)
partners: 
Japan 32%, US 13%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 6% (1992)
Imports: 
$28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery 37%, semi-finished goods 16%, chemicals 14%, raw materials
10%, transport equipment 7%, food stuffs 6%, petroleum products 4%,
consumer goods 3% (1992)
partners: 
Japan 22%, US 14%, Germany 8%, South Korea 7%, Singapore 6%, Australia
5%, Taiwan 5% (1992)
External debt: 
$100 billion (1994 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts 35% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
11,600,000 kW
production: 
38 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
200 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber
Agriculture: 
accounts for 21% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and
plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava,
peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical
products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not
a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and
prosecuting traffickers
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $25.9
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $175 million 
Currency: 
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)
Exchange rates: 
Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,116.9 (January 1994), 2,087.1
(1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Indonesia, Communications

Railroads: 
6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge,
78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all
government owned
Highways: 
total: 
119,500 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
undifferentiated: 
provincial 34,180 km; district 73,508 km; state 11,812 km 
Inland waterways: 
21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan
10,460 km, Sulawesi 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km
(1989)
Ports: 
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang, Semarang,
Surabaya
Merchant marine: 
430 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,893,830 GRT/2,768,294 DWT,
bulk 26, cargo 256, chemical tanker 7, container 11, liquefied gas 6,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 83, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 13,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 7,
vehicle carrier 4 
Airports: 
total: 
444 
usable: 
414 
with permanent-surface runways: 
122 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
11 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
68 
Telecommunications: 
interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair,
international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 763,000
telephones (1986); broadcast stations - 618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite
earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station; and 1 domestic satellite communications
system

@Indonesia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 54,518,490; fit for military service 32,175,853; reach
military age (18) annually 2,201,295 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 1.5% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)


@Iran, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea
Map references: 
Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1.648 million sq km 
land area: 
1.636 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries: 
total 5,440 km, Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan (north)
432 km, Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km,
Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km 
Coastline: 
2,440 km 
note: 
Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 
50 nm in the Gulf of Oman; continental shelf limit, continental shelf
boundaries, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still
trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes
from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation,
prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the
Shatt al Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf
claimed by the UAE: Tunb as Sughra (Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek
(Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb al Kubra (Arabic), Jazireh-ye
Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it jointly administers with
the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE, Abu Musa
(Arabic) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian); in 1992 the dispute over
Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more acute when Iran unilaterally
tried to control the entry of third country nationals into the UAE
portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently backed off in the face
of significant diplomatic support for the UAE in the region; periodic
disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights
Climate: 
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain: 
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains;
small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead,
manganese, zinc, sulfur 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
27% 
forest and woodland: 
11% 
other: 
54% 
Irrigated land: 
57,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions,
refinery operations, and industry; deforestation; overgrazing;
desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; shortages of
drinking water
natural hazards: 
periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation

@Iran, People

Population: 
65,615,474 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.46% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
42.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.83 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
60.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
65.66 years 
male: 
64.7 years 
female: 
66.68 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Iranian(s) 
adjective: 
Iranian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab
3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1% 
Religions: 
Shi'a Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and
Baha'i 1% 
Languages: 
Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%,
Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2% 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
54% 
male: 
64% 
female: 
43% 
Labor force: 
15.4 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%
note: 
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

@Iran, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Islamic Republic of Iran 
conventional short form: 
Iran 
local long form: 
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran 
local short form: 
Iran 
Digraph: 
IR
Type: 
theocratic republic 
Capital: 
Tehran 
Administrative divisions: 
24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari,
Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan,
Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi,
Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence: 
1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
National holiday: 
Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979) 
Constitution: 
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and
eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system: 
the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government
Suffrage: 
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
supreme leader and functional chief of state: 
Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since
4 June 1989); supreme leader (velayat-e faqih)
head of government: 
President Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989); election
last held June 1993 (next to be held June-July 1997); results - Ali
Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with 63% of the vote
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; selected by the president with legislative
approval
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Islamic Consultative Assembly: 
(Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami) elections last held 8 April 1992 (next to
be held April 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
there are at least 76 licensed parties; the three most important are -
Tehran Militant Clergy Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI
Other political or pressure groups: 
groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim
Students Following the Line of the Imam; armed political groups that
have been almost completely repressed by the government include
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Kurdish
Democratic Party; the Society for the Defense of Freedom
Member of: 
CCC, CP, ESCAP, ECO, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy in Washington,
DC
chancery: 
Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20007 
telephone: 
(202) 965-4990 
US diplomatic representation: 
protecting power in Iran is Switzerland
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the
national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red
is centered in the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white
Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green
band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

@Iran, Economy

Overview: 
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of
oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale
private trading and service ventures. Over the past several years, the
government has introduced several measures to liberalize the economy
and reduce government intervention, but most of these changes have
moved slowly because of political opposition. Iran has faced
increasingly severe financial difficulties in 1992-93 due to an import
surge since 1989 and general financial mismanagement. At yearend 1993
the Iranian Government estimated that it owed foreign creditors about
$30 billion; an estimated $8 billion of this debt was in arrears.
Earnings from oil exports--which provide over 90% of Iran's export
revenues--are providing less relief to Iran than usual because of
declining oil prices. Estimated overall growth was a robust 6.3% in
1992 and a moderate 3% in 1993.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $303 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,780 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
30% (September 1992-September 1993)
Unemployment rate: 
30% (1991 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$15.5 billion (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
partners: 
Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and
Germany
Imports: 
$23.7 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities: 
machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
partners: 
Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, France
External debt: 
$30 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3% (1993 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
15,649,000 kW
production: 
43.6 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
710 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable
oil production), metal fabricating
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 20% of GDP; principal products - wheat, rice, other
grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool,
caviar; not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international
drug trade; net opiate importer but also a key transshipment point for
Southwest Asian heroin to Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.675 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million 
note: 
aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution
Currency: 
1 Iranian rial (IR) = 10 tomans
Exchange rates: 
Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 1,748.86 (January 1994), 1,267.77
(1993), 65.552 (1992), 67.505 (1991); note - in March 1993 the Iranian
government announced a new single-parity exchange rate system with a
new official rate of 1,538 rials per dollar; there is also a black
market rate of 2200 rials per US$1 (December 1993)
Fiscal year: 
21 March - 20 March

@Iran, Communications

Railroads: 
4,852 km total; 4,760 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge;
480 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar-e 'Abbas, rail
construction from Bafq to Sirjan has been completed and is
operational; section from Sirjan to Bandar-e 'Abbas still under
construction
Highways: 
total: 
140,200 km 
paved: 
42,694 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 46,866 km; improved earth 49,440 km; unimproved
earth 1,200 km 
Inland waterways: 
904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for
about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use
Pipelines: 
crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km 
Ports: 
Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Bandar
Beheshti, Bandar-e 'Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni,
Bandar-e Torkeman (Caspian Sea port), Khorramshahr (repaired after
being largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war) has been in
limited operation since November 1992
Merchant marine: 
139 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,480,000 GRT/8,332,667 DWT,
bulk 48, cargo 41, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 2, liquefied
gas 1, oil tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8,
short-sea passenger 1 
Airports: 
total: 
219 
usable: 
193 
with permanent-surface runways: 
80 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
17 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
18 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
70 
Telecommunications: 
microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in
Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones (35 telephones per 1,000 persons);
broadcast stations - 77 AM, 3 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; HF radio and
microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan,
and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber optic cable to UAE

@Iran, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense
Force, Revolutionary Guards (including Basij militia and own ground,
air, and naval forces), Law Enforcement Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 14,382,216; fit for military service 8,555,760; reach
military age (21) annually 600,630 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
according to official Iranian data, Iran spent 1,785 billion rials,
including $808 million in hard currency in 1992 and budgeted 2,507
billion rials, including $850 million in hard currency for 1993 (est.)
note: 
conversion of rial expenditures into US dollars using the prevailing
exchange rate could produce misleading results



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