(con't 2)

last held 13 October 1991; results - UDF (and breakaway factions) 34%,
BSP 33%, MRF 7.5%; seats - (240 total) UDF 110, BSP 106, Movement for
Rights and Freedoms 24
note: 
the UDF split in March 1993 to form the New Union for Democracy (NUD)
with 18 seats, and the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) with 92 seats
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, an
alliance of approximately 20 pro-Democratic parties including United
Democratic Center, Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party,
Christian Democratic Union, Alternative Social Liberal Party,
Republican Party, Civic Initiative Movement, and about a dozen other
groups; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic Turkish party)
(MRF), Ahmed DOGAN, chairman; Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan
VIDENOV, chairman; New Union for Democracy (NUD), Dimitar LUDZHEV,
chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union);
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
Nationwide Committee for Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth
League; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian
Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest
groups with various agendas
Member of: 
ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (participating), CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ognyan Raytchev PISHEV 
chancery: 
1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 387-7969 
FAX: 
(202) 234-7973 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY 
embassy: 
1 Saborna Street, Sofia 
mailing address: 
Unit 25402, Sofia; APO AE 09213 
telephone: 
[359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05 
FAX: 
[359] (2) 80-19-77 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria, Economy

Overview: 
The Bulgarian economy continued its painful adjustment in 1993 from
the misdirected development undertaken during four decades of
Communist rule. Many aspects of a market economy have been put in
place and have begun to function, but much of the economy, especially
the industrial sector, has yet to re-establish market links lost with
the collapse of other centrally planned Eastern European economies.
The prices of many imported industrial inputs, especially energy
products, have risen markedly, and falling real wages have not
sufficed to restore competitiveness. The trade deficit, exacerbated by
UN trade sanctions against neighboring Serbia, grew in late 1993,
accelerating the depreciation of the lev. These difficulties in
adjusting to the challenges of a more open system, together with a
severe drought, caused nonagricultural output to fall by perhaps 8% in
1993. The government plans more extensive privatization in 1994 to
improve the management of state enterprises and to encourage foreign
investment in ailing state firms. Bulgaria resumed payments on its $10
billion in commercial debt in 1993 following the negotiation of a 50%
write-off. An IMF program and second agreement with official creditors
on Bulgaria's smaller amount of official debt are required to close
the debt deal.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $33.9 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-4% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
64% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
16% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$14 billion 
expenditures: 
$17.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $610 million (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%; manufactured
consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals
10.5%; other 12.7% (1991)
partners: 
former CEMA countries 57.7% (USSR 48.6%, Poland 2.1%, Czechoslovakia
0.9%); developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece 2.2%); less
developed countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)
Imports: 
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and equipment
15.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural products 15.2%;
other 5.9%
partners: 
former CEMA countries 51.0% (former USSR 43.2%, Poland 3.7%);
developed countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed
countries 16.2% (Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)
External debt: 
$12 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for about 37% of GDP (1990)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
11,500,000 kW
production: 
45 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
5,070 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals,
textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture: 
climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and the growing
of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco;
more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain; world's
fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
route
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates: 
leva (Lv) per US$1 - 32.00 (January 1994), 24.56 (January 1993), 17.18
(January 1992), 16.13 (March 1991), 0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84
(1989); note - floating exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Bulgaria, Communications

Railroads: 
4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,640 km
electrified
Highways: 
total: 
36,930 km 
paved: 
33,902 km (including 276 km expressways)
unpaved: 
earth 3,028 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
470 km (1987)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km
(1992)
Ports: 
coastal - Burgas, Varna, Varna West; inland - Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on
the Danube
Merchant marine: 
111 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,225,996 GRT/1,829,642 DWT,
bulk 48, cargo 30, chemical carrier 4, container 2, oil tanker 16,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
short-sea passenger 2 
note: 
Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,717 DWT operating
under Liberian registry
Airports: 
total: 
487 
usable: 
85 
with permanent-surface runways: 
32 
with runways over 3659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
21 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
36 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and
microwave radio relay; 2.6 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
countries; phone density is 29 phones per 100 persons (1992); almost
two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67% of Sofia households have
phones (November 1988); telephone service is available in most
villages; broadcast stations - 20 AM, 15 FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet
TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets (1990); 92% of country
receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1 satellite ground
station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a Greek earth
station

@Bulgaria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal
Troops 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,175,921; fit for military service 1,816,484; reach
military age (19) annually 70,306 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
5.77 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results


@Burkina, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, between Ghana and Mali
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
274,200 sq km 
land area: 
273,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries: 
total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali
1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983
and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides
agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate: 
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain: 
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
southeast
Natural resources: 
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony,
copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
37% 
forest and woodland: 
26% 
other: 
27% 
Irrigated land: 
160 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
soil degradation; deforestation
natural hazards: 
recurring droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
landlocked

@Burkina, People

Population: 
10,134,661 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.81% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
48.42 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
18.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
118.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
47.03 years 
male: 
46.18 years 
female: 
47.9 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.94 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Burkinabe (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Burkinabe 
Ethnic divisions: 
Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani 
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic)
10% 
Languages: 
French (official), tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken
by 90% of the population
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
18% 
male: 
28% 
female: 
9% 
Labor force: 
NA (most adults are employed in subsistance agriculture; 52% of
population is 15 years of age or older)
by occupation: 
agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and government 5%
note: 
20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
seasonal employment (1984)

@Burkina, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Burkina Faso 
conventional short form: 
Burkina 
former: 
Upper Volta 
Digraph: 
UV
Type: 
parliamentary 
Capital: 
Ouagadougou 
Administrative divisions: 
30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde,
Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi,
Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore,
Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa,
Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence: 
5 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983) 
Constitution: 
2 June 1991
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage: 
none
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987); election
last held December 1991
head of government: 
Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since March 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Assembly of People's Deputies: 
elections last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD
12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
note: 
the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber, which
had not been formally constituted as of 1 July 1992
Judicial branch: 
Appeals Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Organization for People's Democracy- Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling
party, Simon COMPAORE, Secretary General; National Convention of
Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY;
African Democratic Rally (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for
Democracy and Federation (ADF), Amadou Michel NANA
Other political or pressure groups: 
committees for the defense of the revolution; watchdog/political
action groups throughout the country in both organizations and
communities
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas Yara KAMBOU 
chancery: 
2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-5577 or 6895 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Donald J. McCONNELL 
embassy: 
Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou 
mailing address: 
01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 
telephone: 
[226] 30-67- 23 through 25 
FAX: 
[226] 31-23-68 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
of Ethiopia

@Burkina, Economy

Overview: 
One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high
population density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile
soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications
network within a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of
GDP and is entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by
unprofitable government-controlled corporations, accounts for about
15% of GDP.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0.7% (1992)
National product per capita: 
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
-0.8% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$483 million 
expenditures: 
$548 million, including capital expenditures of $189 million (1992)
Exports: 
$300 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
cotton, gold, animal products
partners: 
EC 42%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, Taiwan 15%
Imports: 
$685 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery, food products, petroleum
partners: 
EC 49%, Africa 24%, Japan 6%
External debt: 
$865 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.7% (1992); accounts for about 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
120,000 kW
production: 
320 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
40 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
textiles, gold mining and extraction
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts,
sesame, cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock;
not self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05 (January 1994), 283.16 (1993),
264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Burkina, Communications

Railroads: 
620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways: 
total: 
16,500 km 
paved: 
1,300 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 7,400 km; unimproved earth 7,800 km (1985)
Airports: 
total: 
48 
usable: 
38 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
all services only fair; microwave radio relay, wire, and radio
communication stations in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burkina, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's
Militia 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,013,763; fit for military service 1,029,960 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Burma, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and
Thailand
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
678,500 sq km 
land area: 
657,740 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km 
Coastline: 
1,930 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)
Terrain: 
central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources: 
petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal,
some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
15% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
1% 
forest and woodland: 
49% 
other: 
34% 
Irrigated land: 
10,180 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation
natural hazards: 
subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September)
international agreements: 
party to - Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

@Burma, People

Population: 
44,277,014 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.84 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
63.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
59.98 years 
male: 
57.94 years 
female: 
62.15 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.64 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Burmese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Burmese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian
2%, other 5% 
Religions: 
Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
animist beliefs 1%, other 2% 
Languages: 
Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
81% 
male: 
89% 
female: 
72% 
Labor force: 
16.007 million (1992)
by occupation: 
agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other
4.1% (FY89 est.)

@Burma, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Union of Burma 
conventional short form: 
Burma 
local long form: 
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as
Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: 
Myanma Naingngandaw 
former: 
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma 
Digraph: 
BM
Type: 
military regime 
Capital: 
Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions: 
7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya,
singular - pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State,
Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State,
Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*
Independence: 
4 January 1948 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 4 January (1948) 
Constitution: 
3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); National
Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a
new constitution
Legal system: 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
(since 23 April 1992) 
State Law and Order Restoration Council: 
military junta which assumed power 18 September 1988
Legislative branch: 
People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw): 
last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%;
seats - (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79; was
dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch: 
none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18
September 1988
Political parties and leaders: 
Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA), leader NA;
National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE
Other political or pressure groups: 
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by
the elected prime minister SEIN WIN (consists of individuals
legitimately elected to Parliament but not recognized by the military
regime; the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in
December 1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin Independence Army
(KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU);
several Shan factions, including the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma
Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)
Member of: 
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador U THAUNG 
chancery: 
2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-9044 or 9045 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P.
HUDDLE, Jr. 
embassy: 
581 Merchant Street, Rangoon 
mailing address: 
American Embassy, Box B, APO AP 96546 
telephone: 
[95] (1) 82055, 82181 
FAX: 
[95] (1) 80409 
Flag: 
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all
in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a
stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

@Burma, Economy

Overview: 
Burma has a mixed economy with about 70% private activity, mainly in
agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about 30%
state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and
foreign trade. Government policy in the last five years, 1989-93, has
aimed at revitalizing the economy after four decades of tight central
planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign
investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and
efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises.
Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated
because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem
is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Inflation has
been running at 25% to 30% annually. Good weather helped boost GDP by
perhaps 5% in 1993. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its
rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term
increases in income, exports, and living standards.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $41 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$950 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
30% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$8.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$613.4 million (FY93)
commodities: 
pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
partners: 
Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong
Imports: 
$1.02 billion (FY93)
commodities: 
machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
partners: 
Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia
External debt: 
$4 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.9% (FY93 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,100,000 kW
production: 
2.8 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
65 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood
products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron;
construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture: 
accounts for 40% of GDP and 66% of employment (including fish and
forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops - paddy rice,
corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood
trees; rice and timber account for 55% of export revenues
Illicit drugs: 
world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,575 metric tons in 1993)
and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
production has doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic
programs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million 
Currency: 
1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates: 
kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.2301 (December 1993), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045
(1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990), 6.7049 (1989); unofficial - 105
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Burma, Communications

Railroads: 
3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113
km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways: 
total: 
27,000 km 
paved: 
bituminous 3,200 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 17,700 km; unimproved earth 6,100 km 
Inland waterways: 
12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km 
Ports: 
Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine: 
47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 665,628 GRT/941,512 DWT, bulk
15, cargo 15, chemical 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1,
container 2, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 5,
vehicle carrier 2 
Airports: 
total: 
83 
usable: 
78 
with permanent-surface runways: 
24 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
38 
Telecommunications: 
meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for
business and government; international service is good; 53,000
telephones (1986); radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most
populous areas; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burma, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 11,199,531; females age 15-49 11,273,643; males fit
for military service 5,979,710; females fit for military service
6,034,810; males reach military age (18) annually 445,933 (1994 est.);
females reach military age (18) annually 430,738 (1994 est.); both
sexes liable for military service
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Burundi, Geography

Location: 
Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
27,830 sq km 
land area: 
25,650 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain: 
mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources: 
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not
yet exploited), vanadium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
43% 
permanent crops: 
8% 
meadows and pastures: 
35% 
forest and woodland: 
2% 
other: 
12% 
Irrigated land: 
720 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil exhaustion and erosion; deforestation; habitat loss threatening
wildlife populations
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed
Population: 
6,124,747 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.26% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
44.02 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
21.38 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
113.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
40.3 years 
male: 
38.31 years 
female: 
42.35 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.69 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Burundian(s) 
adjective: 
Burundi 
Ethnic divisions: 
Africans: 
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% (other Africans
include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians)
non-Africans: 
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions: 
Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs
32%, Muslim 1% 
Languages: 
Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika
and in the Bujumbura area)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
50% 
male: 
61% 
female: 
40% 
Labor force: 
1.9 million (1983 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%,
services 1.5%
note: 
52% of population of working age (1985)

@Burundi, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Burundi 
conventional short form: 
Burundi 
local long form: 
Republika y'u Burundi 
local short form: 
Burundi 
Digraph: 
BY
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Bujumbura 
Administrative divisions: 
15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega,
Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana,
Ruyigi
Independence: 
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 July (1962) 
Constitution: 
13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system
Legal system: 
based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Interim President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA, Speaker of the National
Assembly, succeeded deceased President NTARYAMIRA in early April 1994
with a mandate for at least 90 days; on 11 July 1994 the mandate was
extended by the Constitutional Court for three more months at the
request of 12 political parties locked in negotiations on a new
broad-based government; elections will be held later in 1994
note: 
President Melchior NDADAYE died in the military coup of 21 October
1993 and was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien
NTARYAMIRA, who was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6
April 1994
head of government: 
Prime Minister Anatole KANYENKIKO (since 7 February 1994); chosen by
the president 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers ; appointed by prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA): results -
FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats - (81 total) FRODIBU 65, UPRONA 16;
other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the
assembly
note: 
The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for constitutional
government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February 1991
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Unity for National Progress (UPRONA); Burundi Democratic Front
(FRODEBU); Organization of the People of Burundi (RBP); Socialist
Party of Burundi (PSB); People's Reconciliation Party (PRP)
Other political or pressure groups: 
opposition parties legalized in March 1992; Burundi African Alliance
for the Salvation (ABASA); Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
Development (RADDES)
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jacques BACAMURWANKO, designated (January 1994) 
chancery: 
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 342-2574 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Leonard J. LANGE 
embassy: 
Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura 
mailing address: 
B. P. 34, 1720, Bujumbura 
telephone: 
[257] (223) 454 
FAX: 
[257] (222) 926 
Flag: 
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and
green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two
stars below)

@Burundi, Economy

Overview: 
A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few
basic industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop,
which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to
pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of
the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its
economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World
Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports
and attract foreign investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee
companies were privatized via public auction in September 1991.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.4 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-3.8% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$318 million 
expenditures: 
$326 million, including capital expenditures of $150 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$40.8 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides, and skins
partners: 
EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%
Imports: 
$188 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners: 
EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%
External debt: 
$970 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
55,000 kW
production: 
105 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
20 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
imported components; public works construction; food processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 50% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence
farming; marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops -
coffee, cotton, tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes,
bananas, manioc; livestock - meat, milk, hides and skins
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $175 million 
Currency: 
1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 247.94 (November 1993), 208.30 (1992),
181.51 (1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Burundi, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
6,285 km 
paved: 
1,099 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 2,500 km; improved, unimproved earth 2,686 km
(1990)
Inland waterways: 
Lake Tanganyika
Ports: 
Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania
and Zaire
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave
radio relay links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM,
1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Burundi, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,315,660; fit for military service 687,474; reach
military age (16) annually 67,949 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)


@Cambodia, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand
and Vietnam
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
181,040 sq km 
land area: 
176,520 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries: 
total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km 
Coastline: 
443 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; parts of border
with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly
defined
Climate: 
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December
to March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources: 
timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
16% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
76% 
other: 
4% 
Irrigated land: 
920 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
fisheries)
natural hazards: 
monsoonal rains (June to November)
international agreements: 
party to - Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not ratified -
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note: 
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle
Sap

@Cambodia, People

Population: 
10,264,628 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.87% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.09 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
16.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
110.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
49.26 years 
male: 
47.8 years 
female: 
50.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.81 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cambodian(s) 
adjective: 
Cambodian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4% 
Religions: 
Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5% 
Languages: 
Khmer (official), French 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
35% 
male: 
48% 
female: 
22% 
Labor force: 
2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation: 
agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

@Cambodia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Cambodia 
conventional short form: 
Cambodia 
local long form: 
Reacheanachak Kampuchea 
local short form: 
Kampuchea 
Digraph: 
CB
Type: 
multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy
established in September 1993 
Capital: 
Phnom Penh 
Administrative divisions: 
20 provinces (khet, singular and plural); Banteay Meanchey,
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh,
Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar
Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence: 
9 November 1949 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 9 November 1949 
Constitution: 
promulgated September 1993
Legal system: 
currently being defined
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated NA September 1993) 
head of government: 
power shared between First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH and
Second Prime Minister HUN SEN 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral; a 120-member constituent assembly based on proportional
representation within each province was establised following the
UN-supervised election in May 1993; the constituent assembly was
transformed into a legislature in September 1993 after delegates
promulgated the constitution
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court established under the constitution has not yet been
established and the future judicial system is yet to be defined by law
Political parties and leaders: 
National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and
Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH;
Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) under
CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party under SON SANN; Democratic
Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU SAMPHAN
Member of: 
ACCT (observer), AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Ambassador SISOWATH SIRIRATH represents Cambodia at the United Nations
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Charles H. TWINING 
embassy: 
27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh 
mailing address: 
Box P, APO AP 96546 
telephone: 
(855) 23-26436 or (855) 23-26438 
FAX: 
(855) 23-26437 
Flag: 
horizontal band of red separates two equal horizontal bands of blue
with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the
center

@Cambodia, Economy

Overview: 
The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by decades of war - is
slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving toward restoring
fiscal and monetary discipline and have established good working
relations with international financial institutions. Despite such
positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
challenges. Rural Cambodia, where 90% of almost ten million Khmer
live, remains mired in poverty. The almost total lack of basic
infrastructure in the countryside will hinder development and will
contribute to a growing imbalance in growth between urban and rural
areas over the near term. Moreover, the new government's lack of
experience in administering economic and technical assistance
programs, and rampant corruption among officials, will slow the growth
of critical public sector investment. Inflation for 1993 as a whole
was 60%, less than a quarter of the 1992 rate, and was declining
during the year. The government hoped the rate would fall to 10% in
early 1994.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
60% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$350 million 
expenditures: 
$350 million, including capital expenditures of $133 million (1994
est.)
Exports: 
$70 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
natural rubber, rice, pepper, raw timber
partners: 
Thailand, Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Vietnam
Imports: 
$360 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
partners: 
Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Vietnam
External debt: 
total outstanding bilateral official debt to OECD members $248 million
(yearend 1991), plus 840 million ruble debt to former CEMA countries
Industrial production: 
growth rate 15.6% (year NA); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
35,000 kW
production: 
70 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
9 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem
mining
Agriculture: 
accounts for 50% of GDP; mainly subsistence farming except for rubber
plantations; main crops - rice, rubber, corn; food shortages - rice,
meat, vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour
Illicit drugs: 
secondary transshipment country for heroin produced in the Golden
Triangle
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western
(non-US countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $1.8 billion; donor countries and multilateral institutions
pledged $880 million in assistance in 1992
Currency: 
1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen
Exchange rates: 
riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,390 (December 1993), 2,800 (September 1992),
500 (December 1991), 560 (1990), 159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Cambodia, Communications

Railroads: 
612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways: 
total: 
13,351 km (some roads in serious disrepair)
paved: 
bituminous 2,622 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth 7,105 km; unimproved earth
3,624 km 
Inland waterways: 
3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km
navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports: 
Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports: 
total: 
20 
usable: 
13 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
nonexistent for general public; international service limited to
Vietnam and other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
FM, 1 TV

@Cambodia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF): 
created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces
and the two non-Communist resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also
known as the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)
Resistance forces: 
National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,182,912; fit for military service 1,217,357; reach
military age (18) annually 67,463 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Cameroon, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Equatorial
Guinea and Nigeria
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
475,440 sq km 
land area: 
469,440 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: 
total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo
523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km 
Coastline: 
402 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
50 nm
International disputes: 
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of
which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and
awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary
commission, created with Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and
maritime boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula, has not
yet convened, but a commission was formed in January 1994 to study a
flare-up of the dispute
Climate: 
varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in
north
Terrain: 
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources: 
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
13% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
54% 
other: 
13% 
Irrigated land: 
280 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
desertification; poaching
natural hazards: 
recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Nuclear Test Ban
Note: 
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon, People

Population: 
13,132,191 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.91% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
40.53 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
77.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
57.07 years 
male: 
55.03 years 
female: 
59.17 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cameroonian(s) 
adjective: 
Cameroonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
non-African less than 1%
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16% 
Languages: 
24 major African language groups, English (official), French
(official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
55% 
male: 
66% 
female: 
45% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2%
(1983)
note: 
50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)

@Cameroon, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Cameroon 
conventional short form: 
Cameroon 
former: 
French Cameroon 
Digraph: 
CM
Type: 
unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
legalized 1990)
Capital: 
Yaounde 
Administrative divisions: 
10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence: 
1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
National holiday: 
National Day, 20 May (1972) 
Constitution: 
20 May 1972
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982); election last held 11
October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected with about 40%
of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF candidate John
FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got
19% of the vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 1 March 1992 (next scheduled for March 1997);
results - (180 seats) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is
government-controlled and was formerly the only party, but opposition
parties were legalized in 1990
major opposition parties: 
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP); Social Democratic
Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union (UDC); Union of Cameroonian
Populations (UPC)
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA 
chancery: 
2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-8790 through 8794 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Harriet ISOM 
embassy: 
Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde 
mailing address: 
B. P. 817, Yaounde 
telephone: 
[237] 23-40-14 and 23-05-12 
FAX: 
[237] 23-07-53 
consulate(s): 
none (Douala closed July 1993) 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with
a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon, Economy

Overview: 
Because of its offshore oil resources and favorable agricultural
conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed, most diversified
primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces
many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries,
such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a
generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The development
of the oil sector led rapid economic growth between 1970 and 1985.
Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep declines
in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum. Export
earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal
management were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF and
World Bank, the government began to introduce reforms designed to spur
business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and
recapitalize the nation's banks. Political instability following
suspect elections in 1992 brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a
halt. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency in January 1994
improves the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
the main barrier to economic improvement.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19.1 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
25% (1990 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.7 billion 
expenditures: 
$2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $422 million (FY90
est.)
Exports: 
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
petroleum products 51%, coffee, beans, cocoa, aluminum products,
timber
partners: 
EC (particularly France) about 50%, US, African countries
Imports: 
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport
equipment
partners: 
EC about 60% (France 41%, Germany 9%), African countries, Japan, US 4%
External debt: 
$6 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
755,000 kW
production: 
2.19 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
190 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer
goods, textiles, sawmills
Agriculture: 
the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the
majority of the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and
providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton,
rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $4.75
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $125 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon, Communications

Railroads: 
1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
65,000 km 
paved: 
2,682 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, improved earth 32,318 km; unimproved earth 30,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports: 
Douala
Merchant marine: 
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
61 
usable: 
49 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
21 
Telecommunications: 
good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and microwave radio
relay; 26,000 telephones, 2 telephones per 1,000 persons, available
only to business and government; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1
TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

@Cameroon, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,939,761; fit for military service 1,481,750; reach
military age (18) annually 137,020 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $219 million, less than 2% of GDP (1990
est.)


@Canada, Geography

Location: 
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North
Pacific Ocean north of the US
Map references: 
Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
9,976,140 sq km 
land area: 
9,220,970 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than US
Land boundaries: 
total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline: 
243,791 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is
focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate: 
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain: 
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources: 
nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish,
timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
5% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
35% 
other: 
57% 
Irrigated land: 
8,400 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal
smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities
natural hazards: 
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the
population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border

@Canada, People

Population: 
28,113,997 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.18% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
14.1 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
5.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.13 years 
male: 
74.73 years 
female: 
81.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Canadian(s) 
adjective: 
Canadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%,
indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28% 
Languages: 
English (official), French (official)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
13.38 million 
by occupation: 
services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%,
other 4% (1988)
@Canada, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Canada 
Digraph: 
CA
Type: 
confederation with parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Ottawa 
Administrative divisions: 
10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba,
New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia,
Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence: 
1 July 1867 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Canada Day, 1 July (1867) 
Constitution: 
amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April
1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system: 
based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system
based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General Raymond John HNATYSHYN (since 29 January 1990) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was elected on 25
October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila
COPPS 
cabinet: 
Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members of his own
party sitting in Parliament
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat): 
consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75
years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the
prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators
House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): 
elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998); results - number of votes by percent NA; seats - (295 total)
Liberal Party 178, Bloc Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic
Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD; Reform
Party, Preston MANNING; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN;
Progressive Conservative Party, Jean CHAREST
Member of: 
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating
state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WIPO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Raymond CHRETIEN 
chancery: 
501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 
telephone: 
(202) 682-1740 
FAX: 
(202) 682-7726 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, and Seattle 
consulate(s): 
Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Pittsburg, Princeton, San Diego, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD 
embassy: 
100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430 
telephone: 
(613) 238-5335 or 4470 
FAX: 
(613) 238-5720 
consulate(s) general: 
Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver 
Flag: 
three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width,
square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

@Canada, Economy

Overview: 
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely
resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic
system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive
growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has
transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily
industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of the
highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about
3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and
modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects,
although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt.
Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the
confederation; foreign investors have become edgy.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $617.7 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
2.4% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$22,200 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.9% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
11% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$92.34 billion (Federal)
expenditures: 
$123.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93 est.)
Exports: 
$133.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
partners: 
US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports: 
$125.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer
goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners: 
US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt: 
$435 billion (1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.5% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
109,340,000 kW
production: 
493 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
17,900 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper
products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products,
petroleum and natural gas
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area;
commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons,
of which 75% is exported
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for
heroin and cocaine entering the US market
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion 
Currency: 
1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3174 (January 1994), 1.2901
(1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Canada, Communications

Railroads: 
146,444 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway;
passenger service - VIA (government operated); 158 km is electrified
Highways: 
total: 
884,272 km 
paved: 
250,023 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 462,913 km; earth 171,336 km 
Inland waterways: 
3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines: 
crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km 
Ports: 
Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
(Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine: 
59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 448,357 GRT/639,319 DWT, bulk 9,
cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, container 1, oil tanker 22, passenger 1,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2 
note: 
does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Airports: 
total: 
1,356 
usable: 
1,107 
with permanent-surface runways: 
458 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
29 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
326 
Telecommunications: 
excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT
(including 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

@Canada, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Canadian Armed Forces (including Land Forces Command, Maritime
Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command), Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 7,508,590; fit for military service 6,482,267; reach
military age (17) annually 191,850 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $10.3 billion, 1.9% of GDP (FY93/94)


@Cape Verde, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, in the southeastern North Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west
of Senegal in Western Africa
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
4,030 sq km 
land area: 
4,030 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
965 km 
Maritime claims: 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain: 
steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources: 
salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
9% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
85% 
Irrigated land: 
20 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification
natural hazards: 
subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
volcanically and seismically active
international agreements: 
party to - Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change
Note: 
strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde, People

Population: 
423,120 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
46.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
9.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-7.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
57.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
62.59 years 
male: 
60.7 years 
female: 
64.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.32 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cape Verdean(s) 
adjective: 
Cape Verdean 
Ethnic divisions: 
Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs 
Languages: 
Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 
66% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
102,000 (1985 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%, industry 14%
(1981)
note: 
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Cape Verde, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Cape Verde 
conventional short form: 
Cape Verde 
local long form: 
Republica de Cabo Verde 
local short form: 
Cabo Verde 
Digraph: 
CV
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Praia 
Administrative divisions: 
14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo,
Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina,
Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence: 
5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 5 July (1975) 
Constitution: 
new constitution came into force 25 September 1992
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March 1991) election
last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received 72.6% of vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13
January 1991); 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister from members of the
Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular): 
elections last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56,
PAICV 23; note - this multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of
single-party rule
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro
Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN (Cape Verde assumed a nonpermanent seat on the Security
Council on 1 January 1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA 
chancery: 
3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 
telephone: 
(202) 965-6820 
FAX: 
(202) 965-1207 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS 
embassy: 
Rua Hoji Ya Henda 81, Praia 
mailing address: 
C. P. 201, Praia 
telephone: 
[238] 61-56-16 or 61-56-17 
FAX: 
[238] 61-13-55 
Flag: 
three horozontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with
a horozontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle
of 10 yellow five pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the
red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

@Cape Verde, Economy

Overview: 
Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base,
a serious, long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is
service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services
accounting for 60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives
in rural areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 20%; the fishing
sector accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The
fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. In
1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a
high trade deficit, financed by remittances from emigrants and foreign
aid. Economic reforms launched by the new democratic government in
February 1991 are aimed at developing the private sector and
attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $415 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3.3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,070 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
8.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
25% (1988)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$104 million 
expenditures: 
$133 million, including capital expenditures of $72 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
fish, bananas, hides and skins
partners: 
Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports: 
$145 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment
partners: 
Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%,
Netherlands, US (1990 est.)
External debt: 
$156 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
15,000 kW
production: 
15 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
40 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair,
construction materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture: 
accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence
farming; bananas are the only export crop; other crops - corn, beans,
sweet potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector
limited by poor soils and scanty rainfall; annual food imports
required; fish catch provides for both domestic consumption and small
exports
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $586
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $36 million 
Currency: 
1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 85.992 (December 1993), 80.574
(1993), 68.018 (1992), 71.408 (1991), 70.031 (1990), 77.978 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Cape Verde, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine: 
7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
interisland microwave radio relay system, high-frequency radio to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations -
1 AM, 6 FM, 1 TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Cape Verde, Defense Forces

Branches: 
People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) (including Army and Navy),
Security Service 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 78,153; fit for military service 45,804 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Cayman Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Cayman Islands, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the northwestern Caribbean Sea, nearly halfway between
Cuba and Honduras
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
260 sq km 
land area: 
260 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
160 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
relatively dry winters (November to April)
Terrain: 
low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources: 
fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
8% 
forest and woodland: 
23% 
other: 
69% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands, People

Population: 
31,790 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
4.33% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
15.06 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.1 years 
male: 
75.37 years 
female: 
78.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Caymanian(s) 
adjective: 
Caymanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups
20% 
Religions: 
United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
98% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
98% 
Labor force: 
8,061 
by occupation: 
service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and
investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

@Cayman Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Cayman Islands 
Digraph: 
CJ
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
George Town 
Administrative divisions: 
8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay,
West End, Western
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Constitution Day (first Monday in July) 
Constitution: 
1959, revised 1972 and 1992
Legal system: 
British common law and local statutes
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Governor and President of the Executive Council Michael GORE (since 15
September 1992) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; 3 members are appointed by the governor, 4 members
elected by the Legislative Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly: 
election last held November 1992 (next to be held November 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Judicial branch: 
Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
no formal political parties
Member of: 
CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a
shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll
at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

@Cayman Islands, Economy

Overview: 
The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of foreign
currency earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist
industry aimed at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors
from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods
needs must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest
standards of living in the region.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $670 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
4.4% (1991)
National product per capita: 
$23,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
7% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$141.5 million 
expenditures: 
$160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports: 
$2.6 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners: 
mostly US
Imports: 
$262.2 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: 
US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt: 
$15 million (1986)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
74,000 kW
production: 
256 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
8,780 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building
materials, furniture making
Agriculture: 
minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Illicit drugs: 
a major money-laundering center for illicit drug profits;
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $35
million 
Currency: 
1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.85 (22 November 1993)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
160 km (main roads)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine: 
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 368,037 GRT/581,060 DWT, bulk 9,
cargo 8, chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Cayman Islands, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF) 
Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Central African Republic, Geography

Location: 
Central Africa, between Chad and Zaire
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
622,980 sq km 
land area: 
622,980 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan
1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain: 
vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest
Natural resources: 
diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
5% 
forest and woodland: 
64% 
other: 
28% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife
refuges; desertification
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Law of the Sea
Note: 
landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
Population: 
3,142,182 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.16% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
42.3 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
20.69 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
137.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
42.54 years 
male: 
41.07 years 
female: 
44.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.42 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Central African(s) 
adjective: 
Central African 
Ethnic divisions: 
Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%,
Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim
15%, other 11% 
note: 
animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority
Languages: 
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language),
Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
27% 
male: 
33% 
female: 
15% 
Labor force: 
775,413 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%
note: 
about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working age (1985)

@Central African Republic, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Central African Republic 
conventional short form: 
none 
local long form: 
Republique Centrafricaine 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Central African Empire 
Abbreviation: 
CAR 
Digraph: 
CT
Type: 
republic; one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital: 
Bangui 
Administrative divisions: 
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic
prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture
economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto,
Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui,
Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham,
Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga
Independence: 
13 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)
Constitution: 
21 November 1986
Legal system: 
based on French law
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Felix (Ange) PATASSE (since 22 October 1993) election last
held 19 September 1993; PATASSE received 52.45% of the votes and Abel
GOUMBA received 45.62%; next election schelduled for 1998
head of government: 
Prime Minister Dr. Jean-Luc MANDABA (since 25 October 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 19 September 1993; results - percentage vote by
party NA; seats - (85 total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3,
others 22
note: 
the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional Council
(Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together they are
called the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC), the
party of the new president, Ange Felix PATASSE; Central African
Democratic Party (RDC), Laurent GOMINA-PAMPALI; Council of Moderates
Coalition includes; Union of the People for Economic and Social
Development (UPDS), Katossy SIMANI; Liberal Republican Party (PARELI),
Augustin M'BOE; Central African Socialist Movement (MSCA), Michel
BENGUE; Concerted Democratic Forces (CFD), a coalition of 13 parties,
including; Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), Francois PEHOUA;
Central African Republican party (PRC), Ruth ROLLAND; Social
Democratic Party (PSD), Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE; Civic Forum (FC), Gen.
Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor
KOMBOT-NAGUEMON; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African
People (MLPC), Felix (Ange) PATASSE
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Henri KOBA 
chancery: 
1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 483-7800 or 7801 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN 
embassy: 
Avenue David Dacko, Bangui 
mailing address: 
B. P. 924, Bangui 
telephone: 
[236] 61-02-00, 61-25-78, 61-43-33, 61-02-10 
FAX: 
[236] 61-44-94 
Flag: 
four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow
with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic, Economy

Overview: 
Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, remains the backbone of
the CAR economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the
countryside. In 1990 the agricultural sector generated about 42% of
GDP. Timber accounted for about 26% of export earnings and the diamond
industry for 54%. Important constraints to economic development
include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system,
and a weak human resource base. Multilateral and bilateral development
assistance, particularly from France, plays a major role in providing
capital for new investment.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.5 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita: 
$800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
-3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
30% (1988 est.) in Bangui
Budget: 
revenues: 
$175 million 
expenditures: 
$312 million, including capital expenditures of $122 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$123.5 million (f.o.b.1992)
commodities: 
diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
partners: 
France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports: 
$165.1 million (f.o.b.1992)
commodities: 
food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment,
motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial
products
partners: 
France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria
External debt: 
$859 million (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
40,000 kW
production: 
95 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
30 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture: 
accounts for 42% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops
- manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $1.6
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $38 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Central African Republic, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
22,000 km 
paved: 
bituminous 458 km 
unpaved: 
improved earth 10,542 km; unimproved earth 11,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft
dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river
Airports: 
total: 
65 
usable: 
51 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
20 
Telecommunications: 
fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Central African Republic, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 701,728; fit for military service 367,264 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)


@Chad, Geography

Location: 
Central Africa, between the Central African Republic and Libya
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1.284 million sq km 
land area: 
1,259,200 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries: 
total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km,
Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that
the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad,
and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had
withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June
1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; demarcation of
international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to
border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate: 
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain: 
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
lowlands in south
Natural resources: 
petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron,
kaolin, fish (Lake Chad) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
36% 
forest and woodland: 
11% 
other: 
51% 
Irrigated land: 
100 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification
natural hazards: 
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts;
subject to locust plagues
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping
Note: 
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

@Chad, People

Population: 
5,466,771 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.15% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
42.12 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
20.59 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
131.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
40.79 years 
male: 
39.7 years 
female: 
41.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.33 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Chadian(s) 
adjective: 
Chadian 
Ethnic divisions: 
north and center: 
Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
south: 
non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)
nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
Religions: 
Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25% 
Languages: 
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (1990 est.)
total population: 
30% 
male: 
42% 
female: 
18% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing)

@Chad, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Chad 
conventional short form: 
Chad 
local long form: 
Republique du Tchad 
local short form: 
Tchad 
Digraph: 
CD
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
N'Djamena 
Administrative divisions: 
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone
Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai,
Salamat, Tandjile
Independence: 
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day 11 August (1960) 
Constitution: 
22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National
Charter 1 March 1991; constitutional commission drafting new
constitution to submit to transitional parliament for ratification in
April 1994
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
universal at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Col. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990 (after seizing power
on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's mandate expires April
1995)
head of government: 
Prime Minister Kassire Delwa KOUMAKOYE (since 17 November 1993)
cabinet: 
Council of State; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Consultative Council (Conceil National
Consultatif): 
elections last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990 and
replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members
appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was
replaced by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur
de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National
Conference on 6 April 1993
Judicial branch: 
Court of Appeal 
Political parties and leaders: 
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss
DEBY, chairman
note: 
President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new constitution,
and free elections by April 1994, has postponed these initiatives for
another year; there are numerous dissident groups and 26 opposition
political parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Ambassador KOUMBARIA Laoumaye Mekonyo died on 16 May 1994 
chancery: 
2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 462-4009 
FAX: 
(202) 265-1937 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Lawrence POPE 
embassy: 
Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena 
mailing address: 
B. P. 413, N'Djamena 
telephone: 
[235] (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 62-11 
FAX: 
[235] (51) 33-72 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra,
which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield
centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
Overview: 
Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of
infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in
the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, conflict with
Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown
little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought
on by civil war in the late 1980s. Over 80% of the work force is
involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash
crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly
dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic
shortages in several regions. The government hopes that discovery of
several oil deposits near Lake Chad will lead to economic revival and
a windfall in government revenues by 2000.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
8.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita: 
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2%-3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$115 million 
expenditures: 
$412 million, including capital expenditures of $218 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$193.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
partners: 
France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports: 
$294.1 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%,
petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military
equipment
partners: 
US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt: 
$492 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
40,000 kW
production: 
70 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
15 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium
carbonate), soap, cigarettes
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton
most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts,
rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels;
self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $80 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Chad, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
31,322 km 
paved: 
bituminous 32 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone 7,300 km; earth 23,990 km 
Inland waterways: 
2,000 km navigable
Airports: 
total: 
68 
usable: 
58 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
27 
Telecommunications: 
fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links;
broadcast stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities
are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Chad, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican
Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,276,167; fit for military service 663,326; reach
military age (20) annually 54,027 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $58 million, 5.6% of GDP (1989)


@Chile, Geography

Location: 
Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between
Argentina and Peru
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
756,950 sq km 
land area: 
748,800 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
note: 
includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Land boundaries: 
total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km 
Coastline: 
6,435 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite;
Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean
since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia
over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean
Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Climate: 
temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain: 
low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources: 
copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
7% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
16% 
forest and woodland: 
21% 
other: 
56% 
Irrigated land: 
12,650 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
from untreated sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of
biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: 
subject to severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama
Desert one of world's driest regions

@Chile, People

Population: 
13,950,557 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.51% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
20.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.49 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
74.51 years 
male: 
71.52 years 
female: 
77.65 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.5 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Chilean(s) 
adjective: 
Chilean 
Ethnic divisions: 
European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish 
Languages: 
Spanish 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
94% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
4.728 million 
by occupation: 
services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction
6.4% (1990)

@Chile, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Chile 
conventional short form: 
Chile 
local long form: 
Republica de Chile 
local short form: 
Chile 
Digraph: 
CI
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Santiago 
Administrative divisions: 
13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos
Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo,
Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la
Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: 
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence: 
18 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 18 September (1810) 
Constitution: 
11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system: 
based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) election last
held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1999); results -
Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other
17.6%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado): 
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1),
Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3, UCC 1), right-wing
independents 10
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held December 1997);
results - Concertation of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS
12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%,); Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57%
(RN 15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Concertation
of Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing
independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC
2), right-wing independents 3
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Concertation of Parties for Democracy consists mainly of four parties:
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Gutenberg MARTINEZ; Socialist Party
(PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for Democracy (PPD), Victor Manuel
REBOLLEDO; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ Marquez; Union for the
Progress of Chile consists mainly of three parties: National Renewal
(RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jovino
NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCC), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ
Other political or pressure groups: 
revitalized university student federations at all major universities;
labor - United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from the
country's five largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Member of: 
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John BIEHL del Rio 
chancery: 
1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 
telephone: 
(202) 785-1746 
FAX: 
(202) 887-5579 
consulate(s) general: 
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Curtis W. KAMMAN 
embassy: 
Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago 
mailing address: 
Unit 4127, Santiago; APO AA 34033 
telephone: 
[56] (2) 671-0133 
FAX: 
[56] (2) 699-1141 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue
square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the
white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center;
design was based on the US flag

@Chile, Economy

Overview: 
Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy, with the
degree of government intervention varying according to the philosophy
of the different regimes. Under the center-left government of
President AYLWIN, which took power in March 1990, spending on social
welfare has risen steadily. At the same time business investment,
exports and consumer spending have also grown substantially. The new
president, FREI, who takes office in March 1994, is expected to
emphasize social spending even more. Growth in 1991-93 has averaged 8%
annually, with an estimated one million Chileans having moved out of
poverty in the last four years. Copper remains vital to the health of
the economy; Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter of
copper.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $96 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5.8% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$7,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
12.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
5.1% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$10.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.2 billion (1993)
Exports: 
$10 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products 7.1%, fish
and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
partners: 
EC 29%, Japan 17%, US 16%, Argentina 5%, Brazil 5% (1992)
Imports: 
$9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum
10%, foodstuffs 5.7%
partners: 
EC 24%, US 21%, Brazil 10%, Japan 10% (1992)
External debt: 
$19.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 9.3% (1992 est.); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
5,769,000 kW
production: 
22.01 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,630 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel,
wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture: 
accounts for about 7% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat,
corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock
products - beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1991
fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Illicit drugs: 
a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million 
Currency: 
1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 430.57 (January 1994), 404.35 (1993),
362.59 (1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Chile, Communications

Railroads: 
7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; 1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge
and 80 km 1.000-meter gauge electrified
Highways: 
total: 
79,993 km 
paved: 
10,984 km 
unpaved: 
gravel or earth 68,615 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
725 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km 
Ports: 
Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San
Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine: 
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 449,253 GRT/755,821 DWT, bulk
10, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination ore/oil 3, liquefied gas
tanker 3, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 
note: 
in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes
used commercially
Airports: 
total: 
392 
usable: 
349 
with permanent-surface runways: 
47 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
13 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
58 
Telecommunications: 
modern telephone system based on extensive microwave radio relay
facilities; 768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM,
131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 3 domestic

@Chile, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard,
and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National
Police), Investigative Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 3,705,321; fit for military service 2,759,130; reach
military age (19) annually 120,512 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)


@China

Header
Affiliation: 
(also see separate Taiwan entry) 

@China, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Asia, between India and Mongolia
Map references: 
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
9,596,960 sq km 
land area: 
9,326,410 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries: 
total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km 
Coastline: 
14,500 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with
Tajikistan in dispute; a short section of the boundary with North
Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai), as does Taiwan
Climate: 
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain: 
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and
hills in east
Natural resources: 
coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony,
manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc,
uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
31% 
forest and woodland: 
14% 
other: 
45% 
Irrigated land: 
478,220 sq km (1991 - Chinese statistic)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from the overwhelming use of coal as a fuel, produces
acid rain which is damaging forests; water pollution from industrial
effluents; many people do not have access to safe drinking water; less
than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss
of one-third of agricultural land since 1957 to soil erosion and
economic development; desertification
natural hazards: 
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern
coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Whaling; signed,
but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

@China, People

Population: 
1,190,431,106 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.08% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
18.1 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.91 years 
male: 
66.93 years 
female: 
68.99 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Chinese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Chinese 
Ethnic divisions: 
Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% 
Religions: 
Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.)
note: 
officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic
Languages: 
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
(see Ethnic divisions entry)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
78% 
male: 

female: 
NA
Total fertility rate: 
NA
Nationality: 
noun: 
Christmas Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Christmas Island 
Ethnic divisions: 
Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous
population
Religions: 
Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%,
Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%,
Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown
4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
Island, Ltd.

@Christmas Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of Christmas Island 
conventional short form: 
Christmas Island 
Digraph: 
KT
Type: 
territory of Australia 
Capital: 
The Settlement 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: 
NA 
Constitution: 
Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system: 
under the authority of the governor general of Australia
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Advisory Council 
Legislative branch: 
none
Judicial branch: 
none
Political parties and leaders: 
none
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island, Economy

Overview: 
Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but
in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no
longer economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the
mine and also to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
phosphate
partners: 
Australia, NZ
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
consumer goods
partners: 
principally Australia
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
11,000 kW
production: 
30 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
17,800 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture: 
NA
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704,
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Flying Fish Cove
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 TV

@Christmas Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Australia


@Clipperton Island

Header
Affiliation: 
(possession of France) 

@Clipperton Island, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of
Mexico
Map references: 
World 
Area: 
total area: 
7 sq km 
land area: 
7 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
11.1 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claimed by Mexico
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
coral atoll
Natural resources: 
none 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (all coral)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island, People

Population: 
uninhabited

@Clipperton Island, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Clipperton Island 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
Ile Clipperton 
former: 
sometimes called Ile de la Passion 
Digraph: 
IP
Type: 
French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
Commissioner of the Republic
Capital: 
none; administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence: 
none (possession of France)

@Clipperton Island, Economy

Overview: 
The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France


@Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Australia) 

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 1,070 km southwest of
Indonesia, about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka
Map references: 
Southeast Asia 
Area: 
total area: 
14 sq km 
land area: 
14 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note: 
includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
2.6 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months
of the year; moderate rain fall
Terrain: 
flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources: 
fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other
vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, People

Population: 
598 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.98% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cocos Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Cocos Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
West Island: 
Europeans 
Home Island: 
Cocos Malays 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslims 
Languages: 
English 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands 
conventional short form: 
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 
Digraph: 
CK
Type: 
territory of Australia 
Capital: 
West Island 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of Australia)
Independence: 
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: 
NA 
Constitution: 
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system: 
based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
Suffrage: 
NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) 
head of government: 
Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Islands Council; Chairman of the Islands Council Haji WAHIN bin Bynie
(since NA)
Legislative branch: 
unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
NA
Member of: 
none 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Economy

Overview: 
Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra
and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens
and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and
most other necessities must be imported from Australia.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
copra
partners: 
Australia
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
foodstuffs
partners: 
Australia
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,000 kW
production: 
2 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,980 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
copra products
Agriculture: 
gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4364 (January 1994), 1.4704
(1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile
communications via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1
AM, no FM, no TV

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Australia



@Colombia, Geography

Location: 
Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,138,910 sq km 
land area: 
1,038,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
note: 
includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla
Bank
Land boundaries: 
total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km 
Coastline: 
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate: 
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain: 
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
eastern lowland plains
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
29% 
forest and woodland: 
49% 
other: 
16% 
Irrigated land: 
5,150 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides
natural hazards: 
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Note: 
only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific
Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia, People

Population: 
35,577,556 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.77% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
22.64 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.75 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
28.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
72.1 years 
male: 
69.33 years 
female: 
74.95 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Colombian(s) 
adjective: 
Colombian 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%,
Indian 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
Spanish 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
87% 
male: 
88% 
female: 
86% 
Labor force: 
12 million (1990)
by occupation: 
services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

@Colombia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Colombia 
conventional short form: 
Colombia 
local long form: 
Republica de Colombia 
local short form: 
Colombia 
Digraph: 
CO
Type: 
republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital: 
Bogota 
Administrative divisions: 
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital
district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico,
Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar,
Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira,
Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio,
Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle
del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada 
Independence: 
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 20 July (1810) 
Constitution: 
5 July 1991
Legal system: 
based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures
was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990);
President-designate Juan Manuel SANTOS (since NA 1993); election last
held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
Trujillo (Liberal Party) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation
Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (AD/M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA
(Conservative Party) 12%
note: 
a new government will be inaugurated on 7 August 1994; the
presidential election of 29 May 1994 resulted in no candidate
receiving more than 50% of the total vote and a run-off election to
select a president from the two leading candidates was held on 19 June
1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres
PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto
de la CALLE was elected vice president; electing a vice president is a
new proceedure that replaces the traditional appointment of
president-designates by newly elected presidents
cabinet: 
Cabinet 
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Senate (Senado): 
elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998);
preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102 total)
Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 31, other
12
House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes): 
elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998);
preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total)
Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53,
AD/M-19 2, other 17
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional
Court, Council of State 
Political parties and leaders: 
Liberal Party (PL), Ernesto SAMPER Pizano, president; Conservative
Party (PC), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement
(MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; New Democratic Force (NDF), Andres
PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is a coalition of
small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives;
Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed by
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist
Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Other political or pressure groups: 
three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed
Forces of Colombia (FARC), Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National
Liberation Army (ELN), Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently
demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO;
Francisco CARABALLO was captured by the government in June 1994
Member of: 
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR,
UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Gabriel SILVA 
chancery: 
2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 387-8338 
FAX: 
(202) 232-8643 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington 
consulate(s): 
Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY 
embassy: 
Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota 
mailing address: 
Apartado Aereo 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038 
telephone: 
[57] (1) 320-1300 
FAX: 
[57] (1) 288-5687 
consulate(s): 
Barranquilla 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red;
similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

@Colombia, Economy

Overview: 
Colombia's economic growth has recovered steadily since 1991 as
President GAVIRIA'S sweeping economic reform measures have taken hold.
Market reforms have included trade and investment liberalization,
labor and tax overhauls and bureaucratic streamlining, among other
things. Furthermore, conservative fiscal and monetary policies have
helped to steadily reduce inflation to 23% and unemployment to about
7% in 1993. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other
nontraditional industries has helped offset the decline in coffee
prices. A major oil find in 1993 in eastern Colombia may provide an
extra $3 billion annually to the economy by 1997. Increased foreign
investment and even greater domestic activity have been hampered,
however, by a troublesome rural insurgency, a decrepit energy and
transportation infrastructure, and drug-related violence. Agriculture
also has encountered problems in adjusting to fewer subsidies, greater
competition, and the collapse of the international coffee agreement,
which has kept world coffee prices at near-record lows in 1991-93.
Business construction was a leading sector in 1993. The substantial
trade deficit in 1993 was the result of a strong peso that inhibited
exports and a liberalized government policy that spurred imports.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $192 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5.1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
22.6% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
7.9% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$11 billion 
expenditures: 
$12 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (1993
est.)
Exports: 
$6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners: 
US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)
Imports: 
$6.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods,
chemicals, paper products
partners: 
US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)
External debt: 
$17 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2% (1993 est.); accounts for 21% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
10,193,000 kW
production: 
36 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,050 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages,
chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds,
iron, nickel, silver, salt
Agriculture: 
growth rate 2.7% (1993 est.) accounts for 21% of GDP; crops make up
two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and
soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products
and shrimp farming are becoming more important
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of coca, opium, and cannabis; about 37,100 hectares
of coca under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca
derivatives into cocaine in 1992; supplier of cocaine to the US and
other international drug markets
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million 
Currency: 
1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 921.20 (January 1994), 863.06
(1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991), 502.26 (1990), 382.57 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Colombia, Communications

Railroads: 
3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use),
150 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways: 
total: 
128,717 km (1989)
paved: 
10,330 km 
unpaved: 
gravel/earth 118,387 km 
Inland waterways: 
14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines: 
crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km;
natural gas liquids 125 km 
Ports: 
Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa
Marta, Tumaco
Merchant marine: 
27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 211,777 GRT/335,763 DWT, bulk 7,
cargo 11, container 6, oil tanker 3 
Airports: 
total: 
1,369 
usable: 
1,156 
with permanent-surface runways: 
73 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-2,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
205 
Telecommunications: 
nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

@Colombia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia
Nacional)
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 9,639,080; fit for military service 6,507,935; reach
military age (18) annually 354,944 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1992 est.)


@Comoros, Geography

Location: 
Southeastern Africa, in the extreme northern Mozambique Channel, about
two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,170 sq km 
land area: 
2,170 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
340 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate: 
tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain: 
volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
35% 
permanent crops: 
8% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
16% 
other: 
34% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil degradation and erosion; deforestation
natural hazards: 
cyclones possible during rainy season
international agreements: 
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the
Sea
Note: 
important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

@Comoros, People

Population: 
530,136 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.55% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
46.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
79.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
57.81 years 
male: 
55.63 years 
female: 
60.06 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.79 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Comoran(s) 
adjective: 
Comoran 
Ethnic divisions: 
Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava 
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and
Arabic)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
48% 
male: 
56% 
female: 
40% 
Labor force: 
140,000 (1982)
by occupation: 
agriculture 80%, government 3%
note: 
51% of population of working age (1985)

@Comoros, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros 
conventional short form: 
Comoros 
local long form: 
Republique Federale Islamique des Comores 
local short form: 
Comores 
Digraph: 
CN
Type: 
independent republic 
Capital: 
Moroni 
Administrative divisions: 
three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli
(Mwali)
note: 
there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and
Mutsamudu
Independence: 
6 July 1975 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 6 July (1975) 
Constitution: 
7 June 1992
Legal system: 
French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state:: 
President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); election last
held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said
Mohamed DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
head of government:: 
Prime Minister Mohamed Abdou MADI (since 6 January 1994) appointed by
President DJOHAR 6 January 1994 (DJOHAR has appointed 14 prime
ministers in the last three years)
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale): 
elections last held 12-20 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total)
Ruling Coalition: RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; Opposition: UDZIMA 8,
other smaller parties 10; 2 seats remained unfilled
note: 
opposition is boycotting the National Assembly until the government
promises to investigate fraud in the last election
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
over 20 political parties are currently active, the most important of
which are; Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands'
Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for
Democracy and Progress (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's
Capability (UWEZO), Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros
(FDR), Moustapha CHELKH; Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA),
Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan
HACHIM; Union for Democracy and Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki
Halidi IBRAHAM; Rally for Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular
Front (FPC), Mohamed HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou
MOUSTAKIM (Secretary General)
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN 
chancery: 
(temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017 
telephone: 
(212) 972-8010 
FAX: 
(212) 983-4712 
US diplomatic representation: 
none; post closed in September 1993
Flag: 
green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the
crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are
four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of
the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of
the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a
territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by the Comoros)

@Comoros, Economy

Overview: 
One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several
islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly
increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational
level of the labor force contributes to a low level of economic
activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants
and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and
forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to
GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the
main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During 1982-86 the
industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its
contribution to GDP is small. Despite major investment in the tourist
industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated
since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has led to
large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments
difficulties. Estimates for 1992 show a moderate increase in the
growth rate based on increased exports, tourism, and government
investment outlays.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $360 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
over 15.9% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$96 million 
expenditures: 
$88 million, including capital expenditures of $33 million (1991 est.)
Exports: 
$21 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
partners: 
US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports: 
$60 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
partners: 
Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt: 
$160 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
16,000 kW
production: 
25 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
50 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction
materials, soft drinks
Agriculture: 
accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export -
vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food crops -
coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla;
large net food importer
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $18 million 
Currency: 
1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 444.03 (January 1994), 254.57 (1993),
264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per
French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since
1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Comoros, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
750 km 
paved: 
bituminous 210 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel 540 km 
Ports: 
Mutsamudu, Moroni
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication
stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and
Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

@Comoros, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Comoran Defense Force (FDC) 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 112,918; fit for military service 67,522 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Congo, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Gabon and
Zaire
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
342,000 sq km 
land area: 
341,500 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries: 
total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km 
Coastline: 
169 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
long segment of boundary with Zaire along the Congo River is
indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)
Climate: 
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating
climate astride the Equator
Terrain: 
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources: 
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates,
natural gas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
29% 
forest and woodland: 
62% 
other: 
7% 
Irrigated land: 
40 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping
of raw sewage; deforestation
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Tropical Timber; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection
Note: 
about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or
along the railroad between them

@Congo, People

Population: 
2,446,902 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.38% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
40.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
16.49 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
47.56 years 
male: 
45.76 years 
female: 
49.41 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.3 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Congolese (singular and plural) 
adjective: 
Congolese or Congo 
Ethnic divisions: 
south: 
Kongo 48% 
north: 
Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12% 
center: 
Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)
Religions: 
Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2% 
Languages: 
French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo are the most
widely used)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
57% 
male: 
70% 
female: 
44% 
Labor force: 
79,100 wage earners
by occupation: 
agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%
note: 
51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically
active (1985)

@Congo, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of the Congo 
conventional short form: 
Congo 
local long form: 
Republique Populaire du Congo 
local short form: 
Congo 
former: 
Congo/Brazzaville 
Digraph: 
CF
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Brazzaville 
Administrative divisions: 
9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux,
Pool, Sangha
Independence: 
15 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960) 
Constitution: 
new constitution approved by referendum March 1992
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992); election last held 2-16
August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results - President Pascal
LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO (since 23 June 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; named by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
election last held 3 October 1993; results - percentage vote by party
NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3
Senate: 
election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held July 1998); results -
percentage vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) UPADS 23, MCDDI 14,
RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president;
Pan-African Union for Social Development (UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA,
leader; Association for Democracy and Development (RDD) - Joachim
Yhombi OPANGO, president; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
Integral Development (MCDDI), Bernard KOLELAS, leader; Association for
Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS), Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
president; Union of Democratic Forces (UFD), David Charles GANAO,
leader; Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS), Jean-Michael
BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader
note: 
Congo has many political parties of which these are among the most
important
Other political or pressure groups: 
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union
Congress (CSC); Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General
Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Pierre Damien BOUSSOUKOU-BOUMBA 
chancery: 
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011 
telephone: 
(202) 726-5500 or 5501 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William RAMSEY 
embassy: 
Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville 
mailing address: 
B. P. 1015, Brazzaville 
telephone: 
(242) 83-20-70 
FAX: 
[242] 83-63-38 
Flag: 
red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band;
the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo, Economy

Overview: 
Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts,
an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a
government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political
regime and a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry
as the mainstay of the economy, providing about two-thirds of
government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil
revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale development projects
with growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa.
Subsequently, growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5%
annually, only half the population growth rate. Political turmoil and
misguided government investment have derailed economic reform programs
sponsored by the IMF and World Bank.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$2,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
-0.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$765 million 
expenditures: 
$952 million, including capital expenditures of $65 million (1990)
Exports: 
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
crude oil 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
partners: 
US, France, other EC countries
Imports: 
$704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital
equipment
partners: 
France, Germany, Italy, Spain, other EC countries, US, Japan, Brazil
External debt: 
$4.1 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP; includes petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
140,000 kW
production: 
315 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
135 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap,
cigarette
Agriculture: 
accounts for 13% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava
accounts for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts,
vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products
important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2.5
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $338 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Congo, Communications

Railroads: 
797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are
privately owned)
Highways: 
total: 
11,960 km 
paved: 
560 km 
unpaved: 
gravel or crushed stone 850 km; improved earth 5,350 km; unimproved
earth 5,200 km 
Inland waterways: 
the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of
commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for local
traffic only
Pipelines: 
crude oil 25 km 
Ports: 
Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Airports: 
total: 
41 
usable: 
37 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
16 
Telecommunications: 
services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of
radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville,
Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4
AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

@Congo, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 551,151; fit for military service 280,372; reach
military age (20) annually 24,441 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Cook Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(free association with New Zealand) 

@Cook Islands, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
240 sq km 
land area: 
240 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
120 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain: 
low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
4% 
permanent crops: 
22% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
74% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
subject to typhoons (November to March)
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change; signed, but not ratified -
Law of the Sea

@Cook Islands, People

Population: 
19,124 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.15% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
23.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.14 years 
male: 
69.2 years 
female: 
73.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.3 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cook Islander(s) 
adjective: 
Cook Islander 
Ethnic divisions: 
Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%,
Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9% 
Religions: 
Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian
Church)
Languages: 
English (official), Maori 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
5,810 
by occupation: 
agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4%
(1981)

@Cook Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Cook Islands 
Digraph: 
CW
Type: 
self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands
Capital: 
Avarua 
Administrative divisions: 
none
Independence: 
none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4
August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence
by unilateral action)
National holiday: 
Constitution Day, 4 August 
Constitution: 
4 August 1965
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the
Queen Apenera SHORT (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian
SINCOCK (since NA) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime
Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; collectively responsible to the Parliament
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament: 
elections last held 24 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) Cook Islands Party 20,
Democratic Party 3, Alliance Party 2
note: 
the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has
no legislative powers
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Party, Sir Thomas
DAVIS; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN; Cook Islands People's
Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA; Alliance, Norman GEORGE
Member of: 
AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag: 
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are
fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic
development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign
markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation links.
A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from
emigrants and from foreign aid, largely from New Zealand. Current
economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
and expanding the fishing industry.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $57 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$38 million 
expenditures: 
$34.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
partners: 
NZ 80%, Japan
Imports: 
$50 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners: 
NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
14,000 kW
production: 
21 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,170 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture: 
accounts for 12% of GDP, export crops - copra, citrus fruits,
pineapples, tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $128 million 
Currency: 
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
187 km 
paved: 
35 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 35 km; improved earth 84 km; unimproved earth 33 km (1980)
Ports: 
Avatiu
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 11,000 radio receivers; 17,000
TV receivers (1989); 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Cook Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand


@Coral Sea Islands

Header
Affiliation: 
(territory of Australia) 

@Coral Sea Islands, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Oceania, just off the northeast coast of Australia in the
Coral Sea
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
less than 3 sq km 
land area: 
less than 3 sq km 
comparative area: 
NA
note: 
includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of
about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
3,095 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical
Terrain: 
sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources: 
negligible 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
no permanent fresh water resources
natural hazards: 
subject to occasional tropical cyclones
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3 meteorologists

@Coral Sea Islands, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Coral Sea Islands Territory 
conventional short form: 
Coral Sea Islands 
Digraph: 
CR
Type: 
territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment,
Sport, and Territories
Capital: 
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence: 
none (territory of Australia)
Flag: 
the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands, Economy

Overview: 
no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorages only

@Coral Sea Islands, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the
Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of
visitors


@Costa Rica, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, between Nicaragua and Panama
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America 
Area: 
total area: 
51,100 sq km 
land area: 
50,660 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than West Virginia
note: 
includes Isla del Coco
Land boundaries: 
total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km 
Coastline: 
1,290 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to
November)
Terrain: 
coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources: 
hydropower potential 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
7% 
meadows and pastures: 
45% 
forest and woodland: 
34% 
other: 
8% 
Irrigated land: 
1,180 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation, largely a result of land clearing for cattle ranching;
soil erosion
natural hazards: 
subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast;
frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica, People

Population: 
3,342,154 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.31% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
3.52 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
77.8 years 
male: 
75.88 years 
female: 
79.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.06 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Costa Rican(s) 
adjective: 
Costa Rican 
Ethnic divisions: 
white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
93% 
male: 
93% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
868,300 
by occupation: 
industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture
27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

@Costa Rica, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Costa Rica 
conventional short form: 
Costa Rica 
local long form: 
Republica de Costa Rica 
local short form: 
Costa Rica 
Digraph: 
CS
Type: 
democratic republic 
Capital: 
San Jose 
Administrative divisions: 
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence: 
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
9 November 1949
Legal system: 
based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May 1994); First Vice
President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May 1994); Second Vice
President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May 1994); election last
held 6 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998); results -
President FIGUERES (PLN party) 49.7%, Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC
party) 47.5%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; selected by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): 
elections last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC
29, minority parties 4
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Liberation Party (PLN), Manuel AGUILAR Bonilla; Social
Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP),
Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC),
Lenin CHACON Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose
ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Other political or pressure groups: 
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation
Party affiliate); Confederated Union of Workers (CUT, Communist Party
affiliate); Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD,
Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National
Association for Economic Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement
(MCRL, rightwing militants); National Association of Educators (ANDE)
Member of: 
AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda 
chancery: 
2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-2945 
FAX: 
(202) 265-4795 
consulate(s) general: 
Albuquerque, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
consulate(s): 
Austin and Raleigh 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d' Affaires Joseph BECELIA 
embassy: 
Pavas Road, San Jose 
mailing address: 
APO AA 34020 
telephone: 
[506] 20-39-39 
FAX: 
(506) 20-2305 
Flag: 
five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white,
and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of
the red band

@Costa Rica, Economy

Overview: 
In 1993 the economy grew at an estimated 6.5%, compared with 7.7% in
1992 and 2.1% in 1991. Increases in agricultural production (coffee
and bananas), nontraditional exports, and tourism are responsible for
much of the growth. Inflation in 1993 dropped to 9% from 17% in 1992
and 25% in 1991, an indication of basic financial stability.
Unemployment is officially reported at 4.0%, but much underemployment
remains.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
9% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
4% (1993); much underemployment
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners: 
US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK, France
Imports: 
$2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum
partners: 
US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany
External debt: 
$3.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 10.5% (1992); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
927,000 kW
production: 
3.612 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,130 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials,
fertilizer, plastic products
Agriculture: 
accounts for 19% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee,
beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion
of forest resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America;
illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935
million; Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million 
Currency: 
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: 
Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 150.67 (December 1993), 142.17
(1993), 134.51 (1992), 122.43 (1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Costa Rica, Communications

Railroads: 
950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
35,536 km 
paved: 
5,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel and earth 29,936 km (1991)
Inland waterways: 
about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines: 
petroleum products 176 km 
Ports: 
Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
184 
usable: 
165 
with permanent-surface runways: 
27 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection
into Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no
FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Costa Rica, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard 
note: 
constitution prohibits armed forces
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 873,987; fit for military service 588,223; reach
military age (18) annually 32,308 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)


@Cote d'Ivoire

Header
Affiliation: 
(also known as Ivory Coast) 

@Cote d'Ivoire, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Ghana and
Liberia
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
322,460 sq km 
land area: 
318,000 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia
716 km, Mali 532 km 
Coastline: 
515 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and
dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June
to October)
Terrain: 
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources: 
petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper 
Land use: 
arable land: 
9% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
9% 
forest and woodland: 
26% 
other: 
52% 
Irrigated land: 
620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; water pollution from sewage and industrial and
agricultural effluents
natural hazards: 
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Cote d'Ivoire, People

Population: 
14,295,501 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.44% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
46.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
15.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
95 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
48.92 years 
male: 
46.75 years 
female: 
51.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.67 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ivorian(s) 
adjective: 
Ivorian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign
Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million), non-Africans
130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)
Religions: 
indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12% 
Languages: 
French (official), 60 native dialects Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
54% 
male: 
67% 
female: 
40% 
Labor force: 
5.718 million 
by occupation: 
over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock
raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
professions
note: 
54% of population of working age (1985)

@Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 
conventional short form: 
Cote d'Ivoire 
local long form: 
Republique de Cote d'Ivoire 
local short form: 
Cote d'Ivoire 
former: 
Ivory Coast 
Digraph: 
IV
Type: 
republic multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital: 
Yamoussoukro 
note: 
although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan remains
the administrative center; foreign governments, including the United
States, maintain presence in Abidjan
Administrative divisions: 
50 departments (departements, singular - departement); Abengourou,
Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilckrou, Bangolo, Beoumi,
Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali,
Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue,
Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo,
Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro,
Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale,
Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence: 
7 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: 
National Day, 7 December 
Constitution: 
3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time November
1990
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in
the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993) constitutional
successor who will serve during the remainder of the term of former
President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY who died in office after continuous
service from November 1960 (next election October 1995)
head of government: 
Prime Minister Kablan Daniel DUNCAN (since 10 December 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): 
elections last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163,
FPI 9, PIT 1, independents 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE;
Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party
(PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA;
over 20 smaller parties
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jean-Marie KACOU-GERVAIS 
chancery: 
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 797-0300 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Hume A. HORAN 
embassy: 
5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan 
mailing address: 
01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan 
telephone: 
[225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72 
FAX: 
[225] 22-32-59 
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green;
similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors
reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the
flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was
based on the flag of France

@Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Overview: 
Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of
coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is
highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee
and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on
agriculture and related industries. The agricultural sector accounts
for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export earnings and employs
about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and coffee
prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the
country has yet to fully recover. Continuing weak prices for commodity
exports, a bloated public-sector wage bill, and a large foreign debt
will continue to constrain economic development, this despite the 50%
currency devaluation in January 1994 designed to restore international
price competitiveness. A large, non-competitive import-substitution
sector continues to thrive under steep tariff and import quota
barriers.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
14% (1985)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$2.3 billion 
expenditures: 
$3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $274 million (1990
est.)
Exports: 
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum, cotton, bananas,
pineapples, palm oil, cotton
partners: 
France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports: 
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: 
food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners: 
France 29%, other EC 29%, Nigeria 16%, US 4%, Japan 3% (1989)
External debt: 
$17.3 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 6% (1990); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,210,000 kW
production: 
1.97 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
150 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly,
textiles, fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture: 
most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to
exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm
kernels, rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not
self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs: 
illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local consumption; some
international drug trade; transshipment point for Southwest and
Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2
billion 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Cote d'Ivoire, Communications

Railroads: 
660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track,
except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways: 
total: 
46,600 km 
paved: 
3,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 32,000 km; unimproved earth
11,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports: 
Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine: 
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 92,828 GRT/ 134,606 DWT, bulk 1,
chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
Airports: 
total: 
41 
usable: 
37 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
15 
Telecommunications: 
well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
consists of open-wire lines and radio relay microwave links; 87,700
telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

@Cote d'Ivoire, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
Military Fire Group 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 3,224,673; fit for military service 1,674,127; reach
military age (18) annually 149,991 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)


@Croatia, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, bordering
the Adriatic Sea, between Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references: 
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
56,538 sq km 
land area: 
56,410 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 
total 2,028 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with Montenego),
Slovenia 501 km 
Coastline: 
5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 
12 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Serbs have occupied UN protected areas in eastern Croatia and along
the western Bosnia and Herzegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia
over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate: 
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with
hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain: 
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low
mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources: 
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
silica, mica, clays, salt 
Land use: 
arable land: 
32% 
permanent crops: 
20% 
meadows and pastures: 
18% 
forest and woodland: 
15% 
other: 
15% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution from metallurgical plants is damaging the forests;
coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread
casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected
by civil strife
natural hazards: 
subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and
Turkish Straits

@Croatia, People

Population: 
4,697,614 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.07% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
11.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
10.54 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
8.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.6 years 
male: 
70.14 years 
female: 
77.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.65 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Croat(s) 
adjective: 
Croatian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%,
others 8.1% 
Religions: 
Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%,
others and unknown 10.8% 
Languages: 
Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
1,509,489 
by occupation: 
industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.), government NA%,
other 

@Croatia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Croatia 
conventional short form: 
Croatia 
local long form: 
Republika Hrvatska 
local short form: 
Hrvatska 
Digraph: 
HR
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Zagreb 
Administrative divisions: 
21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija - singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City
of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci,
Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja,
Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina,
Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin,
Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb
Independence: 
NA June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: 
Statehood Day, 30 May (1990) 
Constitution: 
adopted on 2 December 1990
Legal system: 
based on civil law system
Suffrage: 
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990); election last held 4
August 1992 (next to be held NA 1995); Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with
about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav PARAGA got 5% of the
vote
head of government: 
Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since 3 April 1993); Deputy Prime
Ministers Mato GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since
NA), Vladimir SEKS (since September 1992), Borislav SKEGRO (since NA) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): 
elections last held 7 and 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA
February 1997); seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially
appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3,
SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
House of Representatives (Predstavnicke Dom): 
elections last held 2 August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996);
seats - (138 total) HDZ 85, HSLS 14, SPH-SDP 11, HNS 6, Dalmatian
Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/ Rijeka Democratic Alliance
coalition 6, HSP 5, HSS 3, SNS 3, independents 5
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Stjepan MESIC, chairman of the
executive council; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Savka
DABCEVIC-KUCAR, president; Serbian People's Party (SNS), Milan DUKIC;
Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), leader NA; Croatian Social Liberal
Party (HSLS), Drazen BUDISA, president; Croatian Peasant Party (HSS),
leader NA; Dalmatian Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/Rijecka
Democratic Alliance coalition; Social Democratic Party of
Croatia-Party of Democratic Changes (SPH-SDP), Ivica RACAN
Other political or pressure groups: 
NA
Member of: 
CE (guest), CEI, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Petr A. SARCEVIC 
chancery: 
(temporary) 236 Massachusetts Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002 
telephone: 
(202) 543-5580 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH 
embassy: 
Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb 
mailing address: 
US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345 
telephone: 
[385] (41) 444-800 
FAX: 
[385] (41) 45 85 85 
Flag: 
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red
and white checkered)

@Croatia, Economy

Overview: 
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia, after
Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per
capita output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps
one-third above the Yugoslav average. At present, Croatian Serb
Nationalists control approximately one-third of the Croatian
territory, and one of the overriding determinants of Croatia's
long-term political and economic prospects will be the resolution of
this territorial dispute. Croatia faces monumental economic problems
stemming from: the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the
economy; large foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges,
factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee
population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic
ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, as well as
within its own territory. At the minimum, extensive Western aid and
investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would seem
necessary to salvage a desperate economic situation. However, peace
and political stability must come first; only then will recent
government moves toward a "market-friendly" economy reverse the sharp
drop in output. As of May 1994, fighting continues among Croats,
Serbs, and Muslims, and national boundaries and final political
arrangements are still in doubt.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-19% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
26% monthly average (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
21% (December 1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 30%, other manufacturers 37%,
chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6.5%, fuels and
lubricants 5% (1990)
partners: 
EC countries, Slovenia
Imports: 
$4.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and lubricants 19%, food
and live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured goods 13%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%, beverages
and tobacco 1% (1990)
partners: 
EC countries, Slovenia, FSU countries
External debt: 
$2.6 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -5.9% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,570,000 kW
production: 
11.5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,400 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics,
pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood
products (including furniture), building materials (including cement),
textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food
processing and beverages
Agriculture: 
Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in
private hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia
and Istria; much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by
fighting; wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover
are main crops in Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less
fertile but support cereal production, orchards, vineyards, livestock
breeding, and dairy farming; coastal areas and offshore islands grow
olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 Croatian dinar (CD) = 100 paras; a new currency, the kuna, replaced
the dinar on 30 May 1994
Exchange rates: 
Croatian dinar per US $1 - 6,544 (January 1994), 3,637 (15 July 1993),
60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Croatia, Communications

Railroads: 
2,592 km of standard guage (1.435 m) of which 864 km are electrified
(1992); note - disrupted by territorial dispute
Highways: 
total: 
32,071 km 
paved: 
23,305 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 8,439 km; earth 327 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992);
note - now disrupted because of territorial dispute
Ports: 
coastal - Omisalj (oil), Ploce, Rijeka, Split; inland - Osijek,
Slavonski Samac, Vukovar, Zupanja
Merchant marine: 
28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 108,194 GRT/131,880 DWT, cargo
18, container 1, oil tanker 1, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3 
note: 
also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 151 ships (1,000 GRT or
over) under flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent -
totaling 2,221,931 GRT/3,488,263 DWT; includes cargo 60, roll-on/
roll-off 8, refrigerated cargo 4, container 12, multifunction large
load carriers 3, bulk 45, oil tanker 9, liquified gas 1, chemical
tanker 4, service vessel 5
Airports: 
total: 
75 
usable: 
70 
with permanent-surface runways: 
16 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters)
TV; 1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - none

@Croatia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,182,767; fit for military service 946,010; reach
military age (19) annually 33,166 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
337 billion-393 billion Croatian dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note
- conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results


@Cuba, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, 145 km south of Key West
(Florida)
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
110,860 sq km 
land area: 
110,860 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km 
note: 
Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline: 
3,735 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual
agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April);
rainy season (May to October)
Terrain: 
mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
southeast
Natural resources: 
cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica,
petroleum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
23% 
permanent crops: 
6% 
meadows and pastures: 
23% 
forest and woodland: 
17% 
other: 
31% 
Irrigated land: 
8,960 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation
natural hazards: 
averages one hurricane every other year
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba, People

Population: 
11,064,344 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.95% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.52 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.89 years 
male: 
74.72 years 
female: 
79.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cuban(s) 
adjective: 
Cuban 
Ethnic divisions: 
mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1% 
Religions: 
nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power
Languages: 
Spanish 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
94% 
male: 
95% 
female: 
93% 
Labor force: 
4,620,800 economically active population (1988); 3,578,800 in state
sector
by occupation: 
services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce
11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June
1990)

@Cuba, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Cuba 
conventional short form: 
Cuba 
local long form: 
Republica de Cuba 
local short form: 
Cuba 
Digraph: 
CU
Type: 
Communist state 
Capital: 
Havana
Administrative divisions: 
14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special
municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila,
Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de
la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti
Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Independence: 
20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from
1898 to 1902)
National holiday: 
Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953) 
Constitution: 
24 February 1976
Legal system: 
based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist
legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President of the Council of State and President of the Council of
Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24
February 1976 when office was abolished; President since 2 December
1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice
President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2
December 1976) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; proposed by the president of the Council of
State, appointed by the National Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly of People's Power: 
(Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular) elections last held February
1993; seats - 589 total, indirectly elected from slates approved by
special candidacy commissions
Judicial branch: 
People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular) 
Political parties and leaders: 
only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first
secretary
Member of: 
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since
1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA Perez (since August 1992) represented
by the Cuban Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery: 
2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, US Interests Section, Swiss Embassy,
Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Principal Officer Joseph SULLIVAN 
US Interests Section: 
USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana 
mailing address: 
use street address 
telephone: 
33-3351 or 33-3543 
FAX: 
no service available at this time 
note: 
protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy
Flag: 
five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with
white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a
white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba, Economy

Overview: 
Cuba's heavily statist economy remains in a severe depression as a
result of the loss of massive amounts of economic aid from the former
Soviet Bloc. In 1989-93, GDP declined by about 40% and import
capability fell by about 80%. Reduced imports of fuel, spare parts,
and chemicals combined with rainy weather to cut the production of
sugar - the country's top export - from 7 million tons in 1992 to 4.3
million tons in 1993, causing a loss of more than $400 million in
export revenue. The government implemented several measures designed
to stem the economic decline, e.g., legalizing the use of foreign
currency by Cuban citizens in August 1993 in an attempt to increase
remittances of foreign exchange from abroad. Authorities in September
1993 began permitting self-employment in over 100 mostly service
occupations. Also in September the government broke up many state
farms into smaller, more autonomous cooperative units in an attempt to
increase worker incentives and boost depressed food production levels.
Fuel shortages persisted throughout 1993; draft animals and bicycles
continued to replace motor-driven vehicles, and the use of electricity
by households and factories was cut from already low levels. With the
help of foreign investment, tourism has been one bright spot in the
economy, with arrivals and earnings reaching record highs in 1993.
Government officials have expressed guarded optimism for 1994, as the
country struggles to achieve sustainable economic growth at a
much-reduced standard of living.
National product: 
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $13.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-10% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,250 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$12.46 billion 
expenditures: 
$14.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports: 
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee
partners: 
Russia 28%, Canada 9%, China 5%, Ukraine 5%, Japan 4%, Spain 4% (1993
est.)
Imports: 
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners: 
Venezuela 20%, China 9%, Spain 9%, Mexico 7%, Italy 4%, Canada 7%,
France 8% (1993 est.)
External debt: 
$6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,889,000 kW
production: 
16.248 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,500 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
(particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods,
agricultural machinery
Agriculture: 
accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key
commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other
products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar
exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar); sector hurt
by growing shortages of fuels and parts
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine bound for the US
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion 
Currency: 
1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible, official rate,
linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Cuba, Communications

Railroads: 
12,795 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of
1.435-meter gauge track, including 151.7 km electrified; in addition,
sugar plantation lines consist of 7,742 km of 0.914-meter and
1.435-meter gauge track
Highways: 
total: 
26,477 km 
paved: 
14,477 km 
unpaved: 
gravel or earth 12,000 km (1989)
Inland waterways: 
240 km
Ports: 
Cienfuegos, La Habana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7
secondary, 35 minor
Merchant marine: 
64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 444,038 GRT/627,741 DWT, bulk 2,
cargo 36, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 4, oil tanker 10, passenger
cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 10 
note: 
Cuba beneficially owns an additional 34 ships (1,000 GRT and over)
totaling 529,090 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Airports: 
total: 
187 
usable: 
167 
with permanent-surface runways: 
73 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
12 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
19 
Telecommunications: 
among the world's least developed telephone systems; 229,000
telephones; telephone density - 20.7 per 1,000 persons; broadcast
stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Cuba, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) - including ground forces,
Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), Youth Labor Army (EJT), and Interior
Ministry Border Guard Troops 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 3,064,898; females age 15-49 3,088,810; males fit for
military service 1,907,396; females fit for military service
1,927,306; males reach military age (17) annually 81,536 (1994 est.);
females reach military age (17) annually 78,612 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - approx. $600 million, 4% of GSP (gross
social product) in 1993 was for defense
Note: 
Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba,
cut off military aid by 1993


@Cyprus, Geography

Location: 
Middle East, in the eastern Mediterreanean Sea, 97 km west of Syria
and 64 km west of Turkey
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
9,250 sq km 
land area: 
9,240 sq km 
comparative area: 
about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
648 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous
areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the
island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island),
that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are
two UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate: 
temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain: 
central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources: 
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth
pigment 
Land use: 
arable land: 
40% 
permanent crops: 
7% 
meadows and pastures: 
10% 
forest and woodland: 
18% 
other: 
25% 
Irrigated land: 
350 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal
disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the
Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial
wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from
urbanization
natural hazards: 
moderate earthquake activity
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Cyprus, People

Population: 
730,084 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.91% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
16.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.22 years 
male: 
73.97 years 
female: 
78.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.32 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Cypriot(s) 
adjective: 
Cypriot 
Ethnic divisions: 
Greek 78%, Turkish 18%, other 4% 
Religions: 
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and
other 4% 
Languages: 
Greek, Turkish, English 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
total population: 
94% 
male: 
98% 
female: 
91% 
Labor force: 
Greek area: 
285,500 
by occupation: 
services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1992)
Turkish area: 
75,000 
by occupation: 
services 52%, industry 22%, agriculture 26% (1992)

@Cyprus, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Cyprus 
conventional short form: 
Cyprus 
Digraph: 
CY
Type: 
republic 
note: 
a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island
began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation
was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in
July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the
north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized
government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf
DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
differences and creation of a new federal system of government
Capital: 
Nicosia 
Administrative divisions: 
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence: 
16 August 1960 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 October (15 November (1983) is celebrated as
Independence Day in the Turkish area) 
Constitution: 
16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
constitution to govern the island and to better relations between
Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975
Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies
within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for
the Turkish area passed by referendum in 5 May 1985
Legal system: 
based on common law, with civil law modifications
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Glafkos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); election last
held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results -
Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and
vice-president
note: 
Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13
February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area
since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the
Turkish area
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): 
elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY
35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%;
seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi):
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 17,
DP 15, CTP 13, TKP 5
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish
area
Political parties and leaders: 
Greek Cypriot: 
Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist Party),
Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), John MATSIS;
Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of
the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal
Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;
Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
Turkish area: 
National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party
(TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR;
New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP),
Ergun VEHBI; New Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free
Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; National Struggle Party (MSP),
Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (USP), Arif Salih KIRDAG;
Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland Party (VP), Orhan UCOK
note: 
CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party
(DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and TKP
boycotted the by-election of 13 October 1991, in which 12 seats were
at stake; the DMP was dissolved after the 1990 election
Other political or pressure groups: 
United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON, Communist controlled);
Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers
Union (PEK, pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist
controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West);
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation
of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)
Member of: 
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Andreas JACOVIDES 
chancery: 
2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 462-5772 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
note: 
Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office
at 1667 K Street NW, Washington DC, telephone (202) 887-6198
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Richard BOUCHER 
embassy: 
corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Nicosia 
mailing address: 
APO AE 09836 
telephone: 
[357] (2) 476100 
FAX: 
[357] (2) 465944 
Flag: 
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus
is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed
olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the
hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish
communities
note: 
the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and
bottom with a red crescent and red star on a white field

@Cyprus, Economy

Overview: 
The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous.
Industry contributes 16% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force,
while the service sector contributes 60% to GDP and employs 57% of the
labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP between 1986 and 1990
was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the adverse effects of the
Gulf War on tourism. Economic growth surged again in 1992, bolstered
by strong foreign and domestic demand. As the economy gained momentum,
however, it began to overheat; inflation reached 6.5%. The economy has
likely recorded a sharp drop in growth in 1993, due to the recession
in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, but probably will
pick up again in 1994. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than
one-third the per capita GDP in the south. Because it is recognized
only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign
financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The
economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs more
than one-quarter of the workforce. Moreover, because the Turkish lira
is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered the same
high inflation as mainland Turkey. To compensate for the economy's
weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every
sector; financial support has reached about one-third of Turkish
Cypriot GDP.
National product: 
Greek area: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.7 billion (1992)
Turkish area: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $550 million (1992)
National product real growth rate: 
Greek area: 
8.2% (1992)
Turkish area: 
7.3% (1992)
National product per capita: 
Greek area: 
$11,390 (1992)
Turkish area: 
$3,130 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
Greek area: 
6.5% (1992)
Turkish area: 
63.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
Greek area: 
1.8% (1992)
Turkish area: 
1.2% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
Greek area - $1.7 billion 
Turkish area - $273 million 
expenditures: 
Greek area - $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $350
million 
Turkish area - $360 million, including capital expenditures of $78
million (1994)
Exports: 
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners: 
UK 19%, Greece 8%, Lebanon 2%, Egypt 7%
Imports: 
$3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains,
machinery
partners: 
UK 11%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%, Germany 9%, US 8%
External debt: 
$1.6 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4% (1993 est.); accounts for 16.0% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
620,000 kW
production: 
1.77 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,530 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood
products
Agriculture: 
contributes 7% to GDP and employs 26% of labor force in the south;
major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus
fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Illicit drugs: 
transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to
Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $24 million 
Currency: 
1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates: 
Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.5148 (December 1993), 0.4970 (1993),
0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572 (1990), 0.4933 (1989); Turkish
liras (TL) per US$1 - 15,196.1 (January 1994), 10,983.3 (1993),
6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Cyprus, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
10,780 km 
paved: 
5,170 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 5,610 km 
Ports: 
Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine: 
1,399 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,743,484 GRT/39,874,985
DWT, bulk 469, cargo 496, chemical tanker 27, combination bulk 48,
combination ore/oil 32, container 82, liquefied gas 3, multifunction
large load carrier 4, oil tanker 122, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 2,
railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 67, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24,
short-sea passenger 12, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 3 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns 26 of these ships, Russia
owns 61, Latvia owns 7, Croatia owns 2, and Romania owns 4
Airports: 
total: 
14 
usable: 
14 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000
telephones; largely open-wire and microwave radio relay; broadcast
stations - 11 AM, 8 FM, 1 (34 repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM,
6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish sector; international service by tropospheric
scatter, 3 submarine cables, and satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

@Cyprus, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Greek area: 
Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval elements),
Greek Cypriot Police 
Turkish area: 
Turkish Cypriot Security Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 186,807; fit for military service 128,444; reach
military age (18) annually 5,233 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $407 million, 6.5% of GDP (1993)


@Czech Republic, Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, between Germany and Slovakia
Map references: 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World 
Area: 
total area: 
78,703 sq km 
land area: 
78,645 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries: 
total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 214 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
Liechtenstein claims l,606 square miles of Czech territory confiscated
from its royal family in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution
of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World
War II versus the Czech Republic claims that restitution does not
proceed before February 1948 when the Communists seized power;
unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of
property of the former Czechoslovak federal government
Climate: 
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: 
two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains,
hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the
east, consisting of very hilly country
Natural resources: 
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA%
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia centered around
Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava presents health
hazards; acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Note: 
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in
central Europe

@Czech Republic, People

Population: 
10,408,280 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.21% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.23 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.08 years 
male: 
69.38 years 
female: 
76.99 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.84 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Czech(s) 
adjective: 
Czech 
Ethnic divisions: 
Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%,
Hungarian 0.2%, other 1% 
Religions: 
atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%,
other 13.4% 
Languages: 
Czech, Slovak 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
5.389 million 
by occupation: 
industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%, communications
and other 45.2% (1990)

@Czech Republic, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Czech Republic 
conventional short form: 
Czech Republic 
local long form: 
Ceska Republika 
local short form: 
Cechy 
Digraph: 
EZ
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Prague 
Administrative divisions: 
8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular); Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha,
Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky
Independence: 
1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
National holiday: 
National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the Republic, 28 October 
Constitution: 
ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system: 
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line
with Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993); election last held 26
January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - Vaclav HAVEL
elected by the National Council
head of government: 
Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Council (Narodni rada)
Senate: 
elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
Chamber of Deputies: 
elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) Civic Democratic
Party/Christian Democratic Party 76, Left Bloc 35, Czech Social
Democratic Party 16, Liberal Social Union 16, Christian Democratic
Union/Czech People's Party 15, Assembly for the Republic/Republican
Party 14, Civic Democratic Alliance 14, Movement for Self-Governing
Democracy for Moravia and Silesia 14
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS, chairman; Christian
Democratic Union-Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX, chairman;
Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman; Czech Social Democratic
Party, Milos ZEMAN, chairman; Czech-Moravian Center Party, Jan KYCER,
chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU), Frantisek TRNKA; Communist Party
of Bohemia/Moravia (KSCM), Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman; Association
for the Republic - Republican Party, Miroslav SLADEK, chairman; Left
Bloc, Marie STIBOROVA, chairman
Other political or pressure groups: 
Left Bloc; Liberal Party; Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade Unions
Member of: 
BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG,
PCA, UN (as of 8 January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY 
chancery: 
3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 363-6315 or 6316 
FAX: 
(202) 966-8540 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA 
embassy: 
Trziste 15, 11801, Prague 1 
mailing address: 
Unit 25402; APO AE 09213 
telephone: 
[42] (2) 251-0847 
FAX: 
[42] (2) 531-193 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the
flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic, Economy

Overview: 
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent nation states -
the Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated
the task of moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The
old Czechoslovakia, even though highly industrialized by East European
standards, suffered from an aging capital plant, lagging technology,
and a deficiency in energy and many raw materials. In January 1991,
approximately one year after the end of communist control of Eastern
Europe, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic launched a sweeping
program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and controlled
economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and
the setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost
in inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a
whole inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992,
in the Czech lands, inflation dropped to an estimated 12.5% and GDP
was down a more moderate 5%. In 1993, Czech aggregate output remained
unchanged, prices rose about 19%, and unemployment hovered above 3%;
exports to Slovakia fell roughly 30%. An estimated 40% of the economy
was privately owned. In 1994, Prague expects 2% to 3% growth in GDP,
roughly 9% inflation, and 5% unemployment. Economic growth in 1994 is
less important than continued economic restructuring; a mere 1% growth
would be noteworthy if restructuring is accompanied by rising
unemployment and enterprise bankruptcies.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $75 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$7,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
19% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
3.3% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$11.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$11.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$12.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals,
fuels, minerals, and metals
partners: 
Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, France, US, UK,
CIS republics
Imports: 
$12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manfactured
goods, raw materials, chemicals, agricultural products
partners: 
Slovakia, CIS republics, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland,
Hungary, UK, Italy
External debt: 
$8.6 billion (October 1993)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -5.5% (December 1993 over December 1992)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
16,500,000 kW
production: 
62.2 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,030 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor
vehicles, glass, armaments
Agriculture: 
largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and
livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops,
fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American
cocaine to Western Europe
Economic aid: 
donor: 
the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid
to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency: 
1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates: 
koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 30.122 (January 1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26
(1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989)
note: 
values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Czech Republic, Communications

Railroads: 
9,434 km total (1988)
Highways: 
total: 
55,890 km (1988)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Inland waterways: 
NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines: 
natural gas 5,400 km 
Ports: 
coastal outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia
(Rijeka), Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal
river ports are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe)
Merchant marine: 
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 225,934 GRT/350,330 DWT, bulk 7,
cargo 11 
Airports: 
total: 
155 
usable: 
123 
with permanent-surface runways: 
27 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
17 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
52 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
NA

@Czech Republic, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,747,126; fit for military service 2,091,532; reach
military age (18) annually 93,342 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
23 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of
defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results


@Denmark, Geography

Location: 
Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea on a peninsula
north of Germany
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
43,070 sq km 
land area: 
42,370 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
note: 
includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of
metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Land boundaries: 
total 68 km, Germany 68 km 
Coastline: 
3,379 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
4 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the
UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area); dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in
Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the
International Court of Justice
Climate: 
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain: 
low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone 
Land use: 
arable land: 
61% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
6% 
forest and woodland: 
12% 
other: 
21% 
Irrigated land: 
4,300 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air pollution; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea;
drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Note: 
controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; about
one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark, People

Population: 
5,187,821 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.23% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
12.45 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
11.28 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
75.81 years 
male: 
72.93 years 
female: 
78.86 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Dane(s) 
adjective: 
Danish 
Ethnic divisions: 
Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German 
Religions: 
Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%,
other 7% (1988)
Languages: 
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small
minority)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 
99% 
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
2,553,900 
by occupation: 
private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%, manufacturing and
mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

@Denmark, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Kingdom of Denmark 
conventional short form: 
Denmark 
local long form: 
Kongeriget Danmark 
local short form: 
Danmark 
Digraph: 
DA
Type: 
constitutional monarchy 
Capital: 
Copenhagen 
Administrative divisions: 
metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*
(stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland,
Ribe, Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm,
Vejle, Vestsjaelland, Viborg
note: 
see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are
part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions
Independence: 
1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)
National holiday: 
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940) 
Constitution: 
5 June 1953
Legal system: 
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA January 1993) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Folketing): 
elections last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December
1994); results - Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party
16.0%, Liberal 15.8%, Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party
6.4%, Center Democratic Party 5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%,
Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%; seats - (179 total;
includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands) Social
Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
People's 4
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party,
Torben RECHENDORFF; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist
People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Johannes SORENSEN;
Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal
Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party, Jann SJURSEN; Common
Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish Workers' Party
Member of: 
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC,
NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, ZC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG 
chancery: 
3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-4300 
FAX: 
(202) 328-1470 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward E. ELSON 
embassy: 
Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O 
mailing address: 
APO AE 09716 
telephone: 
[45] (31) 42-31-44 
FAX: 
[45] (35) 43-0223 
Flag: 
red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that
design element of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted
by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark, Economy

Overview: 
This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date
small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare
measures, comfortable living standards, and high dependence on foreign
trade. Denmark's new center-left coalition government will concentrate
on reducing the persistent high unemployment rate and the budget
deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. In the face
of recent international market pressure on the Danish krone, the
coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency. The coalition
hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax
revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and
tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve
welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays.
Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to
the criteria for European integration by 1999; although Copenhagen has
won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European
Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark is,
in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on
time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than
many West European countries. As the EU's single market (formally
established on 1 January 1993) gets underway, Danish economic growth
is expected to pickup to around 2% in 1994. Danish approval of the
Maastricht treaty on EU political and economic union in May 1993 has
reversed the drop in investment, further boosting growth. The current
account surplus remains strong as limitations on wage increases and
low inflation - expected to be around 2% in 1994 - improve export
competitiveness. Although unemployment is high, it remains stable
compared to most European countries.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $95.6 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate: 
0.5% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$18,500 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
11.8% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$48 billion 
expenditures: 
$55.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports: 
$36.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment
(shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
partners: 
EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden 10.5%, Norway
5.8%, US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)
Imports: 
$29.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
textiles, paper
partners: 
EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden 10.8%, Norway
5.4%, US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)
External debt: 
$40 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -2.5% (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
11,215,000 kW
production: 
34.17 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
6,610 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing,
chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other
wood products, shipbuilding
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4% of GDP and employs 5.6% of labor force (includes
fishing and forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export
revenues; principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape,
sugar beets, fish; self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid: 
donor: 
ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.9 billion 
Currency: 
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates: 
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.771 (January 1994), 6.484 (1993),
6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Denmark, Communications

Railroads: 
2,770 km; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 2,120 km (1,999 km rail
line and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km electrified, 730 km
double tracked; 650 km of standard-gauge lines are privately owned and
operated
Highways: 
total: 
66,482 km 
paved: 
concrete, asphalt, stone block 64,551 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 1,931 km 
Inland waterways: 
417 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km 
Ports: 
Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and
minor ports
Merchant marine: 
347 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,974,494 GRT/6,820,067 DWT,
bulk 15, cargo 110, chemical tanker 24, combination bulk 1, container
51, liquefied gas 36, livestock carrier 4, oil tanker 33, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 21, roll-on/roll-off cargo 39, short-sea
passenger 12 
note: 
Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register; by the end of 1990, 308 of the Danish-flag
ships belonged to the DIS
Airports: 
total: 
118 
usable: 
109 
with permanent-surface runways: 
28 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
telephones; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay
support trunk network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19
submarine coaxial cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT,
EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

@Denmark, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home
Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,360,050; fit for military service 1,168,940; reach
military age (20) annually 36,800 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)


@Djibouti, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, at the entrance to the Red Sea between Eritrea and
Somalia
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
22,000 sq km 
land area: 
21,980 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries: 
total 508 km, Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km 
Coastline: 
314 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
desert; torrid, dry
Terrain: 
coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources: 
geothermal areas 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
9% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
91% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification
natural hazards: 
prone to earthquakes, droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to
Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; a vast
wasteland

@Djibouti, People

Population: 
412,599 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.71% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
42.94 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
15.8 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
111 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
49.23 years 
male: 
47.42 years 
female: 
51.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.21 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Djiboutian(s) 
adjective: 
Djiboutian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5% 
Religions: 
Muslim 94%, Christian 6% 
Languages: 
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
48% 
male: 
63% 
female: 
34% 
Labor force: 
NA
by occupation: 
a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway
workers
note: 
52% of population of working age (1983)

@Djibouti, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Djibouti 
conventional short form: 
Djibouti 
former: 
French Territory of the Afars and Issas French Somaliland 
Digraph: 
DJ
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Djibouti 
Administrative divisions: 
5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil,
Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura
Independence: 
27 June 1977 (from France)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 June (1977) 
Constitution: 
multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4 September 1992
Legal system: 
based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic
law
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977); election last
held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President Hassan
GOULED Aptidon was reelected
head of government: 
Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; responsible to the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): 
elections last held 18 December 1992; results - RPP is the only party;
seats - (65 total) RPP 65
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling party: 
People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
other parties: 
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE; Democratic
National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh
Other political or pressure groups: 
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and
affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy (MUD)
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UNCTAD, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Roble OLHAYE 
chancery: 
Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 331-0270 
FAX: 
(202) 331-0302 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Martin CHESES 
embassy: 
Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti 
mailing address: 
B. P. 185, Djibouti 
telephone: 
[253] 35-39-95 
FAX: 
[253] 35-39-40 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a
white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is based on service activities connected with the
country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port
for the region and an international transshipment and refueling
center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation
is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important
supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to
finance development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30%
continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an
estimated 35% over the last five years because of recession, civil
war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and
refugees).
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$1,200 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
6% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 
over 30% (1989)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$170 million 
expenditures: 
$203 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$158 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
partners: 
Africa 47%, Middle East 40%, Western Europe 12%
Imports: 
$334 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
partners: 
Western Europe 48%, Asia 25%, Africa 8%
External debt: 
$355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3% (1991 est.); manufacturing accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
115,000 kW
production: 
200 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
580 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
mineral-water bottling
Agriculture: 
accounts for only 2% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads
herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western
(non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million 
Currency: 
1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Djibouti, Communications

Railroads: 
the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways: 
total: 
2,900 km 
paved: 
280 km 
unpaved: 
improved, unimproved earth 2,620 km (1982)
Ports: 
Djibouti
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
13 
usable: 
11 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the
microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country;
international connections via submarine cable to Saudi Arabia and by
satellite to other countries; one ground station each for Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV

@Djibouti, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National
Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 99,811; fit for military service 58,346 
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of GDP (1989)


@Dominica, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Puerto
Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
750 sq km 
land area: 
750 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
148 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain: 
rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources: 
timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
9% 
permanent crops: 
13% 
meadows and pastures: 
3% 
forest and woodland: 
41% 
other: 
34% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
flash floods are a constant threat; occasional hurricanes
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection

@Dominica, People

Population: 
87,696 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.32% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
20.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
76.96 years 
male: 
74.12 years 
female: 
79.95 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.99 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Dominican(s) 
adjective: 
Dominican 
Ethnic divisions: 
black, Carib Indians 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%,
other 5% 
Languages: 
English (official), French patois 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 
94% 
male: 
94% 
female: 
94% 
Labor force: 
25,000 
by occupation: 
agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

@Dominica, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Commonwealth of Dominica 
conventional short form: 
Dominica 
Digraph: 
DO
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Roseau 
Administrative divisions: 
10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John,
Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter
Independence: 
3 November 1978 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 3 November (1978) 
Constitution: 
3 November 1978
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October 1993) election
last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1998); results -
President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO was elected by the House of
Assembly to a five year term
head of government: 
Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for
a third term 28 May 1990) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators
and 21 elected representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
Judicial branch: 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party
(DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Other political or pressure groups: 
Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Dominica has no chancery in the US
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica
Flag: 
green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part
is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is
yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable
to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and
employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas,
citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. Development of the tourist
industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline and the
lack of an international airport.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $185 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
2.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
5.2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15% (1992 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$70 million 
expenditures: 
$84 million, including capital expenditures of $26 million (FY91 est.)
Exports: 
$54.6 million (1992)
commodities: 
bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
partners: 
UK 50%, CARICOM countries, Italy, US
Imports: 
$97.5 million (1992)
commodities: 
manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
partners: 
US 25%, CARICOM, UK, Canada
External debt: 
$92.8 million (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 4.2% (1992); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
7,000 kW
production: 
16 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
185 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture: 
accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes,
root crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings;
forestry and fisheries potential not exploited
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $120 million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Dominica, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
750 km 
paved: 
370 km 
unpaved: 
gravel or earth 380 km 
Ports: 
Roseau, Portsmouth
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations
- 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

@Dominica, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Dominican Republic, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Cuba
and Puerto Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
48,730 sq km 
land area: 
48,380 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries: 
total 275 km, Haiti 275 km 
Coastline: 
1,288 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
6 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal
variation in rainfall
Terrain: 
rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources: 
nickel, bauxite, gold, silver 
Land use: 
arable land: 
23% 
permanent crops: 
7% 
meadows and pastures: 
43% 
forest and woodland: 
13% 
other: 
14% 
Irrigated land: 
2,250 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs;
deforestation
natural hazards: 
subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the
Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic, People

Population: 
7,826,075 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.8% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.87 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
51.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
68.35 years 
male: 
66.22 years 
female: 
70.6 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.8 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Dominican(s) 
adjective: 
Dominican 
Ethnic divisions: 
white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
Spanish
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
83% 
male: 
85% 
female: 
82% 
Labor force: 
2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation: 
agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

@Dominican Republic, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Dominican Republic 
conventional short form: 
none 
local long form: 
Republica Dominicana 
local short form: 
none 
Digraph: 
DR
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Santo Domingo 
Administrative divisions: 
29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district*
(distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*,
Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La
Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor
Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata,
Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro
De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde
Independence: 
27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 27 February (1844) 
Constitution: 
28 November 1966
Legal system: 
based on French civil codes
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons
regardless of age
note: 
members of the armed forces and police cannot vote
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth
elected term began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES
Troncoso (since 16 August 1986); election last held 16 May 1990 (next
to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan
BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez (PRD) 22.9%
cabinet: 
Cabinet; nominated by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado): 
elections last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): 
elections last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD
33, PRI 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Major parties: 
Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo;
Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Dominican
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA
Minor parties: 
National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS
Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der
HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez;
National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular
Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist
Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde; Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan
RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ
Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano Rabelais
PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA
note: 
in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual
party structures
Other political or pressure groups: 
Collective of Popular Organzations (COP), leader NA
Member of: 
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez 
chancery: 
1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 332-6280 
FAX: 
(202) 265-8057 
consulate(s) general: 
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
Rico) 
consulate(s): 
Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville,
Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO 
embassy: 
corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo
Domingo 
mailing address: 
Unit 5500, Santo Domingo; APO AA 34041-0008 
telephone: 
(809) 541-2171 and 541-8100 
FAX: 
(809) 686-7437 
Flag: 
a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag
into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the
bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at
the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic, Economy

Overview: 
Rapid growth of free trade zones has led to a substantial expansion of
manufacturing for export, especially of wearing apparel. Over the past
decade, tourism has also increased in importance and is a major earner
of foreign exchange and a source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a
key sector of the economy. The principal commercial crop is sugarcane,
followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. Domestic industry is
based on the processing of agricultural products, oil refining,
minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially reported at about
30%, but there is considerable underemployment. Growth fell to a
moderate 3% in 1993 because of power shortages in industry and
political uncertainty which slowed down foreign investment.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $23 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
8% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
30% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports: 
$769 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners: 
US 56%, EC 22%, Puerto Rico 8% (1991)
Imports: 
$2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals
partners: 
US 50%
External debt: 
$4.7 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -0.1% (1991); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,283,000 kW
production: 
5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
660 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles,
cement, tobacco
Agriculture: 
accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is
the most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
and tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal
output - cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient
in food
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and
Europe
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655
million 
Currency: 
1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.841 (January 1994), 12.679 (1993),
12.774 (1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525 (1990), 6.340 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Dominican Republic, Communications

Railroads: 
1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m
to 1.435 m
Highways: 
total: 
12,000 km 
paved: 
5,800 km 
unpaved: 
gravel or improved earth 5,600 km; unimproved earth 600 km 
Pipelines: 
crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km 
Ports: 
Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine: 
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
36 
usable: 
31 
with permanent-surface runways: 
12 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave
relay network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM,
18 TV, 6 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Dominican Republic, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,114,606; fit for military service 1,333,049; reach
military age (18) annually 81,919 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 0.7% of GDP (1993 est.)


@Ecuador, Geography

Location: 
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator
between Colombia and Peru
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
283,560 sq km 
land area: 
276,840 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Nevada
note: 
includes Galapagos Islands
Land boundaries: 
total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km 
Coastline: 
2,237 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 
200 nm
International disputes: 
three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate: 
tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain: 
coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and
flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Natural resources: 
petroleum, fish, timber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
6% 
permanent crops: 
3% 
meadows and pastures: 
17% 
forest and woodland: 
51% 
other: 
23% 
Irrigated land: 
5,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution
natural hazards: 
subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber, Wetlands
Note: 
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador, People

Population: 
10,677,067 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.01% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
25.82 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.67 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
39.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.98 years 
male: 
67.46 years 
female: 
72.62 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.08 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Ecuadorian(s) 
adjective: 
Ecuadorian 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black
10% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 95% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 
88% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
86% 
Labor force: 
2.8 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and other
activities 28% (1982)

@Ecuador, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Ecuador 
conventional short form: 
Ecuador 
local long form: 
Republica del Ecuador 
local short form: 
Ecuador 
Digraph: 
EC
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Quito 
Administrative divisions: 
21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar,
Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos,
Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo,
Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence: 
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)
Constitution: 
10 August 1979
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages
18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Sixto DURAN BALLEN Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice
President Alberto DAHIK Garzoni (since 10 August 1992); election
runoff election held 5 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
Sixto DURAN BALLEN elected as president and Alberto DAHIK elected as
vice president
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Congress (Congreso Nacional): 
elections last held 17 May 1992 (next to be held 1 May 1994); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (77 total) PSC 20, PRE 15, PUR
12, ID 7, PC 6, DP 5, PSE 3, MPD 3, PLRE 2, CFP 2, FRA 1, APRE 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Center-Right parties: 
Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Republican
Unity Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN BALLEN, leader; Conservative
Party (PC), Vice President Alberto DAHIK, president
Center-Left parties: 
Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos, Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos,
leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Jamil MANUAD Witt, president;
Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Carlos Luis PLAZA Aray,
director; Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario,
director
Populist parties: 
Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director; Concentration of
Popular Forces (CFP), Rafael SANTELICES, director; Popular
Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS Passos, leader; Assad
Bucaram Party (PAB), Avicena BUCARAM, leader; People, Change, and
Democracy (PCD), Raul AULESTIA, director
Far-Left parties: 
Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Jorge Fausto MORENO, director;
Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS, leader; Broad Leftist
Front (FADI), Jose Xavier GARAYCOA, president; Ecuadorian National
Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director
Communists: 
Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene Leon Mague
MOSWUERRA, secretary general (5,000 members); Communist Party of
Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), leader NA (3,000 members)
Member of: 
AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edgar TERAN 
chancery: 
2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 234-7200 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Diego, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO 
embassy: 
Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito 
mailing address: 
P. O. Box 538, Unit 5309, Quito, or APO AA 34039-3420 
telephone: 
[593] (2) 562-890, 561-623 or 624 
FAX: 
[593] (2) 502-052 
consulate(s) general: 
Guayaquil 
Flag: 
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red
with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar
to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of
arms

@Ecuador, Economy

Overview: 
Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas.
Growth has been uneven because of natural disasters, fluctuations in
global oil prices, and government policies designed to curb inflation.
Banana exports, second only to oil, have suffered as a result of
import quotas of the European Union and banana blight. The new
President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, has a much more favorable attitude
toward foreign investment than did his predecessor. Ecuador has
implemented trade agreements with Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and
Venezuela and has applied for GATT membership. At the end of 1991,
Ecuador received a standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will permit
the country to proceed with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt. In
September 1992, the government launched a new, macroeconomic program
that gives more play to market forces. In 1993, the DURAN-BALLEN
administration adopted a rigorous austerity program that resulted in
economic stabilization, with inflation cut in half and international
reserves boosted to a record $1.3 billion. Growth in 1993 was perhaps
only 2% due to falling export prices, notably oil, and slow progress
on privatization.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $41.8 billion 
National product real growth rate: 
2% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$4,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
31% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
8% (1992)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.9 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
petroleum 42%, bananas, shrimp, cocoa, coffee
partners: 
US 53.4%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports: 
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
partners: 
US 32.7%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries, Japan
External debt: 
$12.7 billion (1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3.9% (1991); accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,921,000 kW
production: 
7.676 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
700 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products,
wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture: 
accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood;
other exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice,
potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle,
sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains,
dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs: 
significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in
Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer
of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics;
important money-laundering hub
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million 
Currency: 
1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,947.1 (October 1993), 1,534.0 (1992),
1,046.25 (1991), 767.8 (1990), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Ecuador, Communications

Railroads: 
965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways: 
total: 
28,000 km 
paved: 
3,600 km 
unpaved: 
gravel or improved earth 17,400 km; unimproved earth 7,000 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,500 km
Pipelines: 
crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km 
Ports: 
Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine: 
40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 263,752 GRT/378,675 DWT, bulk 1,
cargo 3, container 2, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 3,
refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
211 
usable: 
208 
with permanent-surface runways: 
56 
with runway over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
21 
Telecommunications: 
domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; telephone
density - 30 per 1,000 persons; broadcast stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33
TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Ecuador, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force
(Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,734,988; fit for military service 1,850,989; reach
military age (20) annually 111,707 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Egypt, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea,
between Sudan and Libya
Map references: 
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,001,450 sq km 
land area: 
995,450 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries: 
total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan
1,273 km 
Coastline: 
2,450 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with
international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area
of 20,580 sq km; the dispute over this area escalated in 1993, this
area continues to be in dispute
Climate: 
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain: 
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone,
gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
2% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
95% 
Irrigated land: 
25,850 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands;
increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification;
oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats;
other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, untreated sewage,
and industrial effluents; water scarcity away from the Nile which is
the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population
overstraining natural resources
natural hazards: 
periods of drought; subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides,
volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in
spring
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note: 
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and
remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea
link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size, and juxtaposition
to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt, People

Population: 
60,765,028 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.95% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
28.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
76.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
60.79 years 
male: 
58.91 years 
female: 
62.76 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Egyptian(s) 
adjective: 
Egyptian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek,
Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1% 
Religions: 
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and
other 6% (official estimate)
Languages: 
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated
classes 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
48% 
male: 
63% 
female: 
34% 
Labor force: 
15 million (1992 est.)
by occupation: 
government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%,
agriculture 34%, privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises
20% (1984)
note: 
shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in
Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

@Egypt, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Arab Republic of Egypt 
conventional short form: 
Egypt 
local long form: 
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
United Arab Republic (with Syria) 
Digraph: 
EG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Cairo 
Administrative divisions: 
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al
Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah,
Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al
Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't,
Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh,
Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence: 
28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952) 
Constitution: 
11 September 1971
Legal system: 
based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes;
judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6
October 1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as
president on 14 October 1981); national referendum held 4 October 1993
validated Mubarak's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third
6-year presidential term
head of government: 
Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986) 
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral
People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b): 
elections last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held NA November
1995); results - NDP 86.3%, NPUG 1.3%, independents 12.4%; seats -
(454 total, 444 elected, 10 appointed by the president) NDP 383, NPUG
6, independents 55; note - most opposition parties boycotted; NDP
figures include NDP members who ran as independents and other
NDP-affiliated independents
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): 
functions only in a consultative role; elections last held 8 June 1989
(next to be held NA June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats - (258
total, 172 elected, 86 appointed by the president) NDP 172
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Constitutional Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK,
leader, is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are; New Wafd
Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim
SHUKRI; National Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid
MUHYI-AL-DIN; Socialist Liberal Party (SLP), Mustafa Kamal MURAD;
Democratic Unionist Party, Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party,
Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), Ali al-Din
SALIH; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic
Peoples' Party, Anwar AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH
note: 
formation of political parties must be approved by government
Other political or pressure groups: 
the constitution bans religious-based political parties; nonetheless,
the government tolerates limited political activity by the technically
illegal Muslim Brotherhood, which constitutes Mubarak's chief
political opposition; trade unions and professional associations are
officially sanctioned
Member of: 
ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, UNRWA, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED 
chancery: 
2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 232-5400 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edward WALKER 
embassy: 
(North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Saleh Street, Garden City, Cairo 
mailing address: 
APO AE 09839-4900 
telephone: 
[20] (2) 355-7371 
FAX: 
[20] (2) 357-3200 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the
hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic)
centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a
plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green
stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an
Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

@Egypt, Economy

Overview: 
Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign
investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s
and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an
increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin
negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. Egypt's
first IMF standby arrangement concluded in mid-1987 was suspended in
early 1988 because of the government's failure to adopt promised
reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and also
negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991.
In 1991-93 the government made solid progress on administrative
reforms such as liberalizing exchange and interest rates but resisted
implementing major structural reforms like streamlining the public
sector. As a result, the economy has not gained momentum and
unemployment has become a growing problem. Egypt probably will
continue making uneven progress in implementing the successor programs
with the IMF and World Bank it signed onto in late 1993. In 1992-93
tourism plunged 20% or so because of sporadic attacks by Islamic
extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited population
growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The
addition of about 1.4 million people a year to the already huge
population of 60 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the
land area available for agriculture.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $139 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
0.3% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,400 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
11% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
20% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$16.8 billion 
expenditures: 
$19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.4 billion (FY94
est.)
Exports: 
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles,
metal products, chemicals
partners: 
EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports: 
$10.5 billion (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities: 
machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable
consumer goods, capital goods
partners: 
EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt: 
$32 billion (March 1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -0.4% (FY92 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
14,175,000 kW
production: 
47 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
830 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals
Agriculture: 
accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor
force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's
sixth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice,
corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food for
a rapidly expanding population; livestock - cattle, water buffalo,
sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons
Illicit drugs: 
a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and
opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian
couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon and Syria
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion 
Currency: 
1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates: 
Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November
1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171 (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June

@Egypt, Communications

Railroads: 
5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km
0.750-meter gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways: 
total: 
45,500 km 
paved: 
18,300 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 12,503 km; earth 14,697 km 
Inland waterways: 
3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway,
and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long
(including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1
meters of water
Pipelines: 
crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km 
Ports: 
Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine: 
171 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,08,208 GRT/1,617,890 DWT,
bulk 16, cargo 88, container 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 27,
refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 7
Airports: 
total: 
92 
usable: 
82 
with permanent-surface runways: 
66 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
45 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
23 
Telecommunications: 
large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; 600,000 telephones
(est.) - 11 telephones per 1,000 persons; principal centers at
Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected
by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; international traffic is
carried by satellite - one earth station for each of Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, ARABSAT and INMARSAT; by 5 coaxial
submarine cables, microwave troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave
radio relay (to Libya, Israel, and Jordan); broadcast stations - 39
AM, 6 FM, and 41 TV

@Egypt, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 15,335,889; fit for military service 9,961,128; reach
military age (20) annually 625,748 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $2.05 billion, 6% of GDP (FY92/93)


@El Salvador, Geography

Location: 
Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala
and Honduras
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
21,040 sq km 
land area: 
20,720 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries: 
total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km 
Coastline: 
307 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes: 
land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September
1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the
maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in
this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El
Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate: 
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to
April)
Terrain: 
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources: 
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum 
Land use: 
arable land: 
27% 
permanent crops: 
8% 
meadows and pastures: 
29% 
forest and woodland: 
6% 
other: 
30% 
Irrigated land: 
1,200 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils
from disposal of toxic wastes
natural hazards: 
known as the Land of Volcanoes, subject to frequent and sometimes very
destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea
Note: 
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador, People

Population: 
5,752,511 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.04% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
32.81 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.36 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
40.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
66.99 years 
male: 
64.41 years 
female: 
69.71 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Salvadoran(s) 
adjective: 
Salvadoran 
Ethnic divisions: 
mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic 75% 
note: 
Roman Catholic about 75%; there is extensive activity by Protestant
groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an
estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages: 
Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
73% 
male: 
76% 
female: 
70% 
Labor force: 
1.7 million (1982 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%,
financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
note: 
shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but
manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

@El Salvador, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of El Salvador 
conventional short form: 
El Salvador 
local long form: 
Republica de El Salvador 
local short form: 
El Salvador 
Digraph: 
ES
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
San Salvador 
Administrative divisions: 
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union,
Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate,
Usulutan
Independence: 
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 15 September (1821) 
Constitution: 
20 December 1983
Legal system: 
based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Armando CALDERON SOL (since 1 June 1994); Vice President
Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994) election last held 20
March 1994 (next to be held March 1999); results - Armando CALDERON
SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel
CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%; because no candidate received
a majority, run off election was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando
CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): 
elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held March 1997);
results - ARENA 46.4%, FMLN 25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%;
seats - (84 total) ARENA 39, FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Republican Alliance (ARENA); Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front (FMLN) has five factions - Popular Liberation Forces
(FPL), Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN), Popular Expression
of Renewal (ERP), Salvadoran Communist Party (PCES), and
Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC); Christian
Democratic Party (PDC); National Conciliation Party (PCN); Democratic
Convergence (CD), a coalition of three parties - the Social Democratic
Party (PSD), Democratic Nationalist Union (UDN), and the Popular
Social Christian Movement (MPSC); Authentic Christian Movement (MAC)
note: 
new party leaders not yet designated at time of publication
Other political or pressure groups: 
labor organizations: 
Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; General
Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; United Workers Front (FUT)
business organizations: 
Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of
Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative
Member of: 
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL 
chancery: 
2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-9671 or 9672 
consulate(s) general: 
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN 
embassy: 
Final Boulevard, Station Antigua Cuscatlan, San Salvador 
mailing address: 
Unit 3116, San Salvador; APO AA 34023 
telephone: 
[503] 78-4444 
FAX: 
[503] 78-6011 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua,
which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it
features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered
in the white band

@El Salvador, Economy

Overview: 
The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs about 40% of
the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is
the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The
manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage processing,
accounts for 19% of GDP and 15% of employment. In 1992-93 the
government made substantial progress toward privatization and
deregulation of the economy. Growth in national output in 1990-93
exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987, and
inflation in 1993 of 12% was down from 17% in 1992
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $14.2 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$2,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
12% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
6.7% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$846 million 
expenditures: 
$890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports: 
$730 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
coffee, sugarcane, shrimp
partners: 
US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany
Imports: 
$1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: 
US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany
External debt: 
$2.6 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 7.6% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
713,800 kW
production: 
2.19 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
390 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic products, tobacco,
chemicals, textiles, furniture
Agriculture: 
accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp;
not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local
consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion (plus $250
million for 1992-96); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF
bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million 
Currency: 
1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates: 
Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.720 (January 1994), 8.670 (1993),
8.4500 (1992), 8.080 (1991), 8.0300 (1990), fixed rate of 5.000
(1986-1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@El Salvador, Communications

Railroads: 
602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; some sections abandoned,
unusable, or operating at reduced capacity
Highways: 
total: 
10,000 km 
paved: 
1,500 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 4,100 km; improved, unimproved earth 4,400 km 
Inland waterways: 
Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports: 
Acajutla, Cutuco
Airports: 
total: 
107 
usable: 
76 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
nationwide trunk microwave radio relay system; connection into Central
American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones (21 telephones per 1,000
persons); broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@El Salvador, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 1,351,641; fit for military service 866,010; reach
military age (18) annually 74,181 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 1.1% of GDP (1994 est.)


@Equatorial Guinea, Geography

Location: 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cameroon
and Gabon
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
28,050 sq km 
land area: 
28,050 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km 
Coastline: 
296 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty
over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate: 
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain: 
coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources: 
timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese,
uranium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
8% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
4% 
forest and woodland: 
51% 
other: 
33% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
desertification
natural hazards: 
subject to violent windstorms
international agreements: 
party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note: 
insular and continental regions rather widely separated

@Equatorial Guinea, People

Population: 
409,550 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.59% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
40.65 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
14.73 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
102.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
52.09 years 
male: 
49.97 years 
female: 
54.27 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
5.28 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s) 
adjective: 
Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean 
Ethnic divisions: 
Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang),
Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish
Religions: 
nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
50% 
male: 
64% 
female: 
37% 
Labor force: 
172,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: 
agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
note: 
labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age
(1985)

@Equatorial Guinea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Equatorial Guinea 
conventional short form: 
Equatorial Guinea 
local long form: 
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial 
local short form: 
Guinea Ecuatorial 
former: 
Spanish Guinea 
Digraph: 
EK
Type: 
republic in transition to multiparty democracy 
Capital: 
Malabo 
Administrative divisions: 
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte,
Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence: 
12 October 1968 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 12 October (1968) 
Constitution: 
new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system: 
partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
Suffrage: 
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3
August 1979) election last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June
1996); results - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO was reelected without opposition
head of government: 
Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17 January 1992); Vice
Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since November 1993); 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of People's Representatives: 
(Camara de Representantes del Pueblo) elections last held 21 November
1993; seats - (82 total) PDGE 72, various opposition parties 10
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Tribunal 
Political parties and leaders: 
ruling - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen.
(Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader; Progressive
Democratic Alliance (ADP), Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president;
Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader;
Liberal Democratic Convention (CLD), Alfonso Nsue MOKUY, president;
Convergence for Social Democracy (CPDS),Santiago Obama Ndong,
president; Social Democratic and Popular Convergence (CSDP), Secundino
Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary; Party of the Social Democratic
Coalition (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinater;
Liberal Party (PL), leaders unknown; Party of Progress (PP), Severo
MOTO Nsa, president; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel
Balingha Balinga Alene, general secretary; Socialist Party of
Equatorial Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary;
National Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president;
Democratic Social Union (UDS), Jesus Nze Obama Avomo, general
secretary; Popular Union (UP), Juan Bitui, president
Member of: 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador DAMASO Obiang Ndong 
chancery: 
(temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553 
telephone: 
(914) 738-9584 or 667-6913 
FAX: 
(914) 667-6838 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador John E. BENNETT 
embassy: 
Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo 
mailing address: 
P.O. Box 597, Malabo 
telephone: 
[240] (9) 2185, 2406, 2507 
FAX: 
[240] (9) 2164 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms
centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Overview: 
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for about half of GDP and
nearly all exports. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
growth. A number of AID programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
international donor community have failed to revitalize export
agriculture. There is little industry; businesses for the most part
are owned by government officials and their family members. Commerce
accounts for about 8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and
service sectors for about 38%. Undeveloped natural resources include
titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil
exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and
Spanish firms, has been moderately successful. Increased production
from recently discovered natural gas fields will provide a greater
share of exports by 1995.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $280 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$700 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$32.5 million 
expenditures: 
$35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$52.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
coffee, timber, cocoa beans
partners: 
Spain 55.2%, Nigeria 11.4%, Cameroon 9.1% (1992)
Imports: 
$63.6 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: 
petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners: 
Cameroon 23.1%, Spain 21.8%, France 14.1%, US 4.3%
External debt: 
$260 million (1992 est)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -6.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
23,000 kW
production: 
60 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
160 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture: 
accounts for almost 50% of GDP, cash crops - timber and coffee from
Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops - rice, yams, cassava, bananas,
oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $130
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million 
Currency: 
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 273,16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note: 
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
2,760 km (2,460 km on Rio Muni and 300 km on Bioko)
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine: 
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT, cargo 1,
passenger-cargo 1 
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
poor system with adequate government services; international
communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries;
2,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Equatorial Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 86,957; fit for military service 44,174 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Eritrea, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Djibouti and Sudan
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
121,320 sq km 
land area: 
121,320 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: 
total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km 
Coastline: 
1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the
central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in
western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except on coast desert
Terrain: 
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands,
descending on the east to a coastal desert plan, on the northwest to
hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Natural resources: 
gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil, fish 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
2% (coffee)
meadows and pastures: 
40% 
forest and woodland: 
5% 
other: 
50% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
famine; deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of
infrastructure from civil warfare
natural hazards: 
frequent droughts
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields, Eritrea retained the entire coastline
of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia
on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea, People

Population: 
3,782,543 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.41% (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Eritrean(s) 
adjective: 
Eritrean 
Ethnic divisions: 
ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast
dwellers) 3% 
Religions: 
Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant 
Languages: 
Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana, Arabic 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Eritrea, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
State of Eritrea 
conventional short form: 
Eritrea 
local long form: 
none 
local short form: 
none 
former: 
Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia 
Digraph: 
ER
Type: 
transitional government 
note: 
on 29 May 1991 ISSAIAS Afeworke, secretary general of the Eritrean
People's Liberation Front (EPLF), announced the formation of the
Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE), in preparation for the 23-25
April 1993 referendum on independence for the autonomous region of
Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote for independence that was
announced on 27 April 1993
Capital: 
Asmara (formerly Asmera) 
Administrative divisions: 
7 provinces; Akale Guzay, Baraka, Denakil, Hamasen, Samhar, Seraye,
Sahil (1993)
Independence: 
27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea Autonomous Region)
National holiday: 
National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993) 
Constitution: 
transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
NA
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President ISSAIAS Afeworke (since 22 May 1993) 
cabinet: 
State Council; the collective executive authority
note: 
election to be held before 20 May 1997
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly: 
EPLF Central Committee serves as the country's legislative body until
multinational elections are held (before 20 May 1997)
Judicial branch: 
Judiciary 
Political parties and leaders: 
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (Christian Muslim), ISSAIAS
Aferworke, PETROS Solomon; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) (Muslim),
ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization
(ELF-UO), Mohammed Said NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front -
Revolutionary Council (ELF-RC), Ahmed NASSER
Other political or pressure groups: 
Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ); Islamic Militant Group
Member of: 
OAU, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), ITU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador-designate Hagos GEBREHIWOT 
chancery: 
Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington DC 20006 
telephone: 
(202) 429-1991 
FAX: 
(202) 429-9004 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK 
embassy: 
34 Zera Yacob St., Asmara 
mailing address: 
P.O. Box 211, Asmara 
telephone: 
[291] (1) 123-720 
FAX: 
[291] (1) 127-584 
Flag: 
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag
into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one
is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on
the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea, Economy

Overview: 
With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faces the
bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country.
Most of the population will continue to depend on subsistence farming.
Domestic output is substantially augmented by worker remittances from
abroad. Government revenues come from custom duties and income and
sales taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia
and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of
offshore oil, offshore fishing and tourism. For the time being,
Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign
trade.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$NA
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
NA kW
production: 
NA kWh
consumption per capita: 
NA kWh
Industries: 
food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Agriculture: 
products - sorghum, livestock (including goats), fish, lentils,
vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope)
Economic aid: 
$NA
Currency: 
1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency used
Exchange rates: 
1 birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.000 (fixed rate since 1992)
Fiscal year: 
NA

@Eritrea, Communications

Railroads: 
307 km total; 307 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
(nonoperational) linking Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly Asmera) with
the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa; 1993 est.)
Highways: 
total: 
3,845 km 
paved: 
807 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 840 km; improved earth 402 km; unimproved earth 1,796 km 
Ports: 
Assab (formerly Aseb), Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
Merchant marine: 
none
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
NA

@Eritrea, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) 
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Estonia, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
45,100 sq km 
land area: 
43,200 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
note: 
includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Land boundaries: 
total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km 
Coastline: 
1,393 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain: 
marshy, lowlands
Natural resources: 
shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber 
Land use: 
arable land: 
22% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
11% 
forest and woodland: 
31% 
other: 
36% 
Irrigated land: 
110 sq km (1990)
Environment: 
current issues: 
air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power
plants in northeast; contamination of soil and ground water with
petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
party to - Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change
Population: 
1,616,882 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.52% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.98 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
12.04 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
19.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
69.96 years 
male: 
64.98 years 
female: 
75.19 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Estonian(s) 
adjective: 
Estonian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%,
Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)
Religions: 
Lutheran 
Languages: 
Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other 
Literacy: 
age 9-49 can read and write (1989)
total population: 
100% 
male: 
100% 
female: 
100% 
Labor force: 
750,000 (1992)
by occupation: 
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
(1990)

@Estonia, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Estonia 
conventional short form: 
Estonia 
local long form: 
Eesti Vabariik 
local short form: 
Eesti 
former: 
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 
Digraph: 
EN
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Tallinn 
Administrative divisions: 
15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond) and 6 municipalities*:
Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
(Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva),
Kohtla-Jarve*, Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere),
Narva*, Parnu*, Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla
maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Sillamae*, Tallinn*,
Tartu*, Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
(Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
note: 
county centers are in parentheses
Independence: 
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 24 February (1918) 
Constitution: 
adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system: 
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992); election last held 20
September 1992; (next to be held NA 1997); results - no candidate
received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (21
October 1992)
head of government: 
Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 21 October 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, authorized by
the legislature
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
Parliament (Riigikogu): 
elections last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results -
Fatherland 21%, Safe Haven 14%, Popular Front 13%, M 10%, ENIP 8%, ERP
7%, ERL 7%, EP 2%, other 18%; seats - (101 total) Fatherland 29, Safe
Haven 18, Popular Front 15, M 12, ENIP 10, ERP 8, ERL 8, EP 1
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
National Coalition Party 'Pro Patria' (Isamaa of Fatherland), Mart
LAAR, president, made up of 4 parties: Christian Democratic Party
(KDE), Aivar KALA, chairman; Christian Democratic Union (KDL), Illar
HALLASTE, chairman; Conservative People's Party (KR), Enn TARTO,
chairman; Republican Coalition Party (VK), Leo STARKOV, chairman;
Moderates (M), made up of two parties: Estonian Social Democratic
Party (ESDB), Marju LAURISTIN, chairman; Estonian Rural Center Pary
(EMK), Ivar RAIG, chairman; Estonian National Independence Party
(ENIP), Tunne KELAM, chairman; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP),
Paul-Eerik RUMMO, chairman; Safe Haven, made up of three parties:
Estonian Coalition Party (EK), Tiit VAHI, chairman; Estonian Rural
Union (EM), Arvo SIRENDI, chairman; Estonian Democratic Justice
Union/Estonian Pensioners' League (EDO/EPU), Harri KARTNER, chairman;
Estonian Centrist Party (EK), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Estonian
Democratic Labor Party (EDT), Vaino VALJAS, chairman; Estonian Green
Party (ERL), Tonu OJA; Estonian Royalist Party (ERP), Kalle KULBOK,
chairman; Entrepreneurs' Party (EP), Tiit MADE; Estonian Citizen
(EKL), Juri TOOMEPUU, chairman
Member of: 
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES 
chancery: 
1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, Suite 1000 
telephone: 
(202) 789-0320 
FAX: 
(202) 789-0471 
consulate(s) general: 
New York 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE 
embassy: 
Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001 
mailing address: 
use embassy street address 
telephone: 
011-[372] (6) 312-021 through 024 
FAX: 
[372] (6) 312-025 
Flag: 
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal
horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia, Economy

Overview: 
Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western
Europe, the Estonian government has pursued a program of market
reforms and rough stabilization measures, which is rapidly
transforming the economy. Two years after independence - and one year
after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to reap
tangible benefits; inflation is low; production declines appear to
have bottomed out; and living standards are rising. Economic
restructuring is clearly underway with the once-dominant
energy-intensive heavy industrial sectors giving way to
labor-intensive light industry and the underdeveloped service sector.
The private sector is growing rapidly; the share of the state
enterprises in retail trade has steadily declined and by June 1993
accounted for only 12.5% of total turnover, and 70,000 new jobs have
reportedly been created as a result of new business start-ups.
Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West with the
Western industrialized countries now accounting for two-thirds of
foreign trade.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.8 billion (1993 estimate from
the UN International Comparison Program, as extended to 1991 and
published in the World Bank's World Development Report 1993; and as
extrapolated to 1993 using official Estonian statistics, which are
very uncertain because of major economic changes since 1990)
National product real growth rate: 
-5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,480 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
2.6% per month (1993 average)
Unemployment rate: 
3.5% (May 1993); but large number of underemployed workers
Budget: 
revenues: 
$223 million 
expenditures: 
$142 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports: 
$765 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: 
textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11% (1993)
partners: 
Russia, Finland, Latvia, Germany, Ukraine
Imports: 
$865 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: 
machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10% (1993)
partners: 
Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands
External debt: 
$650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -27% (1993)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
3,700,000 kW
production: 
22.9 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
14,245 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
accounts for 42% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles,
paper, shoes, apparel
Agriculture: 
employs 20% of work force; very efficient by Soviet standards; net
exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports of
feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia
and Latin America to Western Europe; limited illicit opium producer;
mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million 
Currency: 
1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August 1992)
Exchange rates: 
kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 13.9 (January 1994), 13.2 (1993); note -
kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Estonia, Communications

Railroads: 
1,030 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways: 
total: 
30,300 km 
paved or gravelled: 
29,200 km 
unpaved: 
earth 1,100 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines: 
natural gas 420 km (1992)
Ports: 
coastal - Tallinn, Novotallin, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine: 
69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 406,405 GRT/537,016 DWT, bulk 6,
cargo 50, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6,
short-sea passenger 4 
Airports: 
total: 
29 
usable: 
18 
with permanent-surface runways: 
11 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,060-2,439 m: 
note: 
a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip
Telecommunications: 
Estonia's telephone system is antiquated and supports about 400,000
domestic telephone circuits, i.e. 25 telephones for each 100 persons;
improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs
and international connections; there are still about 150,000
unfulfilled requests for telephone service; broadcast stations - 3 TV
(provide Estonian programs as well Moscow Ostenkino's first and second
programs); international traffic is carried to the other former USSR
republics by land line or microwave and to other countries partly by
leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch, and
partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber optic submarine cable which
gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; substantial
investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational
throughout Estonia and also Latvia and which have access to the
international packet switched digital network via Helsinki

@Estonia, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Ground Forces, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard (Kaitseliit),
Security Forces (internal and border troops), Coast Guard 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 392,135; fit for military service 308,951; reach
military age (18) annually 11,789 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
124.4 million kroons, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results


@Ethiopia, Geography

Location: 
Eastern Africa, between Somalia and Sudan
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,127,127 sq km 
land area: 
1,119,683 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia
1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km 
Coastline: 
none - landlocked
Maritime claims: 
none - landlocked
International disputes: 
southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden
Climate: 
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain: 
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources: 
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash 
Land use: 
arable land: 
12% 
permanent crops: 
1% 
meadows and pastures: 
41% 
forest and woodland: 
24% 
other: 
22% 
Irrigated land: 
1,620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 



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