The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Appendixes 
A: The United Nations System 
B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups 
C: International Organizations and Groups 
D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements 
E: Selected International Environmental Agreements 
F: Weights and Measures 
G: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names 

Reference Maps 
The World 
North America 
Central America and the Caribbean 
South America 
Europe 
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe 
Middle East 
Africa 
Asia 
Commonwealth of Independent States--European States 
Commonwealth of Independent States--Central Asian States 
Southeast Asia 
Oceania 
Arctic Region 
Antarctic Region 
Standard Time Zones of the World 


There have been some significant changes in this edition. The format and content 
of the former entries on the Environment have been changed, and two new 
appendixes have been added--Appendix D: Abbreviations for Selected International 
Environmental Agreements and Appendix E: Selected International Environmental 
Agreements. The name of Macedonia was changed to The Former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia (FYROM). The gross domestic product (GDP) of most of the developing 
countries is now presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than 
on an exchange rate basis. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook 
have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries 
in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1995 
Factbook. 

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international organizations 
and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for international environmental 
agreements) 

avdp. -- avoirdupois 

c.i.f. -- cost, insurance, and freight 

CY -- calendar year 

DWT -- deadweight ton 

est. -- estimate 

Ex-Im -- Export-Import Bank of the United States 

f.o.b. -- free on board 

FRG -- Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated 
before 3 October 1990 or CY91 

FSU -- former Soviet Union 

FY -- fiscal year 

FYROM -- The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 

GDP -- gross domestic product 

GDR -- German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated 
before 3 October 1990 or CY91 

GNP -- gross national product 

GRT -- gross register ton 

GWP -- gross world product 

km -- kilometer 

kW -- kilowatt 

kWh -- kilowatt hour 

m -- meter 

NA -- not available 

NEGL -- negligible 

nm -- nautical mile 

NZ -- New Zealand 

ODA -- official development assistance 

OOF -- other official flows 

PDRY -- People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; 
used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91 

sq km -- square kilometer 

sq mi -- square mile 

UAE -- United Arab Emirates 

UK -- United Kingdom 

US -- United States 

USSR -- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information 
dated before 25 December 1991 

YAR -- Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information 
dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91 

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order 
administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on 
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by 
BGN are noted. 

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by 
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all 
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding 
inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on 
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of 
the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 
69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres). 

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 
population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. 

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1994 was 
used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 
July 1994, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1994. Major 
political events have been updated through May 1994. 

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 
population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. 

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely identifies 
every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the 
digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element 
promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 
10-3 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (US Department of 
Commerce) and maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of 
State). The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the 
collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is 
particularly useful for interchanging data between databases. 

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 183 
nations, including 177 of the 184 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, 
Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Vietnam, and former Yugoslavia). In addition, the 
US has diplomatic relations with 6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See, 
Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu. 

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development 
assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is defined as financial 
assistance which is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote 
economic development and welfare of LDCs. and contains a grant element of at 
least 25%. OOF transactions are also official government assistance, but with a 
main objective other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. 
OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), 
official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the 
official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have 
been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and 
constitute a formal declaration of intent. 

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, 
and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are 
not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation" refers to a people 
politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. 
"Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are 
associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually 
the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 
266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows: 

NATIONS 

183 -- UN members (excluding both the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; membership status in the UN is still to 
be determined) 

7 -- nations that are not members of the UN--Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia 
and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu 

OTHER 

1 -- Taiwan 

DEPENDENT AREAS 

6 -- Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) 
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island 

2 -- Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland 

16 -- France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, 
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, 
Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 

2 -- Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 

3 -- New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 

3 -- Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 

1 -- Portugal--Macau 

16 -- United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British 
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong 
Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South 
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 

15 -- United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis 
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern 
Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll, 
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island 

MISCELLANEOUS 

6 -- Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, 
Western Sahara 

OTHER ENTITIES 

4 -- oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean 

1 -- World 

266 -- total 

Exchange rate: The value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a 
given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and 
as determined by international market forces or official fiat. 

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced 
within a nation in a given year. 

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and services produced 
within a nation in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned 
by foreigners from domestic production. 

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services 
produced worldwide in a given year. 

GNP/GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the 
great majority of countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) 
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. 
The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, 
which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given 
economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of 
countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, 
and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a GNP/GDP 
estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives 
the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand dollars will buy the same 
market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars--converted to the local 
currency at the PPP conversion rate--will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP 
estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing 
countries are often rough approximations. The latter estimates are based on 
extrapolation of numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program 
and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of 
Pennsylvania and their colleagues. Because currency exchange rates depend on a 
variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little 
relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory for 
calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method. In developing countries with weak 
currencies the exchange rate estimate of GNP/GDP in dollars is typically one-
fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly 
go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas 
real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the 
French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not 
cut the real output of these countries by half. One additional caution: the 
proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local 
currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP 
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates 
the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures; 

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting 
from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants 
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. 

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs--narcotics, 
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These 
categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well 
as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels. 

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides 
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, 
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish 
(hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). 

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant 
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and 
is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. 

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. 

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include 
chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), 
benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide 
(Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). 

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or 
behavioral change in an individual. 

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in 
physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. 

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and 
emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, 
buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, 
angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others 
(psilocybin, psilocyn). 

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). 

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. 

Mandrax is a synthetic chemical depressant, the same as, or similar to Quaalude. 

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). 

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, 
opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium 
(paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with 
codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic 
narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic 
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone 
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil). 

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. 

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and 
semisynthetic narcotics. 

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium 
poppy. 

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis that is 
chewed or drunk as tea. 

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, 
and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), 
phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, 
Sanorex, Tenuate). 

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a 
given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year. 

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that 
range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one 
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries 
and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References 
to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as 
resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, 
inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by 
the US Government. 

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is artificially supplied 
with water. 

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land--land 
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); 
permanent crops--land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each 
harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures--land permanently used 
for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland--under dense or open stands of 
trees; and other--any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, 
roads, desert). 

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents 
the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not involved with the day-
to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the 
administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. 
In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head 
of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head 
of government. 

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of 
people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in 
the future. 

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless 
otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition--the ability 
to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual 
countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of 
this publication. 

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national 
claims from being extended the full distance. 

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial 
vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing 
vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by 
nationality or register. 

Captive register--A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or 
colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent 
country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an 
internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the 
parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime 
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a 
captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent 
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. 
The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it 
is not the register of an independent state. 

Flag of convenience register--A national register offering registration to a 
merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) 
attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent 
taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are 
characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in 
the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a 
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the 
merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register. 

Flag state--The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal 
jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences 
in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and 
whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register. 

Internal register--A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national 
register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that 
nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on 
the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of 
profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag 
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship 
Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of 
an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the 
national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign owned ships to 
the Norwegian and Danish flags. 

Merchant ship--A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly 
used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial 
vessels only. 

Register--The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the 
maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual 
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and 
makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) 
regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner. 

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars 
unless otherwise indicated. 

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given 
year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and 
GNP/GDP methodology. 

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and 
leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear 
population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net 
immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the 
country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population). 

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on 
statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or 
sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future 
trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook demographic estimates for some countries 
(mostly African) have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of 
AIDS infections; in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African 
Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, 
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, and Brazil. 

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per 
woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore 
children according to a given fertility rate at each age. 

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as 
fiscal year (FY). 

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in 
the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The 
Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September 
by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for 
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, 
Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the former nations of 
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can 
be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.


***THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1994


@Afghanistan, Geography

Location: 
Southern Asia, between Iran and Pakistan
Map references: 
Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
647,500 sq km 
land area: 
647,500 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports
clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are
active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul,
regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal
disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil
war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic
militants worldwide by some factions
Climate: 
arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrain: 
mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Natural resources: 
natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead,
zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones 
Land use: 
arable land: 
12% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
46% 
forest and woodland: 
3% 
other: 
39% 
Irrigated land: 
26,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining
forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials);
desertification
natural hazards: 
damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains (one measured 6.8
on the Richter scale in 1991); flooding
international agreements: 
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation
Note: 
landlocked

@Afghanistan, People

Population: 
16,903,400 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.45% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
43.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
18.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
155.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
44.89 years 
male: 
45.53 years 
female: 
44.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.27 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Afghan(s) 
adjective: 
Afghan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups
(Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% 
Languages: 
Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily
Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and
Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
29% 
male: 
44% 
female: 
14% 
Labor force: 
4.98 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction
6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

@Afghanistan, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Islamic State of Afghanistan 
conventional short form: 
Afghanistan 
local long form: 
Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan 
local short form: 
Afghanestan 
former: 
Republic of Afghanistan 
Digraph: 
AF
Type: 
transitional government 
Capital: 
Kabul 
Administrative divisions: 
30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat,
Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar,
Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e
Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note: 
there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)
Independence: 
19 August 1919 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs
and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August 
Constitution: 
none
Legal system: 
a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional
government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)
Suffrage: 
undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July - December 1992;
President since 2 January 1993); First Vice President Mohammad NABI
Mohammadi (since NA); First Vice President Mohammad SHAH Fazli (since
NA); election last held NA December 1992 (next to be held NA December
1994); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by
a national shura, later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months.
head of government: 
Prime Minister Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR (since 17 March 1993); First Deputy
Prime Minister Qutbuddin HELAL (since 17 March 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Arsala RAHMANI (since 17 March 1993) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers 
Legislative branch: 
a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the
shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993
Judicial branch: 
an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but
a new court system has not yet been organized
Political parties and leaders: 
current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic
Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi
Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi
Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami
Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI;
Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation
Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic
Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party),
Abdul Ali MAZARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Rashid
DOSTUM
note: 
the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded
Other political or pressure groups: 
the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the
countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering
most cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders
Member of: 
AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM 
chancery: 
2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 234-3770 or 3771 
FAX: 
(202) 328-3516 
US diplomatic representation: 
none; embassy was closed in January 1989
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black, with
the national coat of arms superimposed in the middle of the white band
and large Islamic lettering superimposed over the green and white
bands
Overview: 
Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent
on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats).
Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and
military upheavals during more than 14 years of war, including the
nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the
country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and
Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees remain in
Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million probably moved
into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data
are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 12 years ago
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport.
National product: 
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
NA%
Budget: 
revenues: 
$NA
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports: 
$243 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: 
fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts,
precious and semi-precious gems
partners: 
FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia
Imports: 
$737 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: 
food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners: 
FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea,
Germany
External debt: 
$2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
480,000 kW
production: 
1 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
60 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal,
copper
Agriculture: 
largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash
products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton
Illicit drugs: 
an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer after
Burma (680 metric tons in 1993) and a major source of hashish
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
$450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; USAID will stop all
programs by mid-1994; the UN provides assistance in the form of food
aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to
refugees and displaced persons
Currency: 
1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls
Exchange rates: 
afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850
(1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the
free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates
Fiscal year: 
21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan, Communications

Railroads: 
9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Gushgy (formerly Kushka)
(Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya
Highways: 
total: 
21,000 km 
paved: 
2,800 km 
unpaved: 
gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)
Inland waterways: 
total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels
up to about 500 metric tons
Pipelines: 
petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to
Shindand; natural gas 180 km 
Ports: 
Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)
Airports: 
total: 
42 
usable: 
35 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
10 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
17 
Telecommunications: 
limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television
introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; numerous cellular telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

@Afghanistan, Defense Forces

Branches: 
the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some
elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and
tribal militias remain intact but are factionalized among the various
mujahedin and former regime leaders
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 4,188,036; fit for military service 2,245,196; reach
military age (22) annually 158,335 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget


@Albania, Geography

Location: 
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between
Serbia and Montenegro and Greece
Map references: 
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones
of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
28,750 sq km 
land area: 
27,400 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries: 
total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with
Montenegro)
Coastline: 
362 km 
Maritime claims: 
continental shelf: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbia and
Montenegro, and the Albanian Government supports the Kosovo position
politically
Climate: 
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain: 
mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel 
Land use: 
arable land: 
21% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
15% 
forest and woodland: 
38% 
other: 
22% 
Irrigated land: 
4,230 sq km (1989)
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation
natural hazards: 
subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern
coast
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity
Note: 
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania, People

Population: 
3,374,085 (July 1994 est.) 
note: 
IMF, working with Albanian government figures estimates the population
at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990
Population growth rate: 
1.19% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
22.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-5.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.4 years 
male: 
70.42 years 
female: 
76.61 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Albanian(s) 
adjective: 
Albanian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and
Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
Religions: 
Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% 
note: 
all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances
prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious
practice
Languages: 
Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek 
Literacy: 
age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
total population: 
72% 
male: 
80% 
female: 
63% 
Labor force: 
1.5 million (1987)
by occupation: 
agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

@Albania, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Albania 
conventional short form: 
Albania 
local long form: 
Republika e Shqiperise 
local short form: 
Shqiperia 
former: 
People's Socialist Republic of Albania 
Digraph: 
AL
Type: 
nascent democracy 
Capital: 
Tirane 
Administrative divisions: 
26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres,
Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes,
Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke,
Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore
Independence: 
28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: 
Liberation Day, 28 November (1944; changed by decree on 12 November
1993)
Constitution: 
an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April
1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but
is still in process
Legal system: 
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI
(since 10 April 1992) 
Cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): 
elections last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%,
SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP
92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the
Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party),
Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI,
chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek
minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human
Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI;
Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Spartak NGJELA, chairman
Member of: 
BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA 
chancery: 
Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 
telephone: 
(202) 223-4942, 8187 
FAX: 
(202) 628-7342 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador William E. RYERSON 
embassy: 
Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane 
mailing address: 
PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 
telephone: 
355-42-32875, 33520 
FAX: 
355-42-32222 
Flag: 
red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania, Economy
Overview: 
An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the
difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy
rebounded in 1993 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse
of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991.
Stabilization policies, including public sector layoffs and reduced
social services, have improved the government's fiscal situation and
reduced inflation. The recovery was spurred by the remittances of some
5% of the population which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy.
Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery.
Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving
peasant incomes. Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than
one-sixth of GDP, continued to decline in 1993. A sharp fall in
chromium prices reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector.
Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban
areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food
requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for
approximately one-fifth of the work force. Growth is expected to
continue in 1994, but could falter if Albania becomes involved in the
conflict in the former Yugoslavia, workers' remittances from Greece
are reduced, or foreign assistance declines.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
11% (1993)
National product per capita: 
$1,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
31% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
18% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$1.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991
est.)
Exports: 
$70 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables,
fruits, tobacco
partners: 
Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary
Imports: 
$524 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: 
Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece
External debt: 
$724 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)
Electricity: 
capacity: 
1,690,000 kW
production: 
5 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,520 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement,
chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Agriculture: 
accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among lowest in
Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; one-half of work
force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops
and livestock
Illicit drugs: 
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
route; limited opium production
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
$190 million humanitarian aid; $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits
Currency: 
1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
Exchange rates: 
leke (L) per US$1 - 99 (January 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January
1992), 25 (September 1991)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Albania, Communications

Railroads: 
543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34
km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia
and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986
Highways: 
total: 
16,700 km 
paved: 
6,700 km 
unpaved: 
earth 10,000 km (1990)
Inland waterways: 
43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake
Prespa (1990)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)
Ports: 
Durres, Sarande, Vlore
Merchant marine: 
11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT
Airports: 
total: 
12 
usable: 
10 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1
TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

@Albania, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 906,938; fit for military service 746,945; reach
military age (19) annually 33,184 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results


@Algeria, Geography

Location: 
Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and
Tunisia
Map references: 
Africa, Europe 
Area: 
total area: 
2,381,740 sq km 
land area: 
2,381,740 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km 
Coastline: 
998 km 
Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary dispute with
Tunisia settled in 1993
Climate: 
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast;
drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a
hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain: 
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous
coastal plain
Natural resources: 
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc 
Land use: 
arable land: 
3% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
13% 
forest and woodland: 
2% 
other: 
82% 
Irrigated land: 
3,360 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
desertification; dumping of untreated sewage, petroleum refining
wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of
rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; limited
supply of potable water
natural hazards: 
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements: 
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban
Note: 
second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria, People

Population: 
27,895,068 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.29% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
29.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
67.68 years 
male: 
66.63 years 
female: 
68.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.83 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Algerian(s) 
adjective: 
Algerian 
Ethnic divisions: 
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Religions: 
Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% 
Languages: 
Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
57% 
male: 
70% 
female: 
46% 
Labor force: 
6.2 million (1992 est.)
by occupation: 
government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works
16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and
communication 5.2% (1989)

@Algeria, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria 
conventional short form: 
Algeria 
local long form: 
Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah 
local short form: 
Al Jaza'ir 
Digraph: 
AG
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Algiers 
Administrative divisions: 
48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj
Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El
Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela,
Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran,
Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes,
Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza,
Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence: 
5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday: 
Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954) 
Constitution: 
19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988
and 23 February 1989
Legal system: 
socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various
public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next election to be
held after a three-year transition period which began on 31 January
1994 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani):
elections first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled
by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992,
effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal
and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history;
results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters
participating
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr.
Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR
(self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid
MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait
AHMED, Secretary General
note: 
the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and,
as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed
Member of: 
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer),
OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Nourredine Yazid ZERHOUNI 
chancery: 
2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 265-2800 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY 
embassy: 
4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers 
mailing address: 
B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers 
telephone: 
[213] (2) 601-425, 255, 186 
FAX: 
[213] (2) 603979 
consulate(s): 
Oran 
Flag: 
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red
five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria, Economy

Overview: 
The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for
roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export
earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the
world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers' efforts to reform one of
the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the
1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe
recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive,
IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic stabilization and to
introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial
progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive
stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September
1993, a new government was formed, one of whose priorities was the
resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process.
Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy
foreign debt, Algiers in 1993 resumed negotiations with the IMF and is
on track to conclude a standby arrangement with the Fund in 1994.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $89 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$3,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
22% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
22% (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$14.4 billion 
expenditures: 
$14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners: 
Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%
Imports: 
$9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8%
(1990)
partners: 
France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%
External debt: 
$26 billion (1994)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
6,380,000 kW
production: 
16.384 billion kWh 
consumption per capita: 
630 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical,
petrochemical, food processing
Agriculture: 
accounts for 12.8% of GDP (1993 est.) and employs 22% of labor force;
products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep,
cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements
(1985-89), $375 million 
Currency: 
1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: 
Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 36.008 (April 1994), 23.345 (1993),
21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Algeria, Communications

Railroads: 
4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km
1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215
km double track
Highways: 
total: 
90,031 km 
paved: 
concrete, bituminous 58,868 km 
unpaved: 
gravel, crushed stone, earth 31,163 km (1990)
Pipelines: 
crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km 
Ports: 
Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el
Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Merchant marine: 
75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT, bulk
9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 5,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
Airports: 
total: 
140 
usable: 
124 
with permanent-surface runways: 
53 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
32 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
65 
Telecommunications: 
excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in
the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18
TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave
radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT,
and 12 domestic; 20 additional satellite earth stations are planned

@Algeria, Defense Forces

Branches: 
National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 6,863,378; fit for military service 4,215,767; reach
military age (19) annually 301,945 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)


@American Samoa

Header

Affiliation: 
(territory of the US) 

@American Samoa, Geography

Location: 
Oceania, Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km
south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and New
Zealand
Map references: 
Oceania 
Area: 
total area: 
199 sq km 
land area: 
199 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: 
includes Rose Island and Swains Island
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
116 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall
averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season
from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
Natural resources: 
pumice, pumicite 
Land use: 
arable land: 
10% 
permanent crops: 
5% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
75% 
other: 
10% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
rent issues: 
NA 
ural hazards: 
typhoons common from December to March
ernational agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South
Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by
peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South
Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa, People

Population: 
55,223 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
3.86% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
36.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
Total population: 
72.91 years 
male: 
71.03 years 
female: 
74.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
4.36 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
American Samoan(s) 
adjective: 
American Samoan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5% 
Religions: 
Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant
denominations and other 30% 
Languages: 
Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages),
English; most people are bilingual
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 
97% 
male: 
97% 
female: 
97% 
Labor force: 
14,400 (1990)
by occupation: 
government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

@American Samoa, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Territory of American Samoa 
conventional short form: 
American Samoa 
Abbreviation: 
AS
Digraph: 
AQ
Type: 
unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International
Affairs 
Capital: 
Pago Pago 
Administrative divisions: 
none (territory of the US)
Independence: 
none (territory of the US)
National holiday: 
Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900) 
Constitution: 
ratified 1966, in effect 1967
Legal system: 
NA
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice
President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) 
head of government: 
Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor
Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election last held 3 November
1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI
(Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house
districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate
from Swains Island)
Senate: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate
districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives: 
elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November
1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
NA
Member of: 
ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (territory of the US)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (territory of the US)
Flag: 
blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side
and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle
flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American
Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned
tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by
far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a
slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US Government
add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $128 million (1991)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$2,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1990)
Unemployment rate: 
12% (1991)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$97 million (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000 in
grant revenue);
expenditures: 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)
Exports: 
$306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: 
canned tuna 93%
partners: 
US 99.6%
Imports: 
$360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: 
materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery
and parts 6%
partners: 
US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
42,000 kW
production: 
100 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,020 kWh (1990)
Industries: 
tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat
canning, handicrafts
Agriculture: 
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
pineapples, papayas, dairy farming
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
$21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds
for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior
(1991)
Currency: 
1 United States dollar = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
US currency is used
Fiscal year: 
1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa, Communications

Railroads: 
none
Highways: 
total: 
350 km 
paved: 
150 km 
unpaved: 
200 km 
Ports: 
Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m: 
1 (international airport at Tafuna)
with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m: 
note: 
small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu
Telecommunications: 
8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex,
telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station, 1 COMSAT earth station

@American Samoa, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the US


@Andorra, Geography

Location: 
Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Map references: 
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
450 sq km 
land area: 
450 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km 
Coastline: 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: 
none; landlocked
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers
Terrain: 
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources: 
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
56% 
forest and woodland: 
22% 
other: 
20% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion
natural hazards: 
NA 
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
landlocked

@Andorra, People

Population: 
63,930 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.99% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
13.34 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
7.12 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
23.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
78.37 years 
male: 
75.5 years 
female: 
81.5 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.73 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Andorran(s) 
adjective: 
Andorran 
Ethnic divisions: 
Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3% 
Religions: 
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages: 
Catalan (official), French, Castilian 
Literacy: 
total population: 
NA%
male: 
NA%
female: 
NA%
Labor force: 
NA

@Andorra, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Principality of Andorra 
conventional short form: 
Andorra 
local long form: 
Principat d'Andorra 
local short form: 
Andorra 
Digraph: 
AN
Type: 
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads
of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of
France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
by officials called veguers
Capital: 
Andorra la Vella 
Administrative divisions: 
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo,
Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence: 
1278 
National holiday: 
Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September 
Constitution: 
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14
March 1993
Legal system: 
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: 
chiefs of state: 
French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented
by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); Spanish Episcopal
Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented
by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata - two co-princes (President
Francois MITTERRAND of France, since 21 May 1981, and Bishop of Seo de
Urgel Juan MARTI Alanis in Spain, since 31 January 1971), two
designated representatives (France - Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre
COURTOIS, since NA, and Spain - Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata,
since NA), two permanent delegates (French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ
for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar
General Nemesi MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA)
head of government: 
Executive Council President Oscar RIBAS Reig (since 10 December 1993)
elected by Parliament
cabinet: 
Executive Council; designated by the executive council president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
General Council of the Valleys: 
(Consell General de las Valls); elections last held 12 December 1993
(next to be held NA); yielded no clear winner; results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the
Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil
cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases
Political parties and leaders: 
National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS;
Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume
BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National
Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL),
Francesc CERQUEDA
note: 
there are two other small parties
Member of: 
ECE, INTERPOL, IOC, UN 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
Andorra has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation: 
Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District,
and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically
Flag: 
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with
the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of
arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra, Economy

Overview: 
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for roughly 80%
of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by
Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. The
banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes
substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a
scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The
principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists
mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of
the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect the European Single
Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free
status.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $760 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA%
National product per capita: 
$14,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
NA%
Unemployment rate: 
0% 
Budget: 
revenues: 
$138 million 
expenditures: 
$177 million, Including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports: 
$30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners: 
France, Spain
Imports: 
$NA
commodities: 
consumer goods, food
partners: 
France, Spain
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
35,000 kW
production: 
140 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
2,570 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking
Agriculture: 
sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats,
and some vegetables
Economic aid: 
none
Currency: 
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the
French and Spanish currencies are used
Exchange rates: 
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9205 (January 1994), 5.6632 (1993),
5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989); Spanish
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 143.04 (January 1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Andorra, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
96 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Telecommunications: 
international digital microwave network; international landline
circuits to France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV;
17,700 telephones

@Andorra, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain


@Angola, Geography

Location: 
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Namibia
and Zaire
Map references: 
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
1,246,700 sq km 
land area: 
1,246,700 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 
total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia
1,110 km 
Coastline: 
1,600 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
20 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain: 
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources: 
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
bauxite, uranium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
2% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
23% 
forest and woodland: 
43% 
other: 
32% 
Irrigated land: 
NA km2
Environment: 
current issues: 
population pressures contributing to overuse of pastures and
subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical
rain forest attributable to the international demand for tropical
timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing to loss
of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
siltation of rivers and dams; scarcity of potable water
natural hazards: 
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
international agreements: 
party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change
Note: 
Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

@Angola, People

Population: 
9,803,576 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
2.67% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
45.43 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
18.55 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
145.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
45.77 years 
male: 
43.72 years 
female: 
47.92 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
6.48 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Angolan(s) 
adjective: 
Angolan 
Ethnic divisions: 
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and
Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22% 
Religions: 
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)
Languages: 
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
42% 
male: 
56% 
female: 
28% 
Labor force: 
2.783 million economically active
by occupation: 
agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

@Angola, Government

Note: 
Civil war has been the norm since independence on 11 November 1975; a
cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when the
insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections;
fighting has since resumed throughout much of the countryside.
Nevertheless, the two sides are negotiating the details for holding
the second round of presidential elections.
Names: 
conventional long form: 
Republic of Angola 
conventional short form: 
Angola 
local long form: 
Republica de Angola 
local short form: 
Angola 
former: 
People's Republic of Angola 
Digraph: 
AO
Type: 
transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
presidential system
Capital: 
Luanda 
Administrative divisions: 
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie,
Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo,
Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige,
Zaire
Independence: 
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 11 November (1975) 
Constitution: 
11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
1991, and 26 August 1992
Legal system: 
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free
markets
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): 
first nationwide, multiparty elections were held 29-30 September 1992
with disputed results; further elections are being discussed
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose
Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since
1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led
by Jonas SAVIMBI, remains a legal party despite its return to armed
resistance to the government; five minor parties have small numbers of
seats in the National Assembly
Other political or pressure groups: 
Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of
largest faction (FLEC-FAC)
note: 
FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for
the independence of Cabinda Province
Member of: 
ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Jose PATRICIO 
embassy: 
1899 L Street NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20038 
telephone: 
(202) 785-1156 
FAX: 
(202) 785-1258 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Edmund DE JARNETTE 
embassy: 
Miramar, Luanda 
mailing address: 
CP6484, Luanda, Angola (mail international); US Embassy, Luanda,
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch) 
telephone: 
[244] (2) 39-24-98 
FAX: 
[244] (2) 39-05-15 
Flag: 
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel
crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola, Economy

Overview: 
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the
population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is
vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Bitter internal
fighting continues to severely affect the economy, and food must be
imported. In 1993, production fell by an estimated 22.6%, mainly
because of the capture by insurgents of the oil town of Soyo and
diamond-producing areas in northeastern Angola. Angola has rich
natural resources - notably gold, diamonds, and arable land, in
addition to large oil depoaits - but will need to end the war and
reform government policies if it is to achieve its potential.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
-22.6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$600 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
1,840% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
15% with considerable underemployment (1993 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$928 million 
expenditures: 
$2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: 
oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish
and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: 
US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil
Imports: 
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: 
capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles
and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial
military deliveries
partners: 
Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain
External debt: 
$8 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum
output
Electricity: 
capacity: 
510,000 kW
production: 
800 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
84 kWh (1991)
Industries: 
petroleum; mining - diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
uranium, and gold; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco;
sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products
Agriculture: 
cash crops - bananas, sugar cane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cane,
manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains ;
livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of
total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war, and
marketing deficiencies require food imports
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.105 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net
official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million 
Currency: 
1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei
Exchange rates: 
kwanza (Kz) per US$1 - 90,000 (official rate 1June 1994), 180,000
(black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16 December
1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884 (July 1993);
550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)
Fiscal year: 
calendar year

@Angola, Communications

Railroads: 
3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge;
limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the
civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of
civil war
Highways: 
total: 
73,828 km 
paved: 
bituminous-surface 8,577 km 
unpaved: 
crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 29,350 km; unimproved earth
35,901 km 
Inland waterways: 
1,295 km navigable
Pipelines: 
crude oil 179 km 
Ports: 
Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda
Merchant marine: 
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT, cargo 11,
oil tanker 1 
Airports: 
total: 
302 
usable: 
175 
with permanent-surface runways: 
32 
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
18 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
59 
Telecommunications: 
limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter
routes; high frequency radio used extensively for military links;
telephone service limited mostly to government and business use;
40,300 telephones (4.1 telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast
stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

@Angola, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and
Territorial Troops, 
Manpower availability: 
males age 15-49 2,262,669; fit for military service 1,139,319; reach
military age (18) annually 96,900 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures: 
$NA, NA% of GDP


@Anguilla

Header

Affiliation: 
(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Anguilla, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 270 km east of Puerto
Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean 
Area: 
total area: 
91 sq km 
land area: 
91 sq km 
comparative area: 
about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
61 km 
Maritime claims: 
exclusive fishing zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
3 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain: 
flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Natural resources: 
negligible; salt, fish, lobster 
Land use: 
arable land: 
NA%
permanent crops: 
NA%
meadows and pastures: 
NA%
forest and woodland: 
NA%
other: 
NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial
salt ponds)
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
NA 
natural hazards: 
frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: 
NA 

@Anguilla, People

Population: 
7,052 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.67% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
24.25 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.08 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-9.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
17.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.99 years 
male: 
71.21 years 
female: 
76.8 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
3.07 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Anguillan(s) 
adjective: 
Anguillan 
Ethnic divisions: 
black African 
Religions: 
Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%,
Roman Catholic 3%, other 12% 
Languages: 
English (official)
Literacy: 
age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 
95% 
male: 
95% 
female: 
95% 
Labor force: 
2,780 (1984)
by occupation: 
NA

@Anguilla, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Anguilla 
Digraph: 
AV
Type: 
dependent territory of the UK 
Capital: 
The Valley 
Administrative divisions: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
National holiday: 
Anguilla Day, 30 May 
Constitution: 
Anguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
Alan W. SHAVE (since 14 August 1992) 
head of government: 
Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994) 
cabinet: 
Executive Council; appointed by the governor from the elected members
of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch: 
unicameral
House of Assembly: 
elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected)
ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1
Judicial branch: 
High Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Anguilla National Alliance (ANA); Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert
HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS
Member of: 
CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau) 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation: 
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag: 
two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light
blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design
centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30
May 1990

@Anguilla, Economy

Overview: 
Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on
lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from
emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in
tourism and construction. Development plans center around the
improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist
facilities, and also light industry.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $56.5 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
7.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: 
$6,800 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
3% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
5% (1988 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$13.8 million 
expenditures: 
$15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (1992
est.)
Exports: 
$556,000 (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
lobster and salt
partners: 
NA
Imports: 
$33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
NA
partners: 
NA
External debt: 
$NA
Industrial production: 
growth rate NA%
Electricity: 
capacity: 
2,000 kW
production: 
6 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
862 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, boat building, salt
Agriculture: 
pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle,
poultry, fishing (including lobster)
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $38 million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
NA

@Anguilla, Communications

Highways: 
total: 
NA 
paved: 
60 km 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Road Bay, Blowing Point
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
1 (1,000 m at Wallblake Airport)
with runways over 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations -
3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay microwave link to island of Saint
Martin

@Anguilla, Defense Forces

Note: 
defense is the responsibility of the UK


@Antarctica, Geography

Location: 
continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Map references: 
Antarctic Region 
Area: 
total area: 
14 million sq km (est.)
land area: 
14 million sq km (est.)
comparative area: 
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
note: 
second-smallest continent (after Australia)
Land boundaries: 
none, but see entry on International disputes
Coastline: 
17,968 km 
Maritime claims: 
none, but see entry on International Disputes
International disputes: 
Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below);
sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile,
France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen
Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the
territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves
(the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made
in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
Climate: 
severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because
of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate
climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and
average slightly below freezing
Terrain: 
about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average
elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria
Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross
Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of
the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of
the continent
Natural resources: 
none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel,
platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found
in small, uncommercial quantities 
Land use: 
arable land: 
0% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
0% 
forest and woodland: 
0% 
other: 
100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)
Irrigated land: 
0 sq km 
Environment: 
current issues: 
in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects
the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled
to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when
measurements were first taken
natural hazards: 
katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer
more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is
received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica, People

Population: 
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally staffed
research stations
Summer (January) population: 
over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80,
Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32,
Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14,
Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa
79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565
(1989-90)
Winter (July) population: 
over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73,
China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38,
South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA,
US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90)
Year-round stations: 
42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2,
Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1,
Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6
(1990-91)
Summer only stations: 
over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1,
Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1,
Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the
disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of
its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings
at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties
Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Antarctica 
Digraph: 
AY
Type: 
Antarctic Treaty Summary: 
The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force
on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of
Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member
meetings - the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan
in April 1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26
consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include
the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national
territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and
some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to
do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in
parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full
consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was
an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985),
Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy
(1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989),
Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and Russia.
Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses,
are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea
(1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and
Ukraine (1992).
Article 1: 
area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as
weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment
may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
Article 2: 
freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
Article 3: 
free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN
and other international agencies
Article 4: 
does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no
new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Article 5: 
prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
Article 6: 
includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees
00 minutes south
Article 7: 
treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation,
to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and
equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of
military personnel must be given
Article 8: 
allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
states
Article 9: 
frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations
Article 10: 
treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica
that are contrary to the treaty
Article 11: 
disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or,
ultimately, by the ICJ
Article 12, 13, 14: 
deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
involved nations
Other agreements: 
more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings
and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the
Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the
Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation
of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources
agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; in 1991
the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
signed and awaits ratification; this agreement provides for the
protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes
on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact
assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits
all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific
research; nine parties have ratified Protocol as of April 1994
Legal system: 
US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US
nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction
of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For
example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et
seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following
activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The taking of
native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and
animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the
discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US
of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic
Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and 1
year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation,
and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541,
the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from
the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and
Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520,
which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic
Treaty. For more information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar
Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230
(703-306-1031).
Overview: 
No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and
small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica, Communications

Ports: 
none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations
Airports: 
42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15 national
governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated
by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads
at 28 of these locations; runways at 10 locations are gravel, sea ice,
glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing
aircraft; no paved runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways
limited to use by ski-equipped planes--11 runways/skiways 1,000 to
3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways
greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of unspecified or variable length;
airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations
resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do
not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective
governmental or non-governmental operating organization required for
landing

@Antarctica, Defense Forces

Note: 
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such
as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes


@Antigua and Barbuda, Geography

Location: 
Caribbean, in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 420 km east-southeast
of Puerto Rico
Map references: 
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
440 sq km 
land area: 
440 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: 
includes Redonda
Land boundaries: 
0 km 
Coastline: 
153 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 
200 nm
territorial sea: 
12 nm
International disputes: 
none
Climate: 
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: 
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic
areas
Natural resources: 
negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism 
Land use: 
arable land: 
18% 
permanent crops: 
0% 
meadows and pastures: 
7% 
forest and woodland: 
16% 
other: 
59% 
Irrigated land: 
NA sq km
Environment: 
current issues: 
insufficient freshwater resources
natural hazards: 
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: 
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling

@Antigua and Barbuda, People

Population: 
64,762 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
0.59% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
17.31 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
5.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
-5.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
73.11 years 
male: 
71.07 years 
female: 
75.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
1.67 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) 
adjective: 
Antiguan, Barbudan 
Ethnic divisions: 
black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian 
Religions: 
Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic 
Languages: 
English (official), local dialects 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)
total population: 
89% 
male: 
90% 
female: 
88% 
Labor force: 
30,000 
by occupation: 
commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

@Antigua and Barbuda, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
none 
conventional short form: 
Antigua and Barbuda 
Digraph: 
AC
Type: 
parliamentary democracy 
Capital: 
Saint John's 
Administrative divisions: 
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence: 
1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: 
Independence Day, 1 November (1981) 
Constitution: 
1 November 1981
Legal system: 
based on English common law
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state: 
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor
General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) 
head of government: 
Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994) 
cabinet: 
Council of Ministers; appointed by the governor general on the advice
of the prime minister
Legislative branch: 
bicameral Parliament
Senate: 
17 member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives: 
elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 11, UPP 5,
independent 1
Judicial branch: 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court 
Political parties and leaders: 
Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester Bryant BIRD; United Progressive
Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER
Other political or pressure groups: 
United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition
of three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic
Party (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and
the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union
(ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS
Member of: 
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL,
WHO, WMO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS 
chancery: 
Suite 4M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: 
(202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122 
FAX: 
(202) 362-5225 
consulate(s) general: 
Miami 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda,
and, in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant
J. SALTER 
embassy: 
Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's 
mailing address: 
FPO AA 34054-0001 
telephone: 
(809) 462-3505 or 3506 
FAX: 
(809) 462-3516 
Flag: 
red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the
flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

@Antigua and Barbuda, Economy

Overview: 
The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most
important determinant of economic performance. During the period
1986-91, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%.
Tourism makes a direct contribution to GDP of about 13% and also
affects growth in other sectors - particularly in construction,
communications, and public utilities. In 1992, reduced government
capital spending and private sector investment, dampened by recession
in the major world economies, slowed economic growth.
National product: 
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $368.5 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
NA
National product per capita: 
$5,800 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7% (1993)
Unemployment rate: 
5% (1988 est.)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$105 million 
expenditures: 
$161 million, including capital expenditures of $56 million (1992)
Exports: 
$54.7 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%,
machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: 
OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports: 
$260.9 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: 
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: 
US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%
External debt: 
$250 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production: 
growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity: 
capacity: 
52,100 kW
production: 
95 million kWh 
consumption per capita: 
1,482 kWh (1992)
Industries: 
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
household appliances)
Agriculture: 
accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits,
vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers,
mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: 
recipient: 
US commitments (1985-88), $10 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million 
Currency: 
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: 
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 
1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda, Communications

Railroads: 
64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways: 
total: 
240 km 
paved: 
NA 
unpaved: 
NA 
Ports: 
Saint John's
Merchant marine: 
227 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 849,699 GRT/1,218,492 DWT, bulk
4, cargo 156, chemical tanker 11, container 37, liquified gas 2, oil
tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 
note: 
a flag of convenience registry
Airports: 
total: 
usable: 
with permanent-surface runways: 
with runways 3,659 m: 
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 
Telecommunications: 
good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric
scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2
FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

@Antigua and Barbuda, Defense Forces

Branches: 
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda
Police Force (including the Coast Guard)
Defense expenditures: 
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)


@Arctic Ocean, Geography

Location: 
body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Map references: 
Arctic Region, Asia, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
14.056 million sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the
world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian
Ocean)
note: 
includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East
Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline: 
45,389 km 
International disputes: 
some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of
a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Climate: 
polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow
annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow
Terrain: 
central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that
averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be
three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral
Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
Fram Basin
Natural resources: 
sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil
and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales) 
Environment: 
current issues: 
endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
damage
natural hazards: 
ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
October to June
international agreements: 
NA 
Note: 
major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the
Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure
icing from October to May; strategic location between North America
and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and
western Russia, floating research stations operated by the US and
Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50
centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean, Government

Digraph: 
XQ

@Arctic Ocean, Economy

Overview: 
Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

@Arctic Ocean, Communications

Ports: 
Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications: 
no submarine cables
Note: 
sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important
seasonal waterways


@Argentina, Geography

Location: 
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between
Chile and Uruguay
Map references: 
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World 
Area: 
total area: 
2,766,890 sq km 
land area: 
2,736,690 sq km 
comparative area: 
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundaries: 
total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km 
Coastline: 
4,989 km 
Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 
24 nm
continental shelf: 
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 
not specified
territorial sea: 
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes: 
short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short
section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims
British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate: 
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain: 
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources: 
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
manganese, petroleum, uranium 
Land use: 
arable land: 
9% 
permanent crops: 
4% 
meadows and pastures: 
52% 
forest and woodland: 
22% 
other: 
13% 
Irrigated land: 
17,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: 
current issues: 
erosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use
practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution
in Buenos Aires and other major cites; water pollution in urban areas;
rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use
natural hazards: 
Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes;
pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and
northeast; heavy flooding
international agreements: 
party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratfied - Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: 
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South
Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

@Argentina, People

Population: 
33,912,994 (July 1994 est.) 
Population growth rate: 
1.12% (1994 est.) 
Birth rate: 
19.62 births/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Death rate: 
8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Net migration rate: 
0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.) 
Infant mortality rate: 
29.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.) 
Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 
71.35 years 
male: 
68.06 years 
female: 
74.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate: 
2.68 children born/woman (1994 est.) 
Nationality: 
noun: 
Argentine(s) 
adjective: 
Argentine 
Ethnic divisions: 
white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15% 
Religions: 
nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
2%, Jewish 2%, other 6% 
Languages: 
Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French 
Literacy: 
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 
95% 
male: 
96% 
female: 
95% 
Labor force: 
10.9 million 
by occupation: 
agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

@Argentina, Government

Names: 
conventional long form: 
Argentine Republic 
conventional short form: 
Argentina 
local long form: 
Republica Argentina 
local short form: 
Argentina 
Digraph: 
AR
Type: 
republic 
Capital: 
Buenos Aires 
Administrative divisions: 
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal
district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut;
Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La
Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San
Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del
Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
note: 
the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or Argentina's
claims to the Falkland Islands
Independence: 
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holiday: 
Revolution Day, 25 May (1810) 
Constitution: 
1 May 1853
Legal system: 
mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 
chief of state and head of government: 
President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President
(position vacant); election last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held
summer 1995); results - Carlos Saul MENEM was elected
cabinet: 
Cabinet; appointed by the president
Legislative branch: 
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate: 
elections last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991
set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for
one-third of 48 seats in the national senate in May 1992; seats (48
total) - PJ 30, UCR 11, others 7
Chamber of Deputies: 
elections last held NA October 1993 ( next to be held October 1995);
elections are held every two years and half of the total membership is
elected each time for four year terms; seats--(257 total) PJ 128, UCR
81, MODIN 7, UCD 5, other 36
Judicial branch: 
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) 
Political parties and leaders: 
Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella
political organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR),Raul ALFONSIN,
moderately left-of-center party; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD),
Jorge AGUADO, conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar
ALENDE, leftist party; Dignity and Independence Political Party
(MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing party; Grand Front (Frente Grande),
Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left coalition; several provincial parties
Other political or pressure groups: 
Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor
(CGT; Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Argentine
Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society
(large landowners' association); business organizations; students; the
Roman Catholic Church; the Armed Forces
Member of: 
AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11,
G-15, G-19, G-24, AfDB, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, MINURSO, MTCR, OAS,
PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 
Diplomatic representation in US: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO 
chancery: 
1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 
telephone: 
(202) 939-6400 through 6403 
consulate(s) general: 
Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) 
US diplomatic representation: 
chief of mission: 
Ambassador James CHEEK (since 28 May 1993) 
embassy: 
4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires 
mailing address: 
APO AA 34034 
telephone: 
[54] (1) 774-7611, 8811, 9911 
FAX: 
[54] (1) 775-4205 
Flag: 
three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human
face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina, Economy

Overview: 
Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate
population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified
industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and
statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge
external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989,
in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a
comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of
putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth. Argentina's
currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April 1991, and
inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20 years. Argentines have
responded to the relative price stability by repatriating flight
capital and investing in domestic industry. Growth slowed somewhat in
1993 but Argentina still registered an impressive 6% advance, fueled
largely by inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption
spending. The government's major short term objective is encouraging
exports, e.g., by reducing domestic costs of production. Much remains
to be done in the 1990s in dismantling the old statist barriers to
growth and in solidifying the recent economic gains.
National product: 
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $185 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate: 
6% (1993 est.)
National product per capita: 
$5,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 
7.4% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
10% (1993)
Budget: 
revenues: 
$33.1 billion 
expenditures: 
$35.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992)
Exports: 
$12.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: